187 (slang)

187Section 1871-8-7
Thus, the charging documents for a suspect charged with murder would be inscribed with "PC 187(a)" or just "PC 187". If a suspect is charged with attempted murder, then the relevant code would be "PC 664/187" because attempt is defined in Penal Code section 664. Under the California Uniform Bail Schedule, the standard bail for murder is $750,000. The standard bail for first-degree murder with special circumstances (that is, circumstances under which the district attorney is seeking the death penalty) is "NO BAIL". * Law enforcement jargon

Depraved-heart murder

depraved heart murderdepraved indifference murderdepraved-heart
In cases involving multiple murders, a second (multiple) murder conviction(s), or the murder of a police officer, then the detention term can be the prisoner's whole life. In English criminal law, however, murder requires intent to kill or cause grievous bodily harm. Recklessness as to harm will not suffice. In a case where death results from recklessness, the defendant will be guilty of reckless manslaughter. In the 1946 case, Commonwealth v. Malone, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania affirmed the conviction of a teenager on the charge of second degree murder using the depraved-heart doctrine.

Horror film

horrorhorror moviehorror films
Slasher films often revolve around a serial killer who systematically murders people through violent means. Examples include: Psycho, The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, Peeping Tom, Black Christmas, Halloween, Friday the 13th, A Nightmare on Elm Street, Child's Play, and Scream. Splatter films deliberately focus on graphic portrayals of gore and graphic violence. Through the use of special effects and excessive blood and guts, they tend to display an overt interest in the vulnerability of the human body and the theatricality of its mutilation. Examples of splatter horror films include: Inside, Train, The Human Centipede, Hostel, Saw, Blood Feast, Storm Warning, and Maniac.

Contract killing

hitmancontract killerhitmen
Murder, Inc. Organized crime. People v. Superior Court (Decker). Private military company. Wetwork. Murder-for-Hire: Web Hits of a Deadly Kind (FBI).

Snuff (film)

SnuffSnuff'' (film)
Johnson, Eithne & Schaefer, Eric. " Soft Core/Hard Gore: Snuff as a Crisis in Meaning," in Journal of Film and Video, University of Illinois Press, (Volume 45, Numbers 2-3, Summer-Fall, 1993): pages 40–59. Snuff Boxing: Revisiting the Snuff Coda (The University of British Columbia's Film Journal) - showing the mutilation scene at the end of the film. Snuff Boxing: Revisiting the Snuff Coda (The University of British Columbia's Film Journal) - showing the mutilation scene at the end of the film. Snuff Boxing: Revisiting the Snuff Coda (The University of British Columbia's Film Journal) - showing the mutilation scene at the end of the film.

Research on the effects of violence in mass media

media violencetelevision violencemedia violence research
Graphic violence. Moral panic. Motion picture rating system. Video game controversy. Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2001) Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts Versus Media Misinformation. American Psychologist. Anderson, C., & Dill, K. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772–790. Bargh, J. (2005). Bypassing the will: Towards demystifying the nonconscious control of social behavior. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman and J. Bargh (Eds.) The New Unconscious. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-19-514995-1. Beresin, E. (2010).

Life imprisonment in England and Wales

whole life tarifflife imprisonmentwhole life order
The murder of a single child following abduction, sexual or sadistic conduct also qualifies, as does the murder of a police or prison officer during the course of their duty (since 2015) and murder committed to advance a political, religious or ideological cause - along with any murder which was committed by someone who had previously been convicted of murder. Other multiple murders (two or more) should carry a recommended minimum of 30 years as a starting point sentence prior to consideration of additional aggravating factors and of any mitigating factors.

Transferred intent

transferred maliceintent follows the bullet
Then one would have to apply the fiction which converts an intention to commit GBH into the mens rea of murder. That was too much. But the accused could be convicted of manslaughter.

