University of Vienna

ViennaVienna UniversityUniversität Wien
Shea, Jr., Adalbert Stifter, Countess Stoeffel, Yemima Tchernovitz-Avidar, Eric Voegelin, Kurt Waldheim, Otto Weininger, Slavko Wolf, Eduard Zirm, Mordecai Sandberg, Sandra Wachter, Calvin Edouard Ward, Paul Niel, Stefan Zweig, and Huldrych Zwingli. There are total 15 Nobel Prize Laureates affiliated to the University as follows: The University Library of the University of Vienna comprises the Main Library and the 50 departmental libraries at the various university locations throughout Vienna. The library's primary responsibility is to the members of the university; however, the library's 350 staff members also provide access to the public.

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
A number of continental European émigrés to Britain and the United States—including Karl Popper, Friedrich Hayek, Leo Strauss, Hannah Arendt, Isaiah Berlin, Eric Voegelin and Judith Shklar—encouraged continued study in political philosophy in the Anglo-American world, but in the 1950s and 1960s they and their students remained at odds with the analytic establishment. Communism remained an important focus especially during the 1950s and 1960s. Colonialism and racism were important issues that arose. In general, there was a marked trend towards a pragmatic approach to political issues, rather than a philosophical one.

Jean Bodin

BodinJean Boudin[Jean] Bodin
Jean Bodin (1530–1596) was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse. He is best known for his theory of sovereignty; he was also an influential writer on demonology.

Alfred Schütz

Alfred SchutzSchützSchutz
Alfred Schutz (born Alfred Schütz, ; 1899–1959) was an Austrian philosopher and social phenomenologist whose work bridged sociological and phenomenological traditions. Schutz is gradually being recognized as one of the twentieth century's leading philosophers of social science. He related Edmund Husserl's work to the social sciences, and influenced Max Weber's legacy of philosophical foundations for sociology and economics through Schutz's major work, Phenomenology of the Social World.


Vienna, AustriaWienViennese
Vienna ( Wien ) is the capital and largest city of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million (2.6 million within the metropolitan area, nearly one third of the country's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union.


habilitatedvenia legendiHabilitationsschrift
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries. Despite all changes implemented in the European higher education systems during the Bologna Process, it is the highest qualification level issued through the process of a university examination and remains a core concept of scientific careers in these countries.

Political science

political scientistPolitical Sciencespolitical analyst
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

Western philosophy

Western thoughtWesternlate modern philosophy
Western philosophy refers to the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word philosophy itself originated from the Ancient Greek philosophía, literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν phileîn, "to love" and σοφία sophía, "wisdom").

20th-century philosophy

20th-20th20th century philosophy
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism. In terms of the eras of philosophy, it is usually labelled as contemporary philosophy (succeeding modern philosophy, which runs roughly from the time of René Descartes until the late 19th to early 20th centuries).

Mohr Siebeck

MohrMohr Siebeck Verlagpublisher JCB Mohr
Mohr Siebeck Verlag is a long-established academic publisher focused on the humanities and social sciences and based in Tübingen, Germany. An independent publisher, it has remained in the same family over four generations.

List of philosophy anniversaries

. * 1868: Emanuel Lasker born. 1614: John Wilkins born. 1815: Charles Bernard Renouvier born. 1921: Ismail al-Faruqi born. 106 BC: Cicero born. 1901: Eric Voegelin born. 1642: Isaac Newton born. 1786: Moses Mendelssohn dies. 1936: Gianni Vattimo born. 1941: Henri Bergson dies. 1960: Albert Camus dies. 1961: Erwin Schrödinger dies. 1548: Francisco Suárez born. 1846: Rudolf Christoph Eucken born. 1857: Albert Schwegler dies. 1932: Umberto Eco born. 2001: G. E. M.

Index of philosophy articles (D–H)

Eric Voegelin. Erich Adickes. Erich Fromm. Erich Heller. Erich Jantsch. Erich Mühsam. Erich Rothacker. Erich Unger. Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn. Eristic. Erkenntnis. Ernan McMullin. Ernest Addison Moody. Ernest Fenollosa. Ernest Fortin. Ernest Gellner. Ernest Lepore. Ernest Nagel. Ernest Sosa. Ernest Wamba dia Wamba. Ernesto Buonaiuti. Ernesto Garzón Valdés. Ernesto Mayz Vallenilla. Ernst Barthel. Ernst Bergmann (philosopher). Ernst Bloch. Ernst Cassirer. Ernst Christian Gottlieb Reinhold. Ernst Ehrlich. Ernst Friedrich Apelt. Ernst Gombrich. Ernst Haeckel. Ernst Heinrich Haeckel. Ernst Jünger. Ernst Kapp. Ernst Laas. Ernst Mach. Ernst Mally. Ernst Melzer. Ernst Nolte.

