Friedrich Wannieck

Friedrich Oskar WannieckVankovka
Flowers 1988 as The Secret of the Runes. Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books. ISBN: 0-89281-207-9.

Ariosophy

Germanic mysticismArmanistAriosophist
The High Armanen Order (Hoher Armanen Orden) was the inner circle of the Guido von List Society. Founded in midsummer 1911, it was set up as a magical order or lodge to support List's deeper and more practical work. The HAO conducted pilgrimages to what its members considered "holy Armanic sites", Stephansdom in Vienna, Carnuntum etc. They also had occasional meetings between 1911 and 1918, but the exact nature of these remains unknown. In his introduction to List's The Secret of the Runes, Stephen E.

Hávamál

HavamalGestaþáttrHáv[amál
The best-known attempt to this effect are the Armanen runes by Guido von List (1902). Various proponents of Germanic Neopagan groups place an emphasis on Hávamál as a source of a Norse pagan ethical code of conduct. The "Nine Noble Virtues", first compiled by Odinic Rite founder John "Stubba" Yeowell in the 1970s are "loosely based" on the Hávamál. The Northvegr Foundation cites the Hávamál among other Old Norse and Old English sources to illustrate "the ethical ideal of the Northern spiritual faith of Heithni." Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson, leader of the Icelandic Ásatrúarfélagið, published his performance of a number of Eddaic poems, including the Hávamál, chanted in rímur style.

Stephen Flowers

Edred ThorssonStephen E. FlowersFlowers, Stephen
The Secret of the Runes by Guido von List, Destiny Books (Inner Traditions), 1988. ISBN: 0-89281-207-9. The Nine Doors of Midgard, Llewellyn (Teutonic Magick Series) 1991, ISBN: 0-87542-781-2. Reprinted & retitled as The Nine Doors of Midgard: A Curriculum of Rune-Work, Rûna-Raven Press, 1997 (second revised edition), 2003 ISBN: 1-885972-23-7. The Rune-Gild, revised and expanded edition, 2016. Northern Magic: Mysteries of the Norse, Germans & English, Llewellyn, 1992. Reprinted & retitled Northern Magic: Rune Mysteries and Shamanism, Llewellyn, 1998 ISBN: 1-56718-709-9. Book of Ogham: The Celtic Tree Oracle, Llewellyn, 1992 ISBN: 0-9754278-4-9. (ed./trans.)

Runes

runicrunerunic alphabet
The pioneer of the Armanist branch of Ariosophy and one of the more important figures in esotericism in Germany and Austria in the late 19th and early 20th century was the Austrian occultist, mysticist, and völkisch author, Guido von List. In 1908, he published in Das Geheimnis der Runen ("The Secret of the Runes") a set of eighteen so-called, "Armanen runes", based on the Younger Futhark and runes of List's own introduction, which allegedly were revealed to him in a state of temporary blindness after cataract operations on both eyes in 1902.

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
The logo is a pair of runes from a set of 18 Armanen runes created by Guido von List in 1906. The ancient Sowilō rune originally symbolised the sun, but was renamed "Sig" (victory) in List's iconography. Himmler modified a variety of existing customs to emphasise the elitism and central role of the SS; an SS naming ceremony was to replace baptism, marriage ceremonies were to be altered, a separate SS funeral ceremony was to be held in addition to Christian ceremonies, and SS-centric celebrations of the summer and winter solstices were instituted. The Totenkopf (death's head) symbol, used by German military units for hundreds of years, had been chosen for the SS by Schreck.

Heathenry (new religious movement)

Germanic neopaganismHeathenryOdinism
One of these völkisch Ariosophists was the Austrian occultist Guido von List, who established a religion that he termed "Wotanism", with an inner core that he referred to as "Armanism". List's Wotanism was based heavily on the Eddas, although over time it came to be increasingly influenced by the occult teachings of the Theosophical Society. List's ideas were transmitted in Germany by prominent right-wingers, and adherents to his ideas were among the founders of the Reichshammerbund in Leipzig in 1912, and they included individuals who held key positions in the Germanenorden.

