Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
He coined the word from the German name Aether of the compound −O− (commonly called “ether” in English, more specifically called “diethyl ether”). According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Ethyl is a contraction of the Ancient Greek αἰθήρ (', “upper air”) and the Greek word ὕλη (', “substance”). The name ethanol was coined as a result of a resolution that was adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature that was held in April 1892 in Geneva, Switzerland. The term “alcohol” now refers to a wider class of substances in chemistry nomenclature, but in common parlance it remains the name of ethanol.

Blood squirt

blood spatterblood gushblood spurt
The rape and revenge film I Spit on Your Grave, first released in 1978 and re-released to a wider audience in 1980, contained several gory scenes. The 1991 film Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country has a scene where a Klingon is shot ("phasered") in zero gravity. The blood that spurts out of the Klingon's wounds was created using computer generated imagery (CGI); the animators had to make sure that the blood floated in a convincing manner while still looking interesting and not too gory. The effects artist looked at NASA footage of floating water globules to match the physics of the blood particles. Video games can use a particle system to create blood squirt effects.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
Tablets or Toxins such as drug overdose. Cardiac Tamponade – Fluid building up around the heart. Tension pneumothorax – A collapsed lung. Thrombosis (Myocardial infarction) – Heart attack. Thromboembolism (Pulmonary embolism) – A blood clot in the lung. Traumatic cardiac arrest. Crash teams (or code teams) – These are designated staff members with particular expertise in resuscitation who are called to the scene of all arrests within the hospital. This usually involves a specialized cart of equipment (including defibrillator) and drugs called a "crash cart" or "crash trolley".

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
The usual English proper name for Earth's natural satellite is "the Moon", which in nonscientific texts is usually not capitalized. The noun moon is derived from Old English mōna, which (like all Germanic language cognates) stems from Proto-Germanic *mēnô, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s "moon", "month", which comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *meh₁- "to measure", the month being the ancient unit of time measured by the Moon. Occasionally, the name "Luna" is used. In literature, especially science fiction, "Luna" is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon.

Prostitution

prostituteprostituteswhore
The English word whore derives from the Old English word hōra, from the Proto-Germanic *hōrōn (prostitute), which derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *keh₂- meaning "desire", a root which has also given us Latin cārus (dear), whence the French cher (dear, expensive) and the Latin cāritās (love, charity). Use of the word whore is widely considered pejorative, especially in its modern slang form of ho. In Germany, however, most prostitutes' organizations deliberately use the word Hure (whore) since they feel that prostitute is a bureaucratic term.

Montreal

Montreal, QuebecMontréalMontreal, Canada
In Montreal, seventeen CEGEPs offer courses in French and five in English. English-language elementary and secondary public schools on Montreal Island are operated by the English Montreal School Board and the Lester B. Pearson School Board. French-language elementary and secondary public schools in Montreal are operated by the Commission scolaire de Montréal (CSDM), Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys (CSMB) and the Commission scolaire Pointe-de-l'Île (CSPI). Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion.

Council of Europe

CECoEthe Council of Europe
English and French are its two official languages. The Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly, and the Congress also use German, Italian, and Russian for some of their work. In a speech in 1929, French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand floated the idea of an organisation which would gather European nations together in a "federal union" to resolve common problems. But it was Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill who first publicly suggested the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging.

Death

mortalitydeceaseddead
In the English language, blessings directed towards a dead person include rest in peace, or its initialism RIP. Death is the center of many traditions and organizations; customs relating to death are a feature of every culture around the world. Much of this revolves around the care of the dead, as well as the afterlife and the disposal of bodies upon the onset of death. The disposal of human corpses does, in general, begin with the last offices before significant time has passed, and ritualistic ceremonies often occur, most commonly interment or cremation. This is not a unified practice; in Tibet, for instance, the body is given a sky burial and left on a mountain top.

