Acts of the Apostles

ActsBook of ActsActs of Apostles
For Luke, the Holy Spirit is the driving force behind the spread of the Christian message, and he places more emphasis on it than do any of the other evangelists. The Spirit is "poured out" at Pentecost on the first Samaritan and Gentile believers and on disciples who had been baptised only by John the Baptist, each time as a sign of God's approval. The Holy Spirit represents God's power (At his ascension, Jesus tells his followers, "You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you"): through it the disciples are given speech to convert thousands in Jerusalem, forming the first church (the term is used for the first time in Acts 5).

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
Trinity refers to the teaching that the one God comprises three distinct, eternally co-existing persons: the Father, the Son (incarnate in Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. Together, these three persons are sometimes called the Godhead, although there is no single term in use in Scripture to denote the unified Godhead. In the words of the Athanasian Creed, an early statement of Christian belief, "the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and yet there are not three Gods but one God". They are distinct from another: the Father has no source, the Son is begotten of the Father, and the Spirit proceeds from the Father.

God the Son

Sonthe SonGod
The term is used by Saint Augustine in his On the Trinity, for example in discussion of the Son's obedience to God the Father: deo patri deus filius obediens. and in Sermon 90 on the New Testament "2. For hold this fast as a firm and settled truth, if you would continue Catholics, that God the Father begot God the Son without time, and made Him of a Virgin in time." The Augsburg Confession (1530) adopted the phrase as Gott der Sohn. Jacques Forget (1910) in the Catholic Encyclopedia article "Holy Ghost" notes that "Among the apologists, Athenagoras mentions the Holy Ghost along with, and on the same plane as, the Father and the Son.

Trinity

Holy TrinityTrinitarianTrinitarianism
According to their understanding, because "breath" and "spirit" in Hebrew are both "רוּחַ" ("ruach"), Psalm 33:6 is revealing the roles of the Son and Holy Spirit as co-creators. And since, according to them, because only the holy God can create holy beings such as the angels, the Son and Holy Spirit must be God. Yet another argument from the Cappadocian Fathers to prove that the Holy Spirit is of the same nature as the Father and Son comes from "For who knows a person's thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God."

God the Father

FatherGodthe Father
In the beliefs and practices of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the most prominent conception of "the Godhead" is as a divine council of three distinct beings: Elohim (the Father), Jehovah (the Son, or Jesus), and the Holy Spirit. The Father and Son are considered to have perfected, physical bodies, while the Holy Spirit has a body of spirit. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that God the Father presides over both the Son and Holy Spirit, where God the Father is greater than both, but they are one in the sense that they have a unity of purpose.

Baptism of Jesus

baptismBaptism of Christhis baptism
While the gospel of Luke is explicit about the Spirit of God descending in the shape of a dove, the wording of Matthew is vague enough that it could be interpreted only to suggest that the descent was in the style of a dove. Although a variety of symbolisms were attached to doves at the time these passages were written, the dove imagery has become a well known symbol for the Holy Spirit in Christian art. Depictions of the baptismal scene typical show the sky opening and the Holy Spirit descending as a dove towards Jesus. The reformer Martin Luther wrote a hymn about baptism, based on biblical accounts about the baptism of Jesus, "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam" (1541).

Jesus

Jesus ChristChristJesus of Nazareth
Likewise, Luke says that John had the spirit and power of Elijah. In Mark, John baptizes Jesus, and as he comes out of the water he sees the Holy Spirit descending to him like a dove and he hears a voice from heaven declaring him to be God's Son. This is one of two events described in the gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus "Son", the other being the Transfiguration. The spirit then drives him into the wilderness where he is tempted by Satan. Jesus then begins his ministry after John's arrest. Jesus' baptism in Matthew is similar. Here, before Jesus' baptism, John protests, saying, "I need to be baptized by you".

Nontrinitarianism

nontrinitariananti-Trinitarianantitrinitarian
According to LDS doctrine, the Holy Spirit is believed to be a person, with a body of spirit, able to pervade all worlds. Latter Day Saints believe that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are part of the Godhead, but that the Father is greater than the Son, and that the Son is greater than the Holy Spirit in position and authority, but not in nature (i.e., they equally share the "God" nature).