Friedrich Marby

Friedrich Bernhard MarbyMarby, Friedrich B.Runic Gymnastics
He is best known for his revivalism and use of the Armanen runes row. Marby was imprisoned during the Third Reich, which may have been due to a denunciation by Karl Maria Wiligut. According to the Odinist magazine Vor Trú, Marby "was one of the most (if not the most) important figures in the realm of runic sciences" with an impact felt not only by contemporaries but "among today's researchers and practitioners." Born in Aurich, Ostfriesland, Friedrich Marby trained as a printer and served professionally as an editor. From 1924, he began publishing his theories and research.

Swastika

swastikasHakenkreuzNazi swastika
Following many other writers, the German nationalist poet Guido von List believed it was a uniquely Aryan symbol. Before the Nazis, the swastika was already in use as a symbol of German völkisch nationalist movements (Völkische Bewegung). José Manuel Erbez says: "The first time the swastika was used with an "Aryan" meaning was on 25 December 1907, when the self-named Order of the New Templars, a secret society founded by Lanz von Liebenfels, hoisted at (Austria) a yellow flag with a swastika and four fleurs-de-lys." However, Liebenfels was drawing on an already established use of the symbol.

Siegfried Adolf Kummer

He is also most well known for his revivalism and use of the Armanen runes row. He, along with Friedrich Bernhard Marby, were imprisoned during the Third Reich for being unauthorised occultists. Little is known of his life or of his fate in the wake of the events of the Nazi era. Kummer, along with Friedrich Bernhard Marby, were criticized by name in a report made to Heinrich Himmler by his chief esoteric runologist Karl Maria Wiligut.

Völkisch movement

völkischVölkisch'' movementvolkisch
Guido von List. Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels. Mathilde Ludendorff. National Socialism and occultism. Neo-völkisch movements. Nordic race. Pan-Germanism. Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband). Racial theory. Sociology of immigration. Thule Society. Volkshalle. Der Wehrwolf. Volksdeutsche. Dohe, Carrie b. Jung's Wandering Archetype: Race and Religion in Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge, 2016. Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. 1985. The Occult Roots of Nazism: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany 1890-1935. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian Press. ISBN: 0-85030-402-4. (1992. The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology.

Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels

Lanz von LiebenfelsJörg Lanz (von Liebenfels)LANZ, Adolf Josef
As a student of Guido von List, Lanz further expanded his theories; other influences included Otto Weininger, of whom Lanz was a fervent follower. In 1905 Lanz and some 50 other supporters of List signed a declaration endorsing the proposed Guido-von-List-Gesellschaft (Guido von List Society), which was officially founded in 1908. He also founded his own esoteric organisation, the Ordo Novi Templi (Order of the New Templars) in 1907.

Rudolf John Gorsleben

Hoch-Zeit der MenschheitThe Zenith of Humanity
Rudolf John Gorsleben (16 March 1883 – 23 August 1930) was a German Ariosophist, Armanist (practitioner of the Armanen runes), journal editor and playwright. Gorsleben was born in Metz. During World War I, he fought in a German unit stationed in the Ottoman Empire. He formed the Edda Society (Edda-Gesellschaft) and wrote the book Hoch-Zeit der Menschheit (The Zenith of Humanity), first published in 1930. It is known as "The Bible of Armanism" and has been translated into English by Karl Hans Welz. Gorsleben died in Bad Homburg of a chronic heart complaint. * Hoch-Zeit der Menschheit in PDF-format. In English.

