United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Advancements by American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and Intel along with both computer software and hardware companies that include Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet. These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use., 83.8% of American households owned at least one computer, and 73.3% had high-speed Internet service. 91% of Americans also own a mobile phone.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
For the first time in 20 years Apple Inc. surpassed Microsoft in Q1 2011 quarterly profits and revenues due to a slowdown in PC sales and continuing huge losses in Microsoft's Online Services Division (which contains its search engine Bing). Microsoft profits were $5.2 billion, while Apple Inc. profits were $6 billion, on revenues of $14.5 billion and $24.7 billion respectively. Microsoft's Online Services Division has been continuously loss-making since 2006 and in Q1 2011 it lost $726 million. This follows a loss of $2.5 billion for the year 2010.

Intel

Intel CorporationIntel Corp.Intel Inside
On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs, then CEO of Apple, announced that Apple would be transitioning from its long favored PowerPC architecture to the Intel x86 architecture because the future PowerPC road map was unable to satisfy Apple's needs. The first Macintosh computers containing Intel CPUs were announced on January 10, 2006, and Apple had its entire line of consumer Macs running on Intel processors by early August 2006. The Apple Xserve server was updated to Intel Xeon processors from November 2006 and was offered in a configuration similar to Apple's Mac Pro.

Silicon Wadi

Israeli software role in espionage and counter espionagedevelopedevoked comparisons
Many international technology companies have research and development facilities in this region, including companies such as Intel, IBM, Google, Facebook, Hewlett-Packard, Philips, Cisco Systems, Oracle Corporation, SAP, BMC Software, Microsoft, Motorola and CA.

Twitter

tweetedtweettweets
In 2016, Twitter cooperated with the Israeli government to remove certain content originating outside Israel from tweets seen in Israel. In the 11th biannual transparency report published on September 19, 2017, Twitter said that Turkey was the first among countries where about 90 percent of removal requests came from, followed by Russia, France and Germany. Twitter stated that between July 1 and December 31, 2018, "We received legal demands relating to 27,283 accounts from 47 different countries, including Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, and Slovenia for the first time."

Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley, CaliforniaSan JoseSan Francisco Bay Area technology industry
The Internship—2013 film about working at Google. Silicon Valley—2014 American sitcom from HBO. Watch Dogs 2—2016 video game developed by Ubisoft. List of attractions in Silicon Valley. List of places with "Silicon" names around the world. List of research parks around the world. List of technology centers around the world. Semiconductor industry. STEM fields. (Subscription required for full text.). (Subscription required for full text.). (Subscription required for full text.). (Subscription required for full text.). (Subscription required for full text.). (Subscription required for full text.). (Subscription required for full text.).

Tel Aviv

Tel-AvivTel Aviv, IsraelTel Aviv-Yafo
Iraq hoped to provoke an Israeli military response, which could have destroyed the US–Arab alliance. The United States pressured Israel not to retaliate, and after Israel acquiesced, the US and Netherlands rushed Patriot missiles to defend against the attacks, but they proved largely ineffective. Tel Aviv and other Israeli cities continued to be hit by Scuds throughout the war, and every city in the Tel Aviv area except for Bnei Brak was hit. A total of 74 Israelis died as a result of the Iraqi attacks, mostly from suffocation and heart attacks, while approximately 230 Israelis were injured. Extensive property damage was also caused, and some 4,000 Israelis were left homeless.

Amazon (company)

Amazon.comAmazonAmazon.co.uk
In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers. As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019.

IBM

International Business MachinesIBM CorporationInternational Business Machines Corporation
Also that year, IBM began announcing several major partnerships with other companies, including Apple Inc., Twitter, Facebook, Tencent, Cisco, UnderArmour, Box, Microsoft, VMware, CSC, Macy's, Sesame Workshop, the parent company of Sesame Street, and Salesforce.com. In 2015 IBM announced three major acquisitions: Merge Healthcare for $1 billion, data storage vendor Cleversafe, and all digital assets from The Weather Company, including Weather.com and the Weather Channel mobile app. Also that year, IBMers created the film A Boy and His Atom, which was the first molecule movie to tell a story. In 2016, IBM acquired video conferencing service Ustream and formed a new cloud video unit.

San Francisco

San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco, CACity and County of San Francisco
In the second technological boom driven by social media in the mid 2000s, San Francisco became a location for companies such as Apple, Google, Facebook and Twitter to base their tech offices and for their employees to live. Since then, tech employment has continued to increase. In 2014, San Francisco's tech employment grew nearly 90% between 2010 and 2014, beating out Silicon Valley's 30% growth rate over the same period. The tech sector's dominance in the Bay Area is internationally recognized and continues to attract new businesses and young entrepreneurs from all over the globe. San Francisco is now widely considered the most important city in the world for new technology startups.

Economy of Israel

Israeli economyeconomyIsrael's economy
Israel has the second-largest number of startup companies in the world after the United States, and the third-largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies after the U.S. and China. Intel, Microsoft, and Apple built their first overseas research and development facilities in Israel, and other high-tech multi-national corporations, such as IBM, Google, HP, Cisco Systems, Facebook and Motorola have opened R&D centres in the country. The country's major economic sectors are high-technology and industrial manufacturing; the Israeli diamond industry is one of the world's centers for diamond cutting and polishing, amounting to 23.2% of all exports.

