There are many aspects of television that can be addressed, including negative issues such as media violence. Current research is discovering that individuals suffering from social isolation can employ television to create what is termed a parasocial or faux relationship with characters from their favorite television shows and movies as a way of deflecting feelings of loneliness and social deprivation. Several studies have found that educational television has many advantages. The article "The Good Things about Television" argues that television can be a very powerful and effective learning tool for children if used wisely.

Action film

actionaction thrilleraction thriller film
A subgenre combining the intrusion of an evil force, event, or supernatural personage of horror films with the gunfights and frenetic chases of the action genre. Themes or elements often prevalent in typical action-horror films include gore, demons, vicious animals, vampires and most commonly zombies. This category can also take elements from the fantasy genre. Examples include Aliens, Army of Darkness, Resident Evil, Ghost Rider, They Live, Planet Terror, Predator, Undead, World War Z, Train to Busan, Doomsday, Underworld, Constantine, Swamp Thing, Priest, The Crow, Dawn of the Dead, Deep Rising, From Dusk till Dawn, Blade, Legion, and End of Days.

Video game controversies

Video game controversycontroversycontroversial
Research on the effects of violence in mass media. Nanny state. Videogame Rating Council. Gamergate controversy. Islamic Fun. Super Columbine Massacre RPG!. Tropes vs. Women in Video Games. V-Tech Rampage.

Splatter film

torture pornsplattergore
A splatter film is a subgenre of horror film that deliberately focuses on graphic portrayals of gore and graphic violence. These films, usually through the use of special effects, display a fascination with the vulnerability of the human body and the theatricality of its mutilation. The term "splatter cinema" was coined by George A. Romero to describe his film Dawn of the Dead, though Dawn of the Dead is generally considered by critics to have higher aspirations, such as social commentary, than to be simply exploitative for its own sake.

Psychological horror

psychologicalpsychological horror filmhorror
Psychological horror films generally differ from the traditional horror film, where the source of the fear is typically something material, such as grotesque or horrifying creatures, monsters, serial killers, or aliens, as well as the splatter film, which derives its frightening effects from gore and graphic violence, in that tension in psychological horror films is more frequently built through atmosphere, eerie sounds and exploitation of the viewer's and the character's psychological fears.

Nonviolent video game

non-violent gamenon-violentnon-violent first-person shooter
With advancements in video technology and the rise of video games containing graphic violence in the late 1980s and early 1990s, media violence research shifted to a great degree from televised violence to video game violence. Although under current debate, a number of researchers have claimed that violent games may cause more intense feelings of aggression than nonviolent games, and may trigger feelings of anger and hostility. Theoretical explanations for these types of effects have been explained in myriad theories including social cognitive theory, excitation transfer theory, priming effect and the General Aggression Model.

George A. Romero

George RomeroRomeroLaurel Entertainment
Between these two films, Romero shot Knightriders (1981), another festival favorite about a group of modern-day jousters who reenact tournaments on motorcycles; and Creepshow (1982), written by Stephen King, an anthology of tongue-in-cheek tales modeled after 1950s horror comics. The cult-classic success of Creepshow led to the creation of Romero's Tales from the Darkside, a horror anthology television series that aired from 1983 to 1988. From the latter half of the 1980s and into the 1990s came Monkey Shines (1988), about a killer helper monkey; Two Evil Eyes (a.k.a.

Halloween (2018 film)

Halloweeneleventh installmentHalloween (2018)
According to Danny McBride, the horror of the film aims to create a sense of tension and dread to the audience rather than relying on graphic violence; the make-up and visual effects were provided by Christopher Nelson. Jamie Lee Curtis finished her scenes on February 16, 2018, with the remaining principal photography concluding on February 19, 2018. Response to the film's first test screening led the filmmakers to schedule reshoots beginning June 11, 2018. Filming once again took place in Charleston. Courtney had a week of rehearsal before filming began. Nelson used a life cast of his face to construct the Michael Myers mask and other prosthetics worn by the actor.


torturedtorturingtorture device
Torture (from Latin tortus: to twist, to torment) is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict suffering or pain, without a specific intent to do so, are not typically considered torture.

