Republic of AlbaniaAlbanianALB
The first to express this motto was Naim Frashëri in his poem Ti Shqipëri më jep nder. This poem is notable as refers to the values and ambitions of the Albanian people to remain separate from and independent of, those neighbouring countries around it, which have tried to dominate it. The duart e kryqëzuara, also referred to as the eagle gesture, is a gesture performed particularly by the Albanian people around the world in order to visually illustrate the double-headed eagle, the symbol of Albania.

Berry (botany)

Grape, Vitis vinifera in the family Vitaceae. Honeysuckle: the berries of some species are edible and are called honeyberries, but others are poisonous (Lonicera spp.; Caprifoliaceae). Persimmon (Ebenaceae). Pumpkin, cucumber and watermelon in the family Cucurbitaceae. Strawberry – the aggregate of seed-like achenes is actually the "fruit", derived from an aggregate of ovaries, and the fleshy part develops from the receptacle. Mock strawberry, Duchesnea indica – structured just like a strawberry. Sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera; Polygonaceae) – the fruit is a dry capsule surrounded by fleshy calyx.


grapevinegrapevinesgrape vine
According to the "Food and Agriculture Organization" (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world is dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be used as a sweetener for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. The following list of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes (regardless of the grapes’ final destination): Grapevines are widely cultivated by gardeners, and numerous suppliers cater specifically for this trade.


winesfine winewhite wine
Which gave rise to modern viticulture in French wine, Italian wine, Spanish wine, and these wine grape traditions were brought into New World wine. For example, Mission grapes were brought by Franciscan monks to New Mexico in 1628 beginning the New Mexico wine heritage, these grapes were also brought to California which started the California wine industry. Both of these regions eventually evolved into American wine's oldest and largest wine producers respectively.

Table grape

table grapestabletable consumption
In Japan and other East Asian markets, as well as supporting a market for imported grapes commonly produced in Australia and Chile, domestically produced table grapes are often grown and sold as premium gift products. In Japan Kyoho, Delaware and Pione grapes rank as the first, second and third most popular table grapes in terms production volume. In July 2015, setting new pricing records for Japanese premium table grapes, a single bunch of Ruby Roman grapes, containing 26 grapes at a weight of about 700 grams, sold for 1 million yen (around US$8400). ja:ブドウ

Grape juice

juicecupgrape juices
Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23 percent of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "must". The sugars in grape juice allow it to be used as a sweetener, and fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar. In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from Concord grapes while white grape juice is commonly made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of native American grapes, a different species from European wine grapes.


raisinssultanasgolden raisin
A raisin is a dried grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking, and brewing. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, the word "raisin" is reserved for the dark-colored dried large grape, with "sultana" being a golden-colored dried grape, and "currant" being a dried small Black Corinth seedless grape. The word "raisin" dates back to Middle English and is a loanword from Old French; in modern French, raisin means "grape", while a dried grape is a raisin sec, or "dry grape". The Old French word, in turn, developed from the Latin word racemus, "a bunch of grapes".

Grape seed extract

grape seeds
Grape seed extract is an industrial derivative of whole grape seeds. The extract contains proanthocyanidins. Grape seed extract quality is measured by the content of procyanidins which are formed from proanthocyanidins. Generally, grape seed extract quality contains 95% procyanidins, but potency varies among products. . Eating foods or beverages high in procyanidin results in the sensation of the mouth puckering and dehydration, otherwise known as astringency, as felt after certain alcoholic drinks. The properties of grape seed extract depends on the extraction process used to obtain it and how the grapes were grown.

Yeast in winemaking

yeastwine yeastwild yeast
The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice. In the absence of oxygen, yeast converts the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation. The more sugars in the grapes, the higher the potential alcohol level of the wine if the yeast are allowed to carry out fermentation to dryness. Sometimes winemakers will stop fermentation early in order to leave some residual sugars and sweetness in the wine such as with dessert wines.

Sami Frashëri

SamiSami FrasheriŞemsettin Sami
In 1872 Sami and his brother Naim migrated to Istanbul and both got a job working for the Ottoman bureaucracy and as he admired French culture became involved in translating French language novels such as Les Misérables into Ottoman Turkish, later writing some short stories, plays and novels of his own. He was briefly posted in Tripoli, Libya and in 1874 returned to Istanbul becoming a writer for a newspaper. Later in 1877 he went on another short assignment being posted briefly at Rhodes. Returning to Istanbul he remained in the capital for the remainder of his life.

Abdyl Frashëri

AbdylAbdyl FrasheriAbdul
Abdyl, alongside his brothers Naim, Sami and 5 other siblings were the children of Halit Bey (1797–1859) and their paternal family traditions held that they were descendants of timar holders that hailed from the Berat region before coming to live in Frashër. While their mother Emine Hanım (1814–1861) was descended from Imrahor Ilyas Bey, a distinguished 15th century Ottoman Albanian commander from the Korçë area. Being the eldest brother of Naim Frashëri and Sami Frashëri, Abdyl Frashëri spent his youth to age 18 in his home village and eventually moved to Yannina where he lived for more than 20 years.

National poet

List of national poetsnational bardnational poets
A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture. The national poet as culture hero is a long-standing symbol, to be distinguished from successive holders of a bureaucratically-appointed poet-laureate office. The idea and honoring of national poets emerged primarily during Romanticism, as a figure that helped consolidation of the nation states, as it provided validation of their ethno-linguistic groups.


fruitsfruitingfresh fruit
Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially grapefruit, mandarin oranges, navel oranges), satsumas, table grapes, and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit. Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids, and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy, which requires normal pollination and fertilization.