Canada Post

post officeCanada Post CorporationPost Office Department
The legal name is Canada Post Corporation in English and Société canadienne des postes in French. During the late 1980s and much of the 1990s, the short forms used in the corporation's logo were "Mail" (English) and "Poste" (French), rendered as "Mail Poste" in English Canada, and "Poste Mail" in Québec, although English-language advertising also still referred to the corporation as "Canada Post". On August 3, 1527 in St. John's, Newfoundland, the first known letter was sent from present day Canada. While in St. John's, John Rut wrote a letter to King Henry VIII about his findings and planned voyage.

Vancouver

Vancouver, British ColumbiaVancouver, BCVancouver, Canada
The two major English-language daily newspapers are The Vancouver Sun and The Province. Also, there are two national newspapers distributed in the city, including The Globe and Mail, which began publication of a "national edition" in BC in 1983 and recently expanded to include a three-page BC news section, and the National Post which centres on national news. Other local newspapers include 24H (a local free daily), the Vancouver franchise of the national free daily Metro, the twice-a-week Vancouver Courier, and the independent newspaper The Georgia Straight.

Coordinated Universal Time

UTCUTC-3UTC-4
UTC was first officially adopted as CCIR Recommendation 374, Standard-Frequency and Time-Signal Emissions, in 1963, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent) were not adopted until 1967. The system has been adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time (SAT)" before a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments.

Glossary of French expressions in English

fait accomplien massechanteuse
Around 45 percent of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English. Thoroughly English words of French origin, such as art, competition, force, machine, money, police, publicity, role, routine and table, are pronounced according to English rules of phonology, rather than French, and are commonly used by English speakers without any consciousness of their French origin.

Toronto

Toronto, OntarioToronto, CanadaToronto, ON
In 2011, Toronto's murder rate plummeted to 51 murders—nearly a 26% drop from the previous year. The 51 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1999 when there were 47. While subsequent years did see a return to higher rates, it remained nearly flat line of 57–59 homicides in from 2012 to 2015. 2016 went to 75 for the first time in over 8 years. 2017 had a drop off of 10 murders to close the year at 65, with a homicide rate of 1.47 per 100,000 population. The total number of homicides in Toronto reached a record 95 in 2018; the number included fatalities from the Toronto van attack and the Danforth shooting.

Scarborough, Toronto

ScarboroughScarborough, OntarioScarborough, ON
Murder rates for Scarborough and Toronto show no particular trend. Between 1997 and 2006, the ratio of murders in Scarborough as compared to the rest of Toronto ranged from a low of 8.8% to a high of 32.2%. According to former Toronto Police Chief Bill Blair, "[42 Division is] the safest division in the city"; this division includes north Scarborough. The safest part of Toronto is north Scarborough from Victoria Park Ave. to the Pickering border, north of Highway 401. In 2008, councillors Norm Kelly and Michael Thompson argued that the media was distorting how crime was reported in Scarborough.

Sexism

sexistgender discriminationsex discrimination
Provocation is, in many common law countries, a partial defense to murder, which converts what would have been murder into manslaughter. It is meant to be applied when a person kills in the "heat of passion" upon being "provoked" by the behavior of the victim. This defense has been criticized as being gendered, favoring men, due to it being used disproportionately in cases of adultery, and other domestic disputes when women are killed by their partners.

Jealousy

jealousjealousiesJealousy definitions
In its original meaning, jealousy is distinct from envy, though the two terms have popularly become synonymous in the English language, with jealousy now also taking on the definition originally used for envy alone. Jealousy is a typical experience in human relationships, and it has been observed in infants as young as five months. Some researchers claim that jealousy is seen in all cultures and is a universal trait. However, others claim jealousy is a culture-specific emotion. Jealousy can either be suspicious or reactive, and it is often reinforced as a series of particularly strong emotions and constructed as a universal human experience.

Malaysia

Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
English remains an active second language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967. In Sarawak, English is an official state language alongside Malaysian. Historically, English was the de facto administrative language; Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots (13 May incident). Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English. Malaysian English is widely used in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences.