H. L. A. Hart

Herbert HartH.L.A. HartHart
Influenced by John Austin, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Hans Kelsen, Hart brought the tools of analytic, and especially linguistic, philosophy to bear on the central problems of legal theory. Hart's method combined the careful analysis of twentieth-century analytic philosophy with the jurisprudential tradition of Jeremy Bentham, the great English legal, political, and moral philosopher. Hart's conception of law had parallels to the Pure Theory of Law formulated by Austrian legal philosopher Hans Kelsen, though Hart rejected several distinctive features of Kelsen's theory.

Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich von HayekF. A. HayekF.A. Hayek
It was during this time that he also encountered and befriended noted political philosopher Eric Voegelin, with whom he retained a long-standing relationship. With the help of Mises, in the late 1920s he founded and served as director of the Austrian Institute for Business Cycle Research before joining the faculty of the London School of Economics (LSE) in 1931 at the behest of Lionel Robbins. Upon his arrival in London, Hayek was quickly recognised as one of the leading economic theorists in the world and his development of the economics of processes in time and the co-ordination function of prices inspired the ground-breaking work of John Hicks, Abba P.


legallawslegal theory
In 1934, the Austrian philosopher Hans Kelsen continued the positivist tradition in his book the Pure Theory of Law. Kelsen believed that although law is separate from morality, it is endowed with "normativity", meaning we ought to obey it. While laws are positive "is" statements (e.g. the fine for reversing on a highway is €500); law tells us what we "should" do. Thus, each legal system can be hypothesised to have a basic norm (Grundnorm) instructing us to obey. Kelsen's major opponent, Carl Schmitt, rejected both positivism and the idea of the rule of law because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions.

Legal positivism

positivistlegal positivistlegal positivists
The most famous proponent of Germanic legal positivism is Hans Kelsen, whose central thesis on legal positivism is unpacked by Suri Ratnapala, who writes: "The key elements of Kelsen's theory are these. Facts consist of things and events in the physical world. Facts are about what there is. When we wish to know what caused a fact we look for another fact. A stone thrown in the air comes down because of the force of Earth's gravity. There are seasons because the Earth's axis is tilted at 23.5 degrees. A norm, unlike a fact, is not about what there is but is about what ought to be done or not done. Whereas facts exist in the physical world, norms exist in the world of ideas.

Constitution of Austria

Austrian ConstitutionConstitutionFederal Constitution
The B-VG was based on a draft by Hans Kelsen and first enacted on October 1, 1920. Since political agreement over a bill of rights could not be reached, the Basic law on the general rights of citizens (de) of 1867 was left in place and designated as constitutional law. Originally, the B-VG was very parliamentarian in character. The prerogative to enact law was to lie with a comparatively strong parliament, the Federal Assembly composed of two houses, the National Council and the Federal Council. The responsibility for implementing law was to reside with a cabinet headed by a chancellor, who was nominated by the National Council on a motion by its principal committee.

Othmar Spann

SPANN, Othmar
Eric Voegelin. Der wahre Staat (1921). Kategorienlehre (1924). Der Schöpfungsgang des Geistes (1928). Gesellschaftsphilosophie (1932). Naturphilosophie (1937). Religionsphilosophie auf geschichtlicher Grundlage (1947). Die Haupttheorien der Volkswirtschafts' Lehre (Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer 1949). Caldwell, Bruce. Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F.A. Hayek. The University of Chicago Press. 2004. Giovanni Franchi (a cura di), Othmar Spann. La scienza dell'intero, Edizioni Nuova Cultura, Roma 2012. ISBN: 9788861348042. Sebastian Maaß, Dritter Weg und wahrer Staat. Othmar Spann - Ideengeber der Konservativen Revolution. Regin-Verlag, Kiel, 2010.

Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies

Graduate Institute of International StudiesGraduate InstituteGraduate Institute Geneva
Hans Kelsen, the well-known theorist and philosopher of law, Guglielmo Ferrero, Italian historian, and Carl Burckhardt, scholar and diplomat all called the Graduate Institute home. Other arrivals, similarly seeking refuge from dictatorships, included the eminent free market economy historian, Ludwig von Mises, and another economist, Wilhelm Ropke, who greatly influenced German postwar liberal economic policy as well as the development of the theory of a social market system. After a number of years, the Institute had developed a system whereby cours temporaires were given by prominent intellectuals on a week, semester, or yearlong basis.

Immanentize the eschaton

create "heaven on earthImmanentizing the eschaton
Modern usage of the phrase started with Eric Voegelin in The New Science of Politics in 1952. Conservative spokesman William F. Buckley popularized Voegelin's phrase as "Don't immanentize the eschaton!" Buckley's version became a political slogan of Young Americans for Freedom during the 1960s and 1970s. Voegelin identified a number of similarities between ancient Gnosticism and the beliefs held by a number of modern political theories, particularly Communism and Nazism. He identified the root of the Gnostic impulse as belief in a lack of concord within society as a result of an inherent disorder, or even evil, of the world.

Akademisches Gymnasium (Vienna)

Akademisches GymnasiumAcademic Gymnasium in ViennaAkademische Gymnasium
Hans Kelsen, constitutional lawyer, author of the Constitution of Austria. Walter Kohn, physicist, Nobel laureate for chemistry in 1998. Markus Kupferblum, theatre and opera director. Paul Lazarsfeld, sociologist. Robert von Lieben, physicist. Titu Maiorescu, Prime Minister of Romania. Miki Malör, theatre and performance artist. Paulus Manker, actor and film director. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, founder and first President of Czechoslovakia. Alexius Meinong, philosopher. Lise Meitner, physicist. Ludwig von Mises, economist. Richard von Mises, mathematician, early member of the Vienna Circle. Johann Nestroy, actor, playwright, poet.

Secular religion

political religionquasi-religionquasi-religious
Before emigrating to the United States, the German-born political philosopher Eric Voegelin wrote a book entitled The political religions. Other contributions on "political religion" (or associated terms such as "secular religion", "lay religion" or "public religion") were made by Luigi Sturzo (1871–1959), Paul Tillich (1886–1965), Gerhard Leibholz (1901–1982), Waldemar Gurian (1902–1954), Raymond Aron (1905–1983) and Walter Benjamin (1892–1940). Some saw such "religions" as a response to the existential void and nihilism caused by modernity, mass society and the rise of a bureaucratic state, and in political religions "the rebellion against the religion of God" reached its climax.

Ronald Dworkin

DworkinRonald M. DworkinDworkin, R. M.
In her recent book on Hans Kelsen, Sandrine Baume identified Ronald Dworkin as a leading defender of the "compatibility of judicial review with the very principles of democracy." Baume identified John Hart Ely alongside Dworkin as the foremost defenders of this principle in recent years, while the opposition to this principle of "compatibility" was identified as Bruce Ackerman and Jeremy Waldron. Dworkin has been a long-time advocate of the principle of the moral reading of the Constitution whose lines of support he sees as strongly associated with enhanced versions of judicial review in the federal government.


neo-KantianMarburg Schoolneo-Kantians
Hans Kelsen (1881–1973). Related thinkers. Robert Adamson (1852–1902). Henri Poincaré (1854–1912). Georg Simmel (1858–1918). Max Weber (1864–1920). José Ortega y Gasset (1883–1955). György Lukács (1885–1971). Hermann Weyl (1885–1955). German idealism. North American Kant Society. Frederick C. Beiser (2014), The Genesis of Neo-Kantianism, 1796-1880 (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Hermann Cohen (1919), Religion of Reason Out of the Sources of Modern Judaism (1978, trans. New York). Harry van der Linden (1988), Kantian Ethics and Socialism (Hackett Publishing Company: Indianapolis and Cambridge). Thomas Mormann; Mikhail Katz. Infinitesimals as an issue of neo-Kantian philosophy of science.

Hans Jonas

Has Jonas
From 1982 to 1983 Jonas held the Eric Voegelin Visiting Professorship at the University of Munich. He died at his home in New Rochelle, New York, on 5 February 1993, aged 89. Jonas's writings were very influential in different spheres. For example, The Gnostic Religion, based on his early research on the Gnosis and first published in 1958, was for many years the standard work in English on the subject of Gnosticism. The Imperative of Responsibility (German 1979, English 1984) centers on social and ethical problems created by technology. Jonas insists that human survival depends on our efforts to care for our planet and its future.