Christian theology

Christian doctrineChristian theologiantheology
In Christian theology pneumatology refers to the study of the Holy Spirit. In Christianity, the Holy Spirit (or Holy Ghost) is the Spirit of God. Within mainstream (Trinitarian) Christian beliefs he is the third person of the Trinity. As part of the Godhead, the Holy Spirit is equal with God the Father and with God the Son. The Christian theology of the Holy Spirit was the last piece of Trinitarian theology to be fully developed. Within mainstream (Trinitarian) Christianity the Holy Spirit is one of the three persons of the Trinity who make up the single substance of God.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern OrthodoxOrthodoxOrthodox Church
But being God, neither death nor Hades could contain him, and he rose to life again, in his humanity, by the power of the Holy Spirit, thus destroying the power of Hades and of death itself. Through God's participation in humanity, Christ's human nature, perfected and unified with his divine nature, ascended into heaven, there to reign in communion with the Father and Holy Spirit. By these acts of salvation, Christ provided fallen mankind with the path to escape its fallen nature.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
Pentecostalism is a movement that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy Spirit. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek name for the Jewish Feast of Weeks. For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ, as described in the second chapter of the Book of Acts. This branch of Protestantism is distinguished by belief in the baptism with the Holy Spirit as an experience separate from conversion that enables a Christian to live a Holy Spirit–filled and empowered life.

Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's WitnessJehovah’s WitnessesJehovah Witnesses
Their publications teach that doctrinal changes and refinements result from a process of progressive revelation, in which God gradually reveals his will and purpose, and that such enlightenment or "new light" results from the application of reason and study, the guidance of the holy spirit, and direction from Jesus Christ and angels. The Society also teaches that members of the Governing Body are helped by the holy spirit to discern "deep truths", which are then considered by the entire Governing Body before it makes doctrinal decisions.

Pneumatology

pneumatologicalChristian pneumatologypneumatologist
History of Christian theology is traditionally divided into four main stages, representing also the main periods in historical development of Christian pneumatology: • Holy Spirit in ChristianityGod in Christianity • Names of God in Christianity • Patriology • Christology • Filioque • Pneumatomachi • [[Theological differences between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church]] * G. James Olsen, "Why Angels Have Wings: A Pneumatological Assay of Beings from the Spirit Realms" (Chicago, IL: Eschaton, 1997) 1) Patristic period.

Gospel

Gospelscanonical gospelsFour Gospels
Luke emphasizes the importance of prayer and the action of the Holy Spirit in Jesus's life and in the Christian community. Jesus appears as a stoic supernatural being, unmoved even by his own crucifixion. Like Matthew, Luke insists that salvation offered by Christ is for all, and not only for the Jews. The Gospel of John is the only gospel to call Jesus God, and in contrast to Mark, where Jesus hides his identity as messiah, in John he openly proclaims it. It represents Jesus as an incarnation of the eternal Word (Logos), who spoke no parables, talked extensively about himself, and did not explicitly refer to a Second Coming.

Paraclete

ComforterParakletosHoly Paraclete
I reiterate, that it was for this cause alone that Jesus called the Holy Spirit the Paraclete, since He sought to console His disciples for His departure, and recall to them all that he had said, all that He had done before their eyes, all that they were called to propagate throughout the world by their witness. Paraclete thus signifies "consoler", while Muhammad means "to give thanks", or "to give grace", a meaning which has no connection whatever with the word Paraclete.”" Ahmad. Congregation of the Servants of the Paraclete. Cult of the Holy Spirit. Holy Spirit in Islam. Holy Spirit in Judaism. Montanism. Catholic Encyclopedia: Paraclete. Jewish Encyclopedia: Paraclete.

New Testament

NewThe New TestamentNew Testaments
Authoritativeness relates to the correctness of the Bible in questions of practice in morality. 1) The reality of God is never argued but is always assumed and affirmed. 2) Jesus Christ is absolutely central: he is Lord and Savior, the foretold Prophet, the Messianic King, the Chosen, the way, the truth, and the light, the One through whom God the Father not only acted but through whom He came. 3) The Holy Spirit came anew with Jesus Christ. 4) The Christian faith and life are a calling, rooted in divine election. 5) The plight of everyone as sinner means that each person is completely dependent upon the mercy and grace of God. 6) Salvation is both God's gift and his demand through Jesus Christ

Pauline epistles

Epistles of PaulEpistles of St. PaulPaul
The Pauline epistles, also called Epistles of Paul or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen books of the New Testament attributed to Paul the Apostle, although authorship of some is in dispute. Among these letters are some of the earliest extant Christian documents. They provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity. As part of the canon of the New Testament, they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.