Desensitization (psychology)

Eventually the observer may become emotionally and cognitively desensitized to media violence. In one experiment, participants who played violent video games showed lower heart rate and galvanic skin response readings, which the authors interpreted as displaying a physiological desensitization to violence. However, other studies have failed to replicate this finding. Some scholars have questioned whether becoming desensitized to media violence specifically transfers to becoming desensitized to real-life violence. Sensitization. Flooding (psychology). Extinction (psychology). Habituation. Conditioning.

Computer-generated imagery

CGIcomputer-generatedCGI animation
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators. The visual scenes may be dynamic or static and may be two-dimensional (2D), though the term "CGI" is most commonly used to refer to 3D computer graphics used for creating scenes or special effects in films and television. Additionally, the use of 2D CGI is often mistakenly referred to as "traditional animation", most often in the case when dedicated animation software such as Adobe Flash or Toon Boom is not used or the CGI is hand drawn using a tablet and mouse.


For example, in the Japanese and PAL Versions of No More Heroes, blood splatter and gore is removed from the gameplay. Decapitation scenes are implied, but not shown. Scenes of missing body parts after having been cut off, are replaced with the same scene, but showing the body parts fully intact. Surveillance and censorship are different. Surveillance can be performed without censorship, but it is harder to engage in censorship without some form of surveillance. And even when surveillance does not lead directly to censorship, the widespread knowledge or belief that a person, their computer, or their use of the Internet is under surveillance can lead to self-censorship.


motion picturemoviefilms
Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film and the assessment of the director's and screenwriters' work that makes up the majority of most film reviews can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas and art films, the influence of reviews is important. Poor reviews from leading critics at major papers and magazines will often reduce audience interest and attendance. The impact of a reviewer on a given film's box office performance is a matter of debate.

Blood squirt

blood spatterblood gushblood spurt
Squirting blood is used as a visual effect in anime, cartoons, comic books, film (mostly horror – particularly slasher – and action), literature, television series (mostly horror and drama), theater and video games. Perhaps the earliest epic film to have explicit scenes of blood squirting, often filmed in slow motion, was Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch (1969). It was rated R, then a new category, by the MPAA. The Monty Python sketch Sam Peckinpah's "Salad Days" (1972) involved an orgy of blood gushing, in a parody of Peckinpah's gore-filled directorial style.

Brian De Palma

Brian DePalmaDe PalmaBrian
Because of the subject matter and graphic violence of some of De Palma's films, such as Dressed to Kill, Scarface and Body Double, they are often at the center of controversy with the Motion Picture Association of America, film critics and the viewing public. De Palma is known for quoting and referencing other directors' work throughout his career. Michelangelo Antonioni's Blowup and Francis Ford Coppola's The Conversation plots were used for the basis of Blow Out. The Untouchables finale shoot out in the train station is a clear borrow from the Odessa Steps sequence in Sergei Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin.

Media consumption

consumptionmedia dietMedia habits
In an article about media violence on society it states that extensive TV viewing among adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent aggressive acts. Programs that portray violent acts can change an adolescent's view on violence and this may lead them to develop aggressive behavior. These shows usually portray a person who commits a crime or resorts to violence. They also show that these people go unpunished for their crime, creating the notion that crime is something a person can get away with. Studies show that 65% of people between the age of 8 to 18 have a television in their room. The average high-schooler watches, on average,14 hours of television a week.

Slender Man

SlendermanThe Operatorcharacter of the same name
Graphic violence and body horror are uncommon in the Slender Man mythos, with many narratives choosing to leave the fate of his victims obscure. Shira Chess notes that "It is important to note that few of the retellings identify exactly what kind of monster the Slender Man might be, and what his specific intentions are- these points all remain mysteriously and usefully vague." Media scholar and folklorist Andrew Peck attributes the success of the Slender Man to its highly collaborative nature. Because the character and its motives are shrouded in mystery, users can easily adapt existing Slender Man tropes and imagery to create new stories.

