In 2010, an Italian-led consortium announced they had sequenced the complete genome of the apple in collaboration with horticultural genomicists at Washington State University, using 'Golden Delicious'. It had about 57,000 genes, the highest number of any plant genome studied to date and more genes than the human genome (about 30,000). This new understanding of the apple genome will help scientists identify genes and gene variants that contribute to resistance to disease and drought, and other desirable characteristics. Understanding the genes behind these characteristics will help scientists perform more knowledgeable selective breeding.
Malus domesticaapplesMalus pumila
GalaRoyal GalaGala apple
The first Gala apple tree was one of many seedlings resulting from a cross between a Golden Delicious and a Kidd's Orange Red planted in New Zealand in the 1930s by orchardist J.H. Kidd. Donald W. McKenzie, an employee of Stark Bros Nursery, obtained a US plant patent for the cultivar on October 15, 1974. It is a relatively new introduction to the UK, first planted in commercial volumes during the 1980s. The variety now represents about 20% of the total volume of the commercial production of eating apples grown in the UK, often replacing Cox's Orange Pippin. Many sports of Gala have been selected, mostly for increased red color, including the popular Royal Gala.
A cultivar (cultivated variety) is an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More generally, a cultivar is the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild.
'Dorsett Golden' is a 'Golden Delicious'-like cultivar of domesticated apple and is descended from it, but is different with that it is early season, and most importantly, it needs a lower amount of cold weather (less than 300 hours) to go into blooming, so it is possible to grow in warm climates. With those properties, being able to grow in warm climate and early flowering, it is very similar to the Anna apple cultivar which was bred in Israel, and those two are compatible and suitable partners for out-cross pollination. Since like most apple cultivars, they are self-incompatible and need to be fertilized by pollen of a different apple cultivar.
apple cultivarcultivarapple cultivars
Over 7,500 cultivars of the culinary or eating apple (Malus pumila) are known. Some are extremely important economically as commercial products, though the vast majority are not suitable for mass production. In the following list, use for "eating" means that the fruit is consumed raw, rather than cooked. Cultivars used primarily for making cider are indicated. Those varieties marked have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Granny Smith applegreen appleSour apple
The Granny Smith was one of four apples honored by the United States Postal Service in a 2013 set of four 33¢ stamps commemorating historic strains, joined by Northern Spy, Baldwin, and Golden Delicious. The Granny Smith Cultivar originated in Eastwood, New South Wales, Australia (now a suburb of Sydney) in 1868. Its discoverer, Maria Ann Smith, had emigrated to the district from Beckley, East Sussex in 1839 with her husband Thomas. They purchased a small orchard in the area in 1855-1856 and began cultivating fruit, for which the area was a well known centre in colonial Australia.
The Northern Spy was one of four apples honored by the United States Postal Service in a 2013 set of four 33¢ stamps commemorating historic strains, joined by Baldwin, Golden Delicious, and Granny Smith. Northern Spy produces fairly late in the season (late October and beyond). Skin color is a green ground, flushed with red stripes where not shaded. The white flesh is juicy, crisp and mildly sweet with a rich, aromatic subacid flavor, noted for high vitamin C content. Its characteristic flavor is tarter than most popular varieties, and its flesh is harder/crunchier than most, with a thin skin. Northern Spy is commonly used for desserts and pies, as well as juice and cider.
red applesdelicious applered
Another apple tree, later named the 'Golden Delicious', was also marketed by Stark Nurseries after it was purchased from a farmer in Clay County, West Virginia, in 1914; the 'Delicious' became the 'Red Delicious' as a retronym. In the 1980s, 'Red Delicious' represented three-quarters of the harvest in Washington State. A decade later, reliance on 'Red Delicious' had helped to push Washington state's apple industry "to the edge" of collapse. In 2000, Congress approved and President Bill Clinton signed a bill to bail out the apple industry, after apple growers had lost $760 million since 1997.