Thule Society

ThuleThule-GesellschaftThule Gesellschaft
Guido von List. Nazi archaeology. Nazism and occultism. Angebert, Jean-Michel. 1974. The Occult and the Third Reich: the mystical origins of Nazism and the search for the Holy Grail.. Macmillan Publishing. ISBN: 0-02-502150-8. Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. 1985. The Occult Roots of Nazism: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany 1890-1935. Wellingborough, England: The Aquarian Press. ISBN: 0-85030-402-4. Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. 2002. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. ISBN: 0-8147-3124-4. (Paperback 2003, 384 pages, ISBN: 0-8147-3155-4.). Höhne, Heinz. 1969. The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS.

Hagal (Armanen rune)

HagalHagal runeHagal/Hag
Hagal is the 7th rune of Armanen Futharkh of Guido von List, derived from the Younger Futhark Hagal rune. Hagal is the "mother rune" of the Armanen system and also seen as such by List's contemporaries Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels, Adolf Schleipfer, Peryt Shou, Siegfried Adolf Kummer, Rudolf John Gorsleben, Friedrich Bernhard Marby, Werner von Bülow, Wilhelm Wulff and more recently Karl Spiesberger and Karl Hans Welz. It is seen as the central axis point of the hexagonal crystal of which the Armanen runes are derived. In one of its simple formats it resembles the Wendehorn. Armanen runes.

Nazi symbolism

Nazi symbolsswastikaNazi iconography
Nazi occultists Karl Maria Wiligut and Guido von List both claimed that heraldry began in the world of the Germanic gods, and was created by Wotan, the god of war. Other symbols employed by the Nazis include: Letters of the historical runic alphabet and the modern Armanen runes have been used by Nazism and neo-Nazi groups that associate themselves with Germanic traditions, mainly the Sigel, Eihwaz, Tyr; c.f. Odal (see Odalism) and Algiz runes. The fascination that runes seem to have exerted on the Nazis can be traced to the occult and völkisch author Guido von List, one of the important figures in Germanic mysticism and runic revivalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
The logo is a pair of runes from a set of 18 Armanen runes created by Guido von List in 1906. It is similar to the ancient Sowilō rune, which symbolizes the sun, but was renamed as "Sig" (victory) in List's iconography. The Totenkopf symbolized the wearer's willingness to fight unto the death, and also served to frighten the enemy. After 1933 a career in the SS became increasingly attractive to Germany's social elite, who began joining the movement in great numbers, usually motivated by political opportunism. By 1938 about one-third of the SS leadership were members of the upper middle class. The trend reversed after the first Soviet counter-offensive of 1942. |-!

Johannes Balzli

Balzli, Johannes
Vienna, Guido-von-List-Gesellschaft, 1917. ("Guido v. List - The Rediscoverer of Ancient Aryan Wisdom - His Life and His Work."). Magisch okkulte Unterrichtsbriefe: zehn Lehrbriefe zur Entwicklung der Willenskraft und der okkulten Fähigkeiten / bearb. republished in 2002 by Schikowski. Okkultistische Unterrichtsbriefe: 10 Lehrbriefe zur Entwickelung d. Willenskraft u. d. okkulten Fähigkeiten. Das Problem des Cölibats vom Standpunkte des Okkultismus : T. 1. [2]. Eurhythmie. Guido von List. Adolf Schleipfer. The Occult Roots of Nazism by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, pp. 27, 45 and 47. Flowers' introduction to The Secret of the Runes translated by Dr. Stephen E. Flowers Ph.D.

Karl Spiesberger

Frater EratusKarl Spießberger
Spiesberger's works were always cast in the 18 rune Futharkh (the Armanen Runes) as originally envisioned by Guido von List and magically developed by Siegfried Adolf Kummer. Both were proponents of the Armanen Runes. What Spiesberger essentially tried to do was remove the "racist" aspects of the Armanic and Marbyan rune work and place the whole system in a pansophical, or eclectic, context. To Guido von List, Friedrich Bernhard Marby, Siegfried Adolf Kummer and Rudolf John Gorsleben, the runes represent the key to esoteric understanding. To Spiesberger, they were just one more tool to be used by any individual magician.

Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder

Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder is a two-volume book by Guido von List published in 1891. Its English translation is German Mythological Landscape Scenes. During 1877 and 1887, List had published various journalistic works on his earlier travels and mystical reflections on Loci (local spirits). Many of these pieces were anthologised in 1891 in his famous Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder. Some of the sketches in his sketchbook (which has drawings from as far back as 1863, when he would have been fifteen years old) demonstrate his interest in nature and ancient sites. Some of these sketches were later used to illustrate his Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder.

Tiwaz (rune)

Tiwaz runeTyrt-rune
The Týr rune in Guido von List's Armanen Futharkh was based on the version found in the Younger Futhark. List's runes were later adopted and modified by Karl Maria Wiligut, who was responsible for their adoption by the Nazis, and they were subsequently widely used on insignia and literature during the Third Reich. It was the badge of the Sturmabteilung training schools, the Reichsführerschulen in Nazi Germany. In Neo-Nazism it has appeared, together with the Sowilo rune, in the emblem of the Kassel-based think tank Thule Seminar.

Sowilō

sig runes-runeSig
The sig rune in Guido von List's Armanen Futharkh corresponds to the Younger Futhark sigel, thus changing the concept associated with it from "sun" to "victory" (German Sieg). It was adapted into the emblem of the SS in 1933 by Walter Heck, an SS-Sturmhauptführer who worked as a graphic designer for the firm of Ferdinand Hofstätter, a producer of emblems and insignia in Bonn. Heck's simple but striking device consisted of two sig runes drawn side by side like lightning bolts, and was soon adopted by all branches of the SS – though Heck himself received only a token payment of 2.5 Reichsmarks for his work.

Armanen-Orden

Adolf Schleipfer
Over many years, Adolf and Sigrun have republished all of List's works (and many others relating to the Armanen runes) in their original German. Adolf Schleipfer has also contributed an article to The Secret King, a study of Karl Maria Wiligut by Stephen Flowers and Michael Moynihan, in which he points out the differences between Wiligut's beliefs and those which are accepted within Odinism or Armanism. Adolf Schleipfer, born 1947, is a German/Austrian occultist and Armanist who re-established the Guido von List Society and Armanen-Orden in 1967 and 1976, respectfully. Schleipfer re-published all of Guido von Lists works (and many other Armanen runes related works) in their original German.

Esotericism in Germany and Austria

esotericesoteric movement in Germany and Austriaesoteric scene in Germany and Austria
Influenced by Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels (see: Ariosophy), a new "Aryan occultist movement" was started after 1918 in Germany by Rudolf John Gorsleben. Since the esoteric importance of the runes (that first had been developed by Guido von List, see Armanen runes) was central to his world-view, Goodrick-Clarke speaks in this context of "rune occultism". Here two authors stand out, as they engaged the runes in "a less explicitly Aryan racist context". Friedrich Bernhard Marby and Siegfried Adolf Kummer focused more on the practical side of rune occultism. In 1936 Friedrich Bernhard Marby was arrested and sent to a concentration camp (Flossenbürg and later Dachau).

Karl Maria Wiligut

Wiligut runesJarl WidarKarl Maria Weisthor
In 1934, Wiligut developed a rune row loosely based on the Armanen runes of Guido von List even though Wiligut rejected List's runes and his overall philosophy. Wiligut claimed to have been initiated into "runic lore" by his grandfather Karl Wiligut (1794–1883). His rune row has 24 letters, like the Elder Futhark. Like von List's Armanen runes that are closely based on the Younger Futhark, many of Wiligut's runes are identical to historical runes, with some additions. The historical Futhark sequence is not preserved. Wiligut's names for his runes are: Tel, Man, Kaun, Fa, Asa, Os, Eis, Not, Tor, Tyr, Laf, Rit, Thorn, Ur, Sig, Zil, Yr, Hag-Al, H, Wend-horn, Gibor, Eh, Othil, Bar-Bjork.