Malum in se

mala in seimmoral
For example, most human beings believe that murder, rape, and theft are wrong, regardless of whether a law governs such conduct or where the conduct occurs, and is thus recognizably malum in se. In contrast, malum prohibitum crimes are criminal not because they are inherently bad, but because the act is prohibited by the law of the state. For example, most United States jurisdictions require drivers to drive on the right side of the road. This is not because driving on the left side of a road is considered immoral, but because consistent rules promote safety and order on the roads. This concept was used to develop the various common law offences.

Parole

paroledsupervised releasenon-parole period
In cases of first-degree murder, one can apply for parole after 25 years if convicted of a single murder. However, if convicted of multiple murder (either first or second-degree), the sentencing judge has the option to make parole ineligibility periods consecutive - thereby extending parole ineligibility beyond 25 years and, in rare cases, beyond a normal life-span. In China, prisoners are often granted medical parole or compassionate release, which releases them on the grounds that they must receive medical treatment which cannot be provided for in prison. Occasionally, medical parole is used as a no-publicity way of releasing an accidentally imprisoned convict.

Year and a day rule

year and a dayone year and one daya year and a day
In English common law, it was held that a death was conclusively presumed not to be murder (or any other homicide) if it occurred more than a year and one day since the act (or omission) that was alleged to have been its cause. The rule also applied to the offence of assisting with a suicide. Certain problems with this rule arise from the advance of medicine. Life support technology can extend the interval between the murderous act and the subsequent death. Application of the year and a day rule prevented murder prosecutions, not because of the merits of the case, but because of the successful intervention of doctors in prolonging life.

Aggravation (law)

aggravated murderaggravatedaggravating circumstances
., to murder or to rape), the extent of injury to the victim, or the use of a deadly weapon. An aggravating circumstance is a kind of attendant circumstance and the opposite of an extenuating or mitigating circumstance, which decreases guilt. In the UK, the Criminal Justice Act 2003 requires a court to consider (a) relevant previous convictions, (b) racial or religious aggravation, and (c) hostility towards the victim or to persons generally based on sexual orientation (or presumed sexual orientation) or disability (or presumed disability) when determining sentence for a conviction. The antonym of aggravation is mitigation. de:Qualifikation (Strafrecht)

Weregild

wergildwergeldcompensation
No distinction was made between murder and manslaughter until these distinctions were instituted by the re-introduction of Roman law in the 12th century. Payment of the weregild was gradually replaced with capital punishment due to Christianization, starting around the 9th century, and almost entirely by the 12th century when weregild began to cease as a practice throughout the Holy Roman Empire. The word weregild is composed of were, meaning "man", and geld, meaning "payment or fee", as in Danegeld. Geld or Jeld was the Old English and Old Frisian word for money, and still is in Dutch, Frisian, German and Afrikaans. The Danish word gæld and Norwegian gjeld both mean "debt".

I. E. Weldon Secondary School

I.E. Weldon Secondary SchoolIE Weldon
Luka Magnotta, notable criminal. Simon Ward, singer in The Strumbellas.

Thuggee

ThugeeThugsThuggees
They sometimes tended to murder women and children to eliminate witnesses or in case they had substantial loot. Some of the thugs avoided murdering victims they considered proscribed according to their beliefs and let other unscrupulous members commit the murder or were forced to let them by those who did not believe in their customs like the Muslim thugs. The earliest known reference to the Thugs as a band or fraternity, rather than ordinary thieves, is found in Ziau-d din Barni's History of Firoz Shah (written about 1356).

California Penal Code

Penal CodeCal. Penal CodeState Penal Code
Theft or larceny. 487 - Grand theft. 488 - Petty theft. 487 - Grand theft auto. 496 - Receiving stolen property. 503-515 - Embezzlement. 518-527 - Extortion'''. 528-539 - False personation and cheats. 594 - Malicious mischief/vandalism. 597 - Animal cruelty. 602 - Trespassing. 647(b) - Prostitution. 647(f) - Public drunkenness or public intoxication. 664 - Attempt (usually charged together with one of the above like 187 or 211; attempted murder was formerly covered in its own section, 217). 691 - Extortion.