BaldwinBaldwin applea particular apple variety
The Baldwin was one of four apples honored by the United States Postal Service in a 2013 set of four 33¢ stamps commemorating historic strains, joined by Northern Spy, Golden Delicious, and Granny Smith. According to local tradition, the apple was found near Wood Hill by William Butters (1711-1784), grandson of Will Butter, first white settler in what is now Wilmington, Massachusetts. William Butters raised the tree in his yard, near the present Baldwin Apple Monument (pictured). According to S. A. Beach's Apples of New York, the Baldwin originated soon after 1740 as a chance seedling on the farm of Mr.
Stark Bro's Nurseries & Orchards Co.Stark BrothersStark Brothers Nurseries
The company was the original marketer of the Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apples. In 1816, James Hart Stark moved from Kentucky to Louisiana, Missouri. He brought with him a bundle of apple scions. From his bundle he started a nursery business, which was officially incorporated in 1889. In 1893, Stark Bro's held their first International New Fruit Fair. Jesse Hiatt, who owned an orchard in Peru, Iowa, sent samples of his fruit to compete in the contest for the best new fruit. Hiatt's apples won the judging, but his nametag could not be found. He submitted samples of the same apple the following year and won again. This, time there was a nametag and the apples could be identified.
It could be a parent of the famous Golden Delicious apple, and is known to be the maternal parent of 'Yellospur', and the pollen parent of 'Sinta'.
Pink LadyPink Lady (apple)
Cripps Pink was originally bred by John Cripps at the (then named) Western Australia Department of Agriculture by crossing the Australian apple Lady Williams with a Golden Delicious to combine the firm long-storing property of Lady Williams with the sweetness and lack of storage scald of Golden Delicious. Cripps Pink is owned and licensed by the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia (DAFWA), which has plant breeders’ rights in multiple countries.
The Elstar apple is an apple cultivar that was first developed in the Netherlands in Elst in the 1950s by crossing Golden Delicious and Ingrid Marie apples. It quickly became popular, especially in Europe and was first introduced to America in 1972. It remains popular in Continental Europe, but less so in the United Kingdom. The Elstar is a medium-sized apple whose skin is mostly red with yellow showing. The flesh is white, and has a soft, crispy texture. It may be used for cooking and is especially good for making apple sauce. In general, however, it is used in desserts due to its sweet flavour. Santana (Elstar × Priscilla). Ecolette (Elstar × Prima).
Clay CountyClayClay County, W.Va.
Clay County is also the birthplace of the Golden Delicious Apple. The original tree was found on the Mullins' family farm in Clay County, West Virginia, United States and was locally known as Mullin's Yellow Seedling and Annit apple. *National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, West Virginia 20px Interstate 79. 20px West Virginia Route 4. 20px West Virginia Route 16. 20px West Virginia Route 36. Calhoun County (north). Braxton County (northeast). Nicholas County (southeast). Kanawha County (west). Roane County (northwest). Clay County Schools. WVGenWeb Clay County.
Champion, shampion or sampion is a hybrid cultivar of domesticated apple developed c. 1960 in Czech republic from crossing a Golden Delicious and a Cox Orange Pippin. The fruit has a non-uniform skin color. * Rajka (apple) * CZSO Science photo. Age photo stock. Botanik Foto. 1-Methylcyclopropene postharvest treatment and their effect on apple quality during long-term storage time. Virological assessment of stock planting material of apple and raspberry cultivars. Effects of Blackcurrant and Apple Mash Blending on the Phenolics Contents, Antioxidant Capacity, and Colour of Juices. Effects of calcium fertilizer sprays on storage quality of shampion apples.
WVwestern VirginiaState of West Virginia
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States, and is also considered to be a part of the Mid-Atlantic Southeast Region. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, and Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, and is ranked 38th in population. The capital and largest city is Charleston.
