Aubrey de Grey

Dr. [Aubrey] de Greyde Grey, Dr. Aubrey
He works on the development of what he calls "Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence" (SENS), a collection of proposed techniques to rejuvenate the human body and stop aging. To this end, he has identified seven types of molecular and cellular damage caused by essential metabolic processes. SENS is a proposed panel of therapies designed to repair this damage. De Grey is an international adjunct professor of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, the American Aging Association, and the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.


Gerontology. Homeostatic capacity. Immortality. Indefinite lifespan. Life extension. Index of topics related to life extension. Mitohormesis. Old age. Oxidative stress. Phenoptosis. Plant senescence. Programmed cell death. Regenerative medicine. Rejuvenation. SAGE KE. Stem cell theory of aging. Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS). Sub-lethal damage. Timeline of senescence research. Transgenerational design.

Aging-associated diseases

age-related diseaseaging-associated diseaseage-associated disease
Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS) is a research strategy which aims to repair a few "root causes" for age-related illness and degeneration, as well as develop medical procedures to periodically repair all such damage in the human body, thereby maintaining a youth-like state indefinitely. So far, the SENS programme has identified seven types of aging-related damage, and feasible solutions have been outlined for each. However, critics argue that the SENS agenda is optimistic at best, and that the aging process is too complex and little-understood for SENS to be scientific or implementable in the foreseeable future.


geriatricgeriatric medicinegeriatrician
Gerontological nursing. Merck Manual of Geriatrics. Minimum Geriatric Competencies - Portal of Geriatric Online Education. Health-EU Portal Care for the elderly in the EU.

Negligible senescence

biological immortalitydo not gradually break downexceptions
Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence.

Maximum life span

maximum lifespanlifespanlife span
Gerontology. Hayflick limit. Indefinite lifespan. Life expectancy. Life extension. List of long-living organisms. Longevity. Methuselah Mouse Prize. Michael Ristow. Mitohormesis. Oldest people. Senescence. Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS). Anage Database. Informational website on the biology of aging. Mechanisms of Aging.

Outline of life extension

Also known as anti-aging medicine, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology. Theories of aging * Ending Aging, a 2007 book which describes Aubrey de Grey's medical proposal for defeating aging (i.e. SENS). Biological immortality. Indefinite lifespan. Longevity. Rejuvenation. Centenarian. Supercentenarian. Longevity escape velocity. Calorie restriction or protein restriction or intermittent fasting. Exercise. Geroprotector. Senolytics. Cryonics. Genetic therapies. Cloning and body part replacement. Cell replacement therapies (CRT). SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence). Mind uploading. Suspended animation. Immunisation. Evolution of ageing. Gerontology.

Rejuvenation Research

The journal publishes the abstracts of the biennial conferences of the SENS Research Foundation. Rejuvenation Research is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 3.220. MEDLINE. Current Contents/Clinical Medicine. Science Citation Index Expanded. EMBASE/Excerpta Medica. Scopus. CAB Abstracts. Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence. Timeline of senescence research.


deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.


Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.


apoptoticprogrammed cell deathcell death
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, and global mRNA decay. The average adult human loses between 50 and 70 billion cells each day due to apoptosis. For an average human child between the ages of 8 to 14 year old approximately 20 to 30 billion cells die per day.

University of California, Los Angeles

UCLAUniversity of CaliforniaUniversity of California at Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the second-oldest (after UC Berkeley) undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system. It offers 337 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, the most applicants for any American university.


In chemistry and biology a cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another. These links may take the form of covalent bonds or ionic bonds and the polymers can be either synthetic polymers or natural polymers (such as proteins).

Advanced glycation end-product

advanced glycation endproductadvanced glycation end-productsadvanced glycation end product
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars. They can be a factor in aging and in the development or worsening of many degenerative diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and Alzheimer's disease.

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km 2 ), the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles (10.1 million km 2 ). With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York.

Caleb Finch

Caleb E. Finch
He serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for Cure Alzheimer's Fund. * University of Southern California Leonard Davis School of Gerontology

Marios Kyriazis

Marios Kyriazis (born 11 March 1956) is a medical doctor and gerontologist. He is known for work, publications and involvement with life extension. Applying the concept of hormesis on anti-ageing medicine, Kyriazis controversially suggested that leading a stressful, irregular and constantly stimulating lifestyle may be a way of reducing the impact of age-related dysfunction. In 1996 Kyriazis founded the Historical Medical Equipment Society, which aims to study old medical instruments related to the history of medicine in the UK. The first public lecture was given at the University of London with support from the Wellcome Trust.