Human sacrifice

ritual murdersacrificedsacrifice
It noted that children were beaten and murdered after being labelled as witches by pastors in an Angolan community in London. Ritual killings perpetrated by individuals or small groups within a society that denounces them as simple murder are difficult to classify as either "human sacrifice" or mere pathological homicide because they lack the societal integration of sacrifice proper.

Action film

actionaction thrilleraction thriller film
Themes or elements often prevalent in typical action-horror films include gore, demons, vicious animals, vampires and most commonly zombies. This category can also take elements from the fantasy genre. Examples include Aliens, Army of Darkness, Resident Evil, Ghost Rider, They Live, Planet Terror, Predator, Undead, World War Z, Train to Busan, Doomsday, Underworld, Constantine, Swamp Thing, Priest, The Crow, Dawn of the Dead, Deep Rising, From Dusk till Dawn, Blade, Legion, and End of Days.

Shock value

shockshockingas-told-to comedy
Examples in war films would include a scene of a military hospital with patients with severe or gory wounds, a shot of a battlefield covered in corpses, or the portrayal of emotional abuse. Black comedy. Exploitation film. Gross-out film. Mondo film. Shock jock. Shock site.

Law of the United States

United States federal lawUnited States lawAmerican lawyer
All states have somewhat similar laws in regard to "higher crimes" (or felonies), such as murder and rape, although penalties for these crimes may vary from state to state. Capital punishment is permitted in some states but not others. Three strikes laws in certain states impose harsh penalties on repeat offenders. Some states distinguish between two levels: felonies and misdemeanors (minor crimes). Generally, most felony convictions result in lengthy prison sentences as well as subsequent probation, large fines, and orders to pay restitution directly to victims; while misdemeanors may lead to a year or less in jail and a substantial fine.

Lesser included offense

alternative verdictlesser included offencemerger doctrine
In murder cases, however, where a convicted defendant may face capital punishment, the United States Supreme Court has held that the court must instruct the jury that they may find the defendant guilty of a lesser included offense such as voluntary manslaughter. The reasoning for this ruling is that when the jury is not given the ability to convict for a lesser offense, the jurors might opt to convict a less culpable defendant instead of letting defendant go free, essentially convicting of a more serious crime than the facts warrant.

Entertainment Software Rating Board

ESRBEntertainment Software Ratings BoardM-rated
The stigma is primarily affected by a perception by the industry and other activists that video games are generally considered children's products; for example, the availability of a Wii version of Manhunt 2 was condemned by Senator Hillary Clinton over fears that children could use the game's motion controls to act out the game's "many graphic torture scenes and murders".

Statute of limitations

statute of limitationstatutes of limitationsprescription
Although there is usually no statute of limitations for murder (particularly first-degree murder), judges have been known to dismiss murder charges in cold cases if they feel the delay violates the defendant's right to a speedy trial. For example, waiting many years for an alibi witness to die before commencing a murder trial would be unconstitutional. In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court in Stogner v. California ruled that the retroactive extension of the statute of limitations for sexual offenses committed against minors was an unconstitutional ex post facto law. Under the U.S. Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), desertion has no statute of limitations. Maritime Injury Law Under 46 U.S.

Lying in wait

In 1794, Pennsylvania passed a law that defined first degree murder as "[a]ll murder which shall be perpetrated ... by lying in wait". Many states modeled their penal codes after the Pennsylvania law, but by the beginning of the twenty first century, only four states identified "lying in wait" as a "death qualifying act". Murder. Capital punishment.

Arthur William Hodge

Arthur Hodge
Arthur William Hodge (1763–1811) was a plantation farmer, member of the Executive Council and Legislative Assembly, and slave owner in the British Virgin Islands, who was hanged on 8 May 1811, for the murder of one of his slaves. He was the first West Indian slave owner to be executed for the murder of a slave considered his property, and perhaps the only British West Indian slave owner, or British subject, to be executed for murdering his slave. He was not however the first white person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave, as some historians have claimed. He was born in the British Virgin Islands, studied at Oriel College, Oxford and served in the British Army.