List of grape varieties

grape varietygrape varietiesgrape
National Grape Registry (NGR). PlantGrape (catalogue of vines grown in France: varieties, rootstocks, clones). Most common varietal wines. Grape varieties and Common Blends. Grape Growers Handbook.

Vitis amurensis

Amur grapeV. amurensis
Amur grapes are classified into three subspecies: It is most common in the valleys of rivers and streams, in clearings, forest edges, forests, the lower and middle slopes of mountains, where they climb to trees and spread along the ground. It is the northernmost and most stable type of grape growing in the Far Eastern taiga. Most grapes species are found in much warmer climates. Only the Amur grape can tolerate winter temperatures down to −45 °C, and the root zone of the soil to −16 °C. Anthropogenic factors have adversely affected the number and status of the Amur grapes in their natural habitats, leading to a marked reduction in their range.

Concord grape

ConcordConcord grapesConcord grapevines
The Concord grape is a cultivar derived from the grape species Vitis labrusca (also called fox grape) that are used as table grapes, wine grapes and juice grapes. They are often used to make grape jelly, grape juice, grape pies, grape-flavored soft drinks, and candy. The grape is sometimes used to make wine, particularly kosher wine. Traditionally, most commercially produced Concord wines have been finished sweet, but dry versions are possible if adequate fruit ripeness is achieved. The grape is named after the town in Massachusetts where it was developed.

Albanian literature

Naim Frashëri wrote a pastoral poem Bagëti e bujqësia (Shepherds and Farmers) (1886), a collection of philosophical, patriotic and love lyrics Lulet e verës (Summer Flowers), (1890), an epical poem on Skanderbeg Histori e Skënderbeut (The History of Skanderbeg) (1898), a religious epical poem Qerbelaja (1898), two poems in Greek O Eros (i.e. O Love) and O alithis pothos ton skipetaron (i.e. The True Desire of Albanians), some lyrics in Persian Tehajylat (The Dream) and many erudite works in Albanian. He is recognised as the greatest national poet of Albanians. Naim Frashëri established modern lyrics in Albanian poetry.


malt vinegarwhite vinegarcoconut vinegar
A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" (balsamic vinegar of Modena) became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century, typically made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar, then coloured and slightly sweetened with caramel and sugar. Balsamic vinegar is made from a grape product. It contains no balsam fruit. A high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it mellow.

Vitis vinifera

viniferagrapeV. vinifera
In March 2007, scientists from Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), working in the Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture, reported that their "research suggests that extremely rare and independent mutations in two genes [VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 of red grapes] produced a single white grapevine that was the parent of almost all of the world's white grape varieties. If only one gene had been mutated, most grapes would still be red and we would not have the more than 3000 white grape cultivars available today."

Cabernet Sauvignon

*International variety * Cabernet Sauvignon Grape - Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Information Page on


Airén is a variety of Vitis vinifera, a white grape commonly used in winemaking. This grape is native to Spain where it represents about 30% of all grapes grown. As of 2010, Airén was estimated to be the world's 3rd most grown grape variety in terms of planted surface, at 252000 ha, down from 306000 ha in 2004, where it held 1st place, although it is almost exclusively found in Spain. Since Airén tends to be planted at a low density, several other varieties (including Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) are more planted in terms of number of vines. Plantations of Airén are declining as it is being replaced in Spanish vineyards with various red varieties, such as Tempranillo.

Phenolic content in wine

tanninphenolic compoundstannins
In most grapes anthocyanins are found only in the outer cell layers of the skin, leaving the grape juice inside virtually colorless. Therefore, to get color pigmentation in the wine, the fermenting must needs to be in contact with the grape skins in order for the anthocyanins to be extracted. Hence, white wine can be made from red wine grapes in the same way that many white sparkling wines are made from the red wine grapes of Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier. The exception to this is the small class of grapes known as teinturiers, such as Alicante Bouschet, which have a small amount of anthocyanins in the pulp that produces pigmented juice.


FrasherFrashër region
Naim Frashëri, Albanian poet. Sami Frashëri, Albanian writer. Mihal Zallari, chairman of the assembly of Albania, historian and journalist. Kristo Frashëri, Albanian historian. Fehim Zavalani, Albanian journalist. Mehdi Frashëri, Prime Minister of Albania.

Climacteric (botany)

climactericClimacteric fruits
Apples, bananas, melons, apricots, and tomatoes, among others, are climacteric fruits; citrus, grapes, and strawberries are not climacteric (i.e., they ripen without ethylene and respiration bursts). However, non-climacteric melons and apricots do exist, and grapes and strawberries harbor several active ethylene receptors. Climacteric is the final physiological process that marks the end of fruit maturation and the beginning of fruit senescence. Its defining point is a sudden rise in respiration of the fruit, and normally takes place without any external influences.

Sultana (grape)

sultanasultanasThompson Seedless
Sultana grape juice was fraudulently sold as being of Chardonnay grapes in Australia for wine making, due to the lower cost of Sultana grapes. The fraud was discovered in 2003 by the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation. It was considered the largest case of wine deception in Australian history. Sultaniye wines are dry and semi-dry, light-bodied wines produced in Turkey. Sultaniye grapes used in winemaking are mainly grown at Denizli and Manisa, in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Sultaniye grapes are consumed as table grapes and raisins, as well as used in wine making.