Index of topics related to life extension

SENS Foundation. Shaw, Sandy. Sierra Sciences. Sleep deprivation. Sports medicine. Stem cell. Stem cell treatments. Stone, Irwin. Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence. Superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide. Technological determinism. Technological evolution. Technological singularity. Technology assessment. Techno-progressivism. Techno-utopianism. Telomere. Therapeutic cloning. Theories of aging. Antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging. Disposable soma theory of aging. Free-radical theory. Glycation theory of aging. Inflammation theory of aging. Neuroendocrine theory of aging. Order to disorder theory of aging. Rate of living theory. Reliability theory of aging and longevity.


immortalimmortality of the souleternal life
Eliminating aging would require finding a solution to each of these causes, a program de Grey calls engineered negligible senescence. There is also a huge body of knowledge indicating that change is characterized by the loss of molecular fidelity. Disease is theoretically surmountable via technology. In short, it is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism, something the body shouldn't typically have to deal with its natural make up. Human understanding of genetics is leading to cures and treatments for a myriad of previously incurable diseases. The mechanisms by which other diseases do damage are becoming better understood.

Indefinite lifespan

actuarial escape velocityindefinitelylive forever
However, if biomedical gerontology continues to improve, if somatic genetic engineering becomes safe and effective (and is not banned by opponents) within the relatively near future, it may be conceivable for some of those now alive to attain indefinite lifespans. Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence is a proposed research program for repairing all types of age-related damage. Calorie restriction has been presented as a piece of the puzzle of reaching actuarial escape velocity. Other proposed techniques include genetic engineering, telomere extension, organ regeneration, nanotechnology, and even mind uploading.

Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich MechnikovMetchnikoffIlya Mechnikov
He is also credited by some sources with coining the term gerontology in 1903, for the emerging study of aging and longevity. He established the concept of cell-mediated immunity, while Ehrlich established the concept of humoral immunity. Their works are regarded as the foundation of the science of immunology. In immunology, he is given an epithet the "father of natural immunity". Mechnikov was born in the village Ivanovka, near Kharkiv, now Dvorichna Raion, Ukraine. He was the youngest of five children of Ilya Ivanovich Mechnikov, a Russian officer of the Imperial Guard.

Michel Eugène Chevreul

ChevreulEugène ChevreulMichel Chevreul
He lived to 102 and was a pioneer in the field of gerontology. He is also one of the 72 people whose names are inscribed on the Eiffel Tower; of those 72 scientists and engineers, Chevreul was one of only two who were still alive when Gustave Eiffel planted the French Tricolor on the top of the tower on 31 March 1889 (the other being Hippolyte Fizeau) and was the last living individual born before the French Revolution. Chevreul was born in the town of Angers, France, where his father was a physician. Chevreul's birth certificate, kept in the registry book of Angers, bears the signature of his father, grandfather, and a great-uncle, all of whom were surgeons.

James Birren

James E. Birren
There, he became the founding dean of the USC Davis School of gerontology. In this position, Birren flourished as a teacher and a mentor, offering degrees in gerontology at the undergraduate, masters, and PhD levels. Throughout his career, he produced over 200 PhDs in gerontology, and many of his students dedicated their careers to publishing literature in the field of gerontology. He also continued publishing literature in the field of gerontology.

Gerontological Society of America

American Gerontological Societythe Gerontological Society
In 1961 material in Journal of Gerontology dealing with GSA organization and activities was moved to a new journal called The Gerontologist. In 1988 Journal of Gerontology was renamed Journals of Gerontology to reflect the fact that it was a composite of four journals having four separate editors.

James Vaupel

Vaupel, James
James W. Vaupel (born May 2, 1945), is an American scientist in the fields of aging research, biodemography, and formal demography. He has been instrumental in developing and advancing the idea of the plasticity of longevity, and pioneered research on the heterogeneity of mortality risks and on the deceleration of death rates at the highest ages.