The Mutsu apple (also known as Crispin) was introduced in 1948 and is a cross between the 'Golden Delicious' and the 'Indo' apple cultivars first grown in Japan. The apple is named after the Mutsu Province of Japan. 'Mutsu' is a triploid cultivar. It is highly susceptible to the disease Blister Spot. 'Mutsu' is a medium to large green apple with flesh varying in color from white to greenish yellow. It can be round, conical, or oblong, and have unequal sides. It is generally not uniform in shape or size. The russeting on a 'Mutsu' apple covers little to none of the skin and when it is present is light gray to brown. 'Mutsu' is aromatic, sweet, and sharp, with juicy flesh.
Parentage is suspected to be 'Starking Delicious' × 'Golden Delicious' because those apples existed in the orchard where the 'Ambrosia' was discovered growing. Ambrosia is a "club" variety of apple, in which a cultivar is patented by an organization that sets quality standards and provides marketing, while production is limited to club members. The name was never trademarked, and the patent has expired in Canada and the United States. Centralized control allowed limitation of color variation to pink/red, as the variety would color differently in warmer climates. The patent expired in Canada in 2015, and in the United States in 2017, is due to expire in Chile in 2021.
Jonagold is a cultivar of apple which was developed in 1953 in New York State Agricultural Experiment Station of Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, a cross between the crisp Golden Delicious and the blush-crimson Jonathan. They form a large sweet fruit with a thin skin. Because of their large size they are now favoured by commercial growers in many parts of the world. Jonagold is triploid, with sterile pollen, and as such, requires a second type of apple for pollen and is incapable of pollenizing other cultivars. The Jonagored Apple, a sport mutation of Jonagold, was once covered under United States Patent PP05937, now expired.
Opal® is the brand name for a cultivar of apple also known as 'UEB32642', produced by crossing 'Golden Delicious' with 'Topaz'. Developed by the Institute of Experimental Botany in Prague and FruitSelect in 1999, it is grown by Broetje Orchards in Washington and marketed by the First Fruits company. It is also cultivated in Austria, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom. Opal is a variety registered with the Community Plant Variety Office of the European Union. This variety of apple is naturally low in polyphenol oxidase making it resistant to browning and is often sold pre-sliced. Opal Brand Page. Opal Information Page.
Its parentage is uncertain; it may be a cross between 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious', since it was found near orchards of those fruits; it also appears similar to the original 'Delicious' cultivar. It is bright red striped over creamy orange, firm and crisp with an aromatic flavor. It is among the top nine most grown apples in Washington state.
'Pinova' is a hybrid between 'Clivia' and 'Golden Delicious'. 'Clivia' is a hybrid of 'Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg' and 'Cox's Orange Pippin'. 'Pinova' may also be called 'Corail', Piñata® or 'Sonata'. 'Pinova' has a high fruit yield, with little tendency towards biennial bearing; it has good resistance to scab and is a good pollenizer for many varieties. The fruit stores well. It is juicy and crisp, and has some of the taste of Cox's, the coloration of Oldenburg and the shape of 'Golden Delicious'. The fruit is picked early in October. 'Pinova' is planted commercially in Europe. In the United States it is patented, and may be sold under the brand-name "Piñata".
An extension agent identified the parents as Golden Delicious, Albemarle Pippin, and some other unknown variety. The variety was eventually named after Clyde Harvey's wife. In the 21st century this has become an increasingly popular variety. It is the first yellow apple to ripen in the fall, and the quality and consistency of its bearing have suited it to commercial growing. In January 2007, the Virginia General Assembly proposed a bill designating the Ginger Gold Apple as the official fruit of Virginia. The bill was tabled in committee in late January.
DelblushTentation appleTentation delblush
Tentation delblush is a commercial apple variety (also known as Delblush) that was created in France in 1979 by Georges Delbard as the result of a crossing of Grifer (Blushing Golden) × Golden Delicious. New Zealand is the sole southern hemisphere grower of Tentation, providing fruit domestically and to the northern hemisphere from June to September. In the late 1990s, a selected group of New Zealand fruit growers started planting Tentation trees. It is also grown in the United Kingdom. * NZ marketing site
'Delbarestivale', also called 'Delcorf', is a cultivar of domesticated apple, which was developed by the Delbard nursery in France. It is a very sweet apple.