autumnalseason wordsymbols of autumn
Haiku. Haiku in English. List of kigo. Renku. Renga. Hanami. Season. Print. 『入門歳時記』大野林火監修、俳句文学館編。角川書店 、ISBN: 4-04-063000-9. [Title: "Introductory Saijiki", editor: "Ōno Rinka", Publisher: Kadokawa Shoten]. Haiku World: An International Poetry Almanac by William J. Higginson, Kodansha International 1996 ISBN: 4-7700-2090-2 (An international haiku saijiki with over 1,000 haiku from poets in 50 countries covering 680 seasonal topics). The Haiku Seasons: Poetry of the Natural World by William J. Higginson, Kodansha International, 1996 ISBN: 4-7700-1629-8 (a companion book to Haiku World discussing the development of haiku, and the importance of the seasons and kigo to haiku).


Haiku in Japanese. Rōmaji transliteration with literal word-for-word translation. Translated poem. 行く || 春 || や || style="width: 2em;" | || 鳥 || 泣 || 魚 || の || style="width: 2em;" | || 目 || は || 泪. -style="font-style:italic". yuku || haru || ya || || tori || naki || uo || no || || me || wa || namida. ひやひや || と || style="width: 2em;" | || 壁 || を || ふまへて || style="width: 2em;" | || 昼寝 || 哉. -style="font-style:italic". hiyahiya || to || || kabe || wo || fumaete || || hirune || kana. Haiku. Hokku. Renku. Renga.

Masaoka Shiki

While he advocated reform of haiku, this reform was based on the idea that haiku was a legitimate literary genre. He argued that haiku should be judged by the same yardstick that is used when measuring the value of other forms of literature — something that was contrary to views held by prior poets. Shiki firmly placed haiku in the category of literature, and this was unique. Some modern haiku deviate from the traditional 5–7–5 sound pattern and dispensing with the kigo ("season word"); Shiki's haiku reform advocated neither break with tradition. His particular style rejected "the puns or fantasies often relied on by the old school" in favor of "realistic observation of nature".

On (Japanese prosody)

Although the use of "syllable" is inaccurate, it often happens that the syllable count and the on count match in Japanese-language haiku. The disjunction between syllables and on becomes clearer when counting sounds in English-language versions of Japanese poetic forms, such as haiku in English. An English syllable may contain one, two or three morae and, because English word sounds are not readily representable in hiragana, a single syllable may require many more ji to be transliterated into hiragana. There is disagreement among linguists as to the definitions of "syllable" and "mora". In contrast, ji (and hence on) is unambiguously defined by reference to hiragana.

Haiku in English

haikuEnglish-language haikuEnglish haiku
Haikai—genre of haiku-related forms. Hokku—opening verse of the renku, from which haiku derived. Renku—form of linked poetry from which haiku is derived. Senryū—satirical verse similar in form to haiku. Cinquain. Show, don't tell. Monostich. Verbless poetry. Micropoetry. Scifaiku—science fiction pseudo-haiku. Zappai—humorous verse similar in form to haiku. Matsuyama Declaration. Masaoka Shiki International Haiku Awards. The Haiku Society of America. A Haiku Path. Haiku Society of America, Inc., 1994. Henderson, Harold G. An Introduction to Haiku. Hokuseido Press, 1948. Henderson, Harold G. Haiku in English. Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1967. Higginson, William J. and Harter, Penny.


haikai no rengahaikai-no-rengacomic linked verse
Haikai – the genre which encompasses renku and related forms such as haiku, senryū, haiga and haibun. Kigo – a season word or phrase used in many renku verses. List of Japanese poetry anthologies. Matsuo Bashō – the 17th-century Japanese poet who brought renku to a pinnacle of artistic achievement. Renga – the earlier collaborative poetry from which renku evolved. Renshi, modern development of renga and renku. Sarumino – magnum opus of Bashō-school poetry, containing four kasen renku. Winter Days – a 2003 animated film, based on one of the renku in the collection of the same name by the 17th-century Japanese poet Bashō.