Solitary confinement

incommunicadoisolationadministrative segregation
It is mostly employed for violations of discipline, such as murder, hostage-taking, deadly assault, and rioting. However, it is also used as a measure of protection for inmates whose safety is threatened by other inmates. Solitary confinement is colloquially referred to in American English as "the hotbox", "the hole", "AdSeg" (administrative segregation), the "SHU" (pronounced "shoe"), an acronym for "Special Housing Unit" or "Security Housing Unit"; in Australian English as "the Slot" or "the Pound"; in British English as "the block", "The Segregation Unit", or "the cooler". It has also been called prison "'segregation' and 'restrictive housing.'"

Poison

poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
Throughout human history, intentional application of poison has been used as a method of murder, pest-control, suicide, and execution. As a method of execution, poison has been ingested, as the ancient Athenians did (see Socrates), inhaled, as with carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide (see gas chamber), or injected (see lethal injection). Poison's lethal effect can be combined with its allegedly magical powers; an example is the Chinese gu poison. Poison was also employed in gunpowder warfare. For example, the 14th-century Chinese text of the Huolongjing written by Jiao Yu outlined the use of a poisonous gunpowder mixture to fill cast iron grenade bombs.

John Bodkin Adams

Dr John Bodkin AdamsDr. John Bodkin Adamsthe doctor
Adams's trial had many effects on the English legal system. It was 25 years before another doctor in Britain, Leonard Arthur, stood trial for murder arising from treatment. Arthur was tried in November 1981 at Leicester Crown Court for the attempted murder of John Pearson, a newborn child with Down syndrome. Like Adams, on the advice of his legal team he did not give evidence in his defence, relying instead on expert witnesses. He was acquitted. In 2000, Harold Shipman became the only British doctor to be successfully prosecuted for the murder of his patients.

Anno Domini

ADBCChristian era
Alternative names for the Anno Domini era include vulgaris aerae (found 1615 in Latin), "Vulgar Era" (in English, as early as 1635), "Christian Era" (in English, in 1652), "Common Era" (in English, 1708), and "Current Era". Since 1856, the alternative abbreviations CE and BCE, (sometimes written C.E. and B.C.E.) are sometimes used in place of AD and BC. The "Common/Current Era" ("CE") terminology is often preferred by those who desire a term that does not explicitly make religious references. For example, Cunningham and Starr (1998) write that "B.C.E./C.E. …do not presuppose faith in Christ and hence are more appropriate for interfaith dialog than the conventional B.C./A.D."

Interpol notice

red noticeinternational arrest warrantInterpol red notice
Notices may be issued in any of the four official languages of Interpol: English, French, Spanish, and Arabic. Similar to the Notice is another request for cooperation or alert mechanism known as a 'diffusion'. This is less formal than a notice, but also is used to request the arrest or location of an individual or additional information in relation to a police investigation. A diffusion is circulated directly by a member state or international entity to the countries of their choice, or to the entire Interpol membership and is simultaneously recorded in Interpol's databases.

Conservative Party of Canada

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
The Conservatives also sparred with the Liberal Party because of its connections with French Canadian nationalists including Henri Bourassa who wanted Canada to distance itself from Britain, and demanded that Canada recognize that it had two nations, English Canada and French Canada, connected together through a common history. The Conservatives would go on with a popular slogan "one nation, one flag, one leader". The Conservative Party's popular support waned (particularly in western Canada) during difficult economic times from the 1920s to 1940s, as it was seen by many in the west as an eastern establishment party which ignored the needs of the citizens of Western Canada.

Latin America and the Caribbean

LACLatin America and the Caribbean (region)419
The term Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is an English-language acronym referring to the Caribbean and Latin America region. The term LAC covers an extensive region, extending from Bahamas and Mexico to Argentina and Chile. The region consists over 670.230.000 people as for 2016, and spanned for 21.951.000 km 2 (8.475.000 sq mi). It is estimated to atributte for over 400 bil. dollars that form the core for economic stability, however, few countries, notably Venezuela, are parts of OPEC. Most countries are dominated by Christianity, the largest being Roman Catholic.

New York (state)

New YorkNew York StateNY
Americans of English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants. In 2010, the most common American English dialects spoken in New York, besides General American English, were the New York City area dialect (including New York Latino English and North Jersey English), the Western New England accent around Albany, and Inland Northern American English in Buffalo and western New York State.