Christians

ChristianNasranibelievers
The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4, which exhorts believers: "Yet if [any man suffer] as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf." (1 Peter 4:16). Kenneth Samuel Wuest holds that all three original New Testament verses' usages reflect a derisive element in the term Christian to refer to followers of Christ who did not acknowledge the emperor of Rome. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames.

Attributes of God in Christianity

attributes of Godattribute of Godattribute
A significant verse which balances God's transcendence and his immanence is : For this is what the high and exalted One says — he who lives forever, whose name is holy: "I live in a high and holy place, but also with the one who is contrite and lowly in spirit, to revive the spirit of the lowly and to revive the heart of the contrite." Trinitarian traditions of Christianity propose the Trinity of God - three persons in one: Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit.

Eternal sin

unpardonable sinsins against the Holy GhostBlasphemy against the Holy Ghost
Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, said in the King Follett discourse: "All sins shall be forgiven, except the sin against the Holy Ghost; for Jesus will save all except the sons of perdition. What must a man do to commit the unpardonable sin? He must receive the Holy Ghost, have the heavens opened unto him, and know God, and then sin against him. After a man has sinned against the Holy Ghost, there is no repentance for him.

Old Testament

Oldthe Old TestamentBiblical
God is consistently depicted as the one who created the world. Although the God of the Old Testament is not consistently presented as the only God who exists, he is always depicted as the only God whom Israel is to worship, or the one "true God", that only Yahweh is Almighty, and both Jews and Christians have always interpreted the Bible (both the "Old" and "New" Testaments) as an affirmation of the oneness of Almighty God. The Old Testament stresses the special relationship between God and his chosen people, Israel, but includes instructions for proselytes as well. This relationship is expressed in the biblical covenant (contract) between the two, received by Moses.

Charisma

charismaticcharmcharming
Throughout, "the paradigmatic image of the charismatic hero is the figure who has received God's favor". In other words, divinely conferred charisma applied to highly revered figures. Thus, Eastern Mediterranean Jews in the 1st century CE had notions of charis and charisma that embraced the range of meanings found in Greek culture and the spiritual meanings from the Hebrew Bible. From this linguistic legacy of fused cultures, in 1 Corinthians, Paul the Apostle introduced the meaning that the Holy Spirit bestowed charism and charismata, "the gift of God's grace," upon individuals or groups.

First Council of Constantinople

Second Ecumenical CouncilCouncil of ConstantinopleConstantinople
However, because the Council of Nicaea had not clarified the divinity of the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity, it became a topic of debate. The Macedonians denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. This was also known as Pneumatomachianism. Nicene Christianity also had its defenders: apart from Athanasius, the Cappadocian Fathers' Trinitarian discourse was influential in the council at Constantinople. Apollinaris of Laodicea, another pro-Nicene theologian, proved controversial.

Farewell Discourse

farewell of Jesus to his discipleshigh priestly prayer
The statement in John 14:26: "the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name" is within the framework of the "sending relationships" in John's gospel. In John 9:4 (and also 14:24) Jesus refers to the father as "him that sent me", and in John 20:21 states "as the Father hath sent me, even so send I you" where he sends the disciples. In John 15:26 Jesus also sends the Spirit: "whom I will send unto you from the Father, [even] the Spirit of truth... shall bear witness of me" In John's gospel, the Father is never sent, he is "the sender" of both Jesus and the Holy Spirit. Jesus also sends the Holy Spirit. The Spirit is never the sender, but is sent by both the Father and Jesus.

Filioque

Filioque clauseprocession of the Holy Spiritfilioque" clause
In that Jesus is both God and Man, which fundamentally changes the hypostasis or being of the Holy Spirit, as Christ would be giving to the Holy Spirit an origin or being that was both God the Father (Uncreated) and Man (createdness). The immanence of the Trinity that was defined in the finalized Nicene Creed. The economy of God, as God expresses himself in reality (his energies) was not what the Creed addressed directly. The specifics of God's interrelationships of his existences, are not defined within the Nicene Creed.