Haiku Society of America

The Haiku Society of America is a non-profit organization composed of haiku poets, editors, critics, publishers and enthusiasts that promotes the composition and appreciation of haiku in English. It was founded in 1968 and sponsors meetings, lectures, workshops, readings and contests. The HSA's 2011 membership was 690, of whom 66 reside outside the US. The Society's journal, Frogpond, first published in 1978, includes the work of HSA members and others, as well as articles on haiku and book reviews. The Society also publishes a quarterly newsletter containing reports of HSA national meetings, held four times a year, and news of regional, national and international events.

Matsuo Bashō

BashōBashoMatsuo Basho
He invented the term haiku (replacing hokku) to refer to the freestanding 5–7–5 form which he considered the most artistic and desirable part of the haikai no renga. Critical interpretation of Bashō's poems continued into the 20th century, with notable works by Yamamoto Kenkichi, Imoto Nōichi, and Ogata Tsutomu. The 20th century also saw translations of Bashō's poems into languages and editions around the world. The position of Bashō in Western eyes as the haiku poet par excellence gives great influence to his poetry: Western preference for haiku over more traditional forms such as tanka or renga have rendered archetypal status to Bashō as Japanese poet and haiku as Japanese poetry.


Though traditional-style haiga are still produced today, contemporary artists experiment with the style, coupling haiku with digital imagery, photography, and other media. *Wabi-sabi *Addiss, Stephen. Haiga: Takebe Sōchō and the Haiku-Painting Tradition. Richmond, Virginia: University of Richmond, 1995. * Haiga: Takebe Socho and the Haiku-Painting Tradition The University Art Museum on the website of the University of California at Santa Barbara Enomoto Kikaku. Hakuin Ekaku. Kaga no Chiyo. Kobayashi Issa. Matsumura Goshun. Matsuo Bashō. Nonoguchi Ryūho. Sakai Hōitsu. Sengai Gibon. Yosa Buson.


linked verse
The first stanza of the renga chain, the hokku, is the forebear of the modern haiku. The stand-alone hokku was renamed haiku in the Meiji period by the great Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki. Shiki proposed haiku as an abbreviation of the phrase "haikai no ku" meaning a verse of haikai. For almost 700 years, renga was a popular form of poetry, but its popularity was greatly diminished in the Meiji period. Masaoka Shiki, although himself a participant in several renga, claimed that "(Renga is) not literature" .


Haikai'' prose
The accompanying haiku may have a direct or subtle relationship with the prose and encompass or hint at the gist of what is recorded in the prose sections. Several distinct schools of English haibun have been described, including Reportage narrative mode such as Robert Wilson's Vietnam Ruminations, Haibunic prose, and the Templum effect. Contemporary practice of haibun composition in English is continually evolving. Generally, a haibun consists of one or more paragraphs of prose written in a concise, imagistic haikai style, and one or more haiku. However, there may be considerable variation of form, as described by editor and practitioner Jeffrey Woodward.


Hai-Kairevival movement
"Haikai" may also refer to other poetic forms that embrace the haikai aesthetic, including haiku and senryū (varieties of one-verse haikai), haiga (haikai art, often accompanied by haiku), and haibun (haiku mixed with prose, such as in the diaries and travel journals of haiku poets). However, haikai does not include orthodox renga or waka. Matsuo Bashō is one of the most famous poets of the Edo period and the greatest figure active in Japanese haikai during the latter half of the seventeenth century. He made his life’s work the transformation of haikai into a literary genre.

Yone Noguchi

Nogushi YonejiroYonejiro Noguchi
He attended Keio University in Tokyo, where he was exposed to the works of Thomas Carlyle and Herbert Spencer, and also expressed interests in haiku and Zen. He lived for a time in the home of Shiga Shigetaka, editor of the magazine Nihonjin, but left before graduating to travel to San Francisco in November 1893. There, Noguchi joined a newspaper run by Japanese exiles associated with the Freedom and People's Rights Movement and worked as a domestic servant.

Paul-Louis Couchoud

During a trip on French canals by barge (1905), Couchoud and his two friends, sculptor Albert Poncin and painter André Faure, composed haiku in French. They published their work anonymously in a limited edition (30 copies) of Au fil de l'eau (Along the waterways), a collection of free-verse tercets which was well received. It still is considered one of the most successful adaptations of haiku in French. Couchoud also studied and translated Japanese Haijin (Yosa Buson in particular) in Les Épigrammes lyriques du Japon (Lyrical Epigrams of Japan, 1906).