Motorola

Motorola, Inc.Motorola Inc.Motorola Semiconductor
On November 17, Motorola Mobility stockholders approved the proposed merger with Google Inc. On April 17, 2013, ARRIS Group, Inc. (NASDAQ: ARRS) announced that it completed its acquisition of the Motorola Home business from a subsidiary of Google Inc. On January 29, 2014, Google announced Lenovo plans to acquire the Motorola Mobility smartphone business. The purchase price is approximately $2.91 billion (subject to certain adjustments), including $1.41 billion paid at close: $660 million in cash and $750 million in Lenovo ordinary shares (subject to a share cap/floor). The remaining $1.5 billion will be paid in the form of a three-year promissory note.

Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

2013 mass surveillance disclosuresglobal surveillance disclosures2013 global surveillance disclosures
According to the document, the NSA has set up task forces assigned to several smartphone manufacturers and operating systems, including Apple Inc.'s iPhone and iOS operating system, as well as Google's Android mobile operating system. Similarly, Britain's GCHQ assigned a team to study and crack the BlackBerry. Under the heading "iPhone capability", the document notes that there are smaller NSA programs, known as "scripts", that can perform surveillance on 38 different features of the iOS 3 and iOS 4 operating systems. These include the mapping feature, voicemail and photos, as well as Google Earth, Facebook and Yahoo! Messenger.

Computer security

cybersecuritycyber securitysecurity
The US-CERT, AT&T, Apple, Cisco, McAfee, Microsoft are all members of this international team. The Council of Europe helps protect societies worldwide from the threat of cybercrime through the Convention on Cybercrime. The purpose of the Messaging Anti-Abuse Working Group (MAAWG) is to bring the messaging industry together to work collaboratively and to successfully address the various forms of messaging abuse, such as spam, viruses, denial-of-service attacks and other messaging exploitations. France Telecom, Facebook, AT&T, Apple, Cisco, Sprint are some of the members of the MAAWG.

Edward Snowden

SnowdenEd SnowdenSnowden Files
The NSA and the GCHQ were also shown to be surveilling charities including UNICEF and Médecins du Monde, as well as allies such as European Commissioner Joaquín Almunia and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. In October 2013, Glenn Greenwald said "the most shocking and significant stories are the ones we are still working on, and have yet to publish." In November, The Guardians editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger said that only one percent of the documents had been published. In December, Australia's Minister for Defence David Johnston said his government assumed the worst was yet to come.

Initial public offering

IPOwent publicpublic
Large IPO auctions include Japan Tobacco, Singapore Telecom, BAA Plc and Google (ordered by size of proceeds). A variation of the Dutch Auction has been used to take a number of U.S. companies public including Morningstar, Interactive Brokers Group, Overstock.com, Ravenswood Winery, Clean Energy Fuels, and Boston Beer Company. In 2004, Google used the Dutch Auction system for its Initial Public Offering. Traditional U.S. investment banks have shown resistance to the idea of using an auction process to engage in public securities offerings.

Sun Microsystems

SunSun Microsystems, Inc.Sun workstation
In February 2011, Sun's former Menlo Park, California, campus of about 1000000 ft2 was sold, and it was announced that it would become headquarters for Facebook. The sprawling facility built around an enclosed courtyard had been nicknamed "Sun Quentin". On September 1, 2011, Sun India legally became part of Oracle.

Timeline of global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

According to the document, the NSA has set up task forces assigned to several smartphone manufacturers and operating systems, including Apple Inc.'s iPhone and iOS operating system, as well as Google's Android mobile operating system. Similarly, Britain's GCHQ assigned a team to study and crack the BlackBerry. Under the heading "iPhone capability", the document notes that there are smaller NSA programs, known as "scripts", that can perform surveillance on 38 different features of the iOS 3 and iOS 4 operating systems. These include the mapping feature, voicemail and photos, as well as Google Earth, Facebook and Yahoo! Messenger.

Austin, Texas

AustinAustin, TXCity of Austin
A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc., Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Intel, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, and Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in the nearby suburb of Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites. They include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, musicians, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, and a vibrant LGBT community.

Social media

socialsocial media platformsocial media campaign
After an Apple employee criticized his employer on Facebook, he was fired. When the former employee sued Apple for unfair dismissal, the court, after seeing the man's Facebook posts, found in favor of Apple, as the man's social media comments breached Apple's policies. After a heterosexual couple broke up, the man posted "violent rap lyrics from a song that talked about fantasies of killing the rapper's ex-wife" and made threats against him. The court found him guilty and he was sentenced to jail. In a disability claims case, a woman who fell at work claimed that she was permanently injured; the employer used her social media posts of her travels and activities to counter her claims.

YouTube

YouTube channelYouTube.comYouTube Gaming
Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone. In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Social networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs.

Timeline of social media

. |} Timeline of Facebook. Timeline of Instagram. Timeline of LinkedIn. Timeline of Pinterest. Timeline of Snapchat. Timeline of Twitter.

Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland

corporate tax inversiontax inversioneffective tax rate
The EU have proposed the DST should be a 3% tax on revenues which would translate into an effective 10–15% tax rate (using pre-tax margins of 20–30% for Apple, Google and Microsoft); it is also expensible against national tax, and so the DST would reduce net Irish tax (e.g. Google Ireland would offset its DST against Irish CT). In April 2018, the EU Commission's GDPR rules forced Facebook to move 1.5 billion of the 1.9 billion Facebook accounts hosted in Ireland ( 79% of the 2.4 billion total global Facebook accounts), back to the U.S. The April 2018 Irish High Court ruling in the Max Schrems EU data-protection case could make Ireland even less attractive to Facebook.