Violence in art

Aestheticization of violenceAestheticisation of violencedepiction of violence
Tapia, in "Volumes of Transnational Vengeance: Fixing Race and Feminism on the Way to Kill Bill," interprets the commonly-espoused belief that the ‘’Kill Bill’’ films are using graphic violence to portray feminism: “…the film’s inversion of traditional gender roles, particularly as they relate to the execution of extreme violence, strikes a ready chord with our current popular culture, as well as with the feminist sensibilities of a good many women.".

Excitation-transfer theory

excitation transfer process
Excitation-transfer theory purports that residual excitation from one stimulus will amplify the excitatory response to another stimulus, though the hedonic valences of the stimuli may differ (Bryant & Miron, 2003). The excitation-transfer process is not limited to a single emotion (cf. Zillmann, 1983, 1996, 1998). For example, when watching a movie, a viewer may be angered by seeing the hero wronged by the villain, but this initial excitation may intensify the viewer's pleasure in witnessing the villain's punishment later.

Troma Entertainment

TromaTroma FilmsTroma Pictures
They typically contain overt sexuality, nudity, and intentionally sadistic, gory, and blatant graphic violence, so much that Troma film has become a term synonymous with these characteristics. Troma reuses the same props, actors, and scenes repeatedly, sometimes to save money. At a certain point, however, this became another hallmark of Troma. Examples include a severed leg, a penis monster, and the flipping and exploding car filmed for the movie Sgt. Kabukiman N.Y.P.D., which is used in place of any other car that needs to crash and explode.

Tales from the Crypt (TV series)

Tales from the CryptHBO's Tales from the CryptCrypt Keeper
As a result, HBO allowed the series to include content that had not appeared in most television series up to that time, such as graphic violence, profanity, sexual activity, and nudity. The series is subsequently edited for such content when broadcast in syndication or on basic cable. While the series began production in the United States, in the final season filming moved to Britain, resulting in episodes which revolved around British characters. Each episode begins with a tracking shot leading to the front door of The Cryptkeeper's decrepit mansion. Once inside, the camera pans down from the foyer to the hallways and stairways, and finally descends into the basement.


Greg OttingerThe Gwarnage CampaignAll the Sex
Rife with over-the-top violent, sexual, and scatological humor typically incorporating social and political satire, Gwar has attracted both acclaim and controversy for its music and stage shows, the latter of which notoriously showcase enactments of graphic violence that result in the audience being sprayed with copious amounts of fake blood, urine, and semen. Such stagecraft regularly leads Gwar to be labeled a "shock rock" band by the media. Since its formation, Gwar has released thirteen studio albums, two live albums, and numerous singles among other recordings, and has sold over 820,000 records in the United States.

German underground horror

German horrorhorror movielow-budget horror film industry
German underground horror is a subgenre of the horror film, which has achieved cult popularity since first appearing in the mid-1980s. Horror films produced by the German underground scene are usually trademarked by their intensity, taking on topics that are culturally taboo such as rape, necrophilia, and extreme violence. Films that glorify violence are not technically illegal in Germany, but certain titles are banned by the government and Zollkriminalamt. Distribution, import, or creation of specific films can constitute steep fines. In an attempt to shed its violent image, horror films were very rarely made in Germany after the fall of the Third Reich.

Brain Damage Films

Machine HeadMachine Head'' (film)
The company distributes a variety of horror and shock exploitation movies in many formats, including DVD, Blu-ray, and cable, satellite, and Internet video on demand. The company's films are noted for their horror aspects and Z movie budgets. They are also known for a variety of shock/exploitation films, most notably the Traces of Death series, which was produced in response to the popularity of the Faces of Death series. The films usually contain sexuality, nudity, gore and graphic violence, and other elements common to horror films. Founder Darrin Ramage is quoted as saying "everyone is looking for B and B: blood and boobs."

Cradle of Filth

Stuart AnstisCradleextreme metal
The Manticore and Other Horrors (2012). Hammer of the Witches (2015). Cryptoriana – The Seductiveness of Decay (2017).