Basil Hall Chamberlain

Chamberlain, Basil Hall.ChamberlainChamberlain, Basil Hall
He also wrote some of the earliest translations of haiku into English. He is perhaps best remembered for his informal and popular one-volume encyclopedia Things Japanese, which first appeared in 1890 and which he revised several times thereafter. His interests were diverse, and his works include an anthology of poetry in French. Chamberlain was born in Southsea (a part of Portsmouth) on the south coast of England, the son of an Admiral William Charles Chamberlain and his wife Eliza Hall, the daughter of the travel writer Basil Hall. His younger brother was Houston Stewart Chamberlain.

Reginald Horace Blyth

R.H. BlythR. H. BlythR. H. Blyth’s
In 1949, with the publication in Japan of the first volume of Haiku, Blyth's four-volume work, haiku was introduced to the post-war Western world. His Haiku series (1949–52) was dealing mostly with pre-modern haiku, though including Shiki; later followed his two-volume History of Haiku (1963–64). Today he is best known as a major interpreter of haiku & senryu to English speakers. Present-day attitudes to Blyth's work vary: On the one hand, he is appreciated as a populariser of Japanese culture; on the other, his portrayals of haiku and Zen have sometimes been criticised as one-dimensional.


Matsuyama CityMatsuyama-shiMitsugahama
The haiku poet Masaoka Shiki lived in Matsuyama. His house, now known as the Shiki-do, and a museum, the Shiki Memorial Museum, are popular attractions, and the centerpieces of the city's claim as a center of the international haiku movement. Other famous haiku poets associated with Matsuyama include Kurita Chodō, whose Kōshin-an was visited by Kobayashi Issa, Shiki's followers, Takahama Kyoshi and Kawahigashi Hekigoto, and Taneda Santōka. Santoka's house, known as Isso-an, is also a tourist attraction and is periodically open to the public.


Additionally, one can regularly find senryū and related articles in some haiku publications. For example: * World Haiku Review has regularly published senryū. Senryū regularly appear in the pages of Modern Haiku, Frogpond, Bottle Rockets, Woodnotes, Tundra, and other haiku journals, often unsegregated from haiku. The Haiku Society of America holds the annual Gerald Brady Memorial Award for best unpublished senryū. Since about 1990, the Haiku Poets of Northern California has been running a senryū contest, as part of its San Francisco International Haiku and Senryu Contest.

Mora (linguistics)

Such scholars also argue that the 5/7/5 pattern of the haiku in modern Japanese is of morae rather than syllables. The Japanese syllable-final n is also said to be moraic, as is the first part of a geminate consonant. For example, the Japanese name for "Japan", 日本, has two different pronunciations, one with three morae (Nihon) and one with four (Nippon). In the hiragana spelling, the three morae of Ni-ho-n are represented by three characters, and the four morae of Ni-p-po-n need four characters to be written out as にっぽん.

Oku no Hosomichi

The Narrow Road to the Deep Northmemoir of his journeysNarrow Road to the Deep North
ISBN: 978-1-893996-31-1 ( Preview on Google Books) ( Review of the book at Modern Haiku). Bashō, Matsuo. Bashō's Narrow Road: Spring and Autumn Passages. Trans. Hiroaki Sato. Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press (The Rock Spring Collection of Japanese Literature), 1996a. Print. ISBN: 978-1-880656-20-4. Bashō, Matsuo. The Narrow Road to Oku. Trans. Donald Keene. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1996b. Print. ISBN: 978-4-7700-2028-4. An earlier and slightly different partial translation appeared in the same translator's 1955 Anthology of Japanese Literature. Bashō, Matsuo. A Haiku Journey: Bashō's Narrow Road to a Far Province. Trans. Dorothy Britton. 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1974.)

Hendrik Doeff

He is the first westerner known to have written haiku, two of which have been found in Japanese publications from the period of his stay in Japan. One of his haiku: After the French had annexed the Batavian Republic in 1806 and Napoleon had begun to use its resources against Great Britain, Royal Navy ships started to prey on Dutch shipping. In 1808, HMS Phaeton, under the command of Captain Fleetwood Pellew, entered Nagasaki's harbour to ambush a couple of Dutch trading ships that were expected to arrive shortly. The Phaeton entered the harbour on 14 October surreptitiously under a Dutch flag.