Jalisco

Jalisco, MexicoJalisco StateState of Jalisco
The Huichols are concentrated in the municipalities of Mezquitic and Bolaños in the north of the state. In this same area are four of this ethinicity's most important ceremonial centers, San Andrés Cohamiata, Santa Catarina Cuexcomatitlán, San Sebastián Teponahuaxtlán and Tuxpan de Bolaños. The fifth, Guadalupe Octán, is in Nayarit. The Huichols are of the same ethnic heritage as the Aztecs and speak a Uto-Aztecan language. They are best known for the preservation of their pre Hispanic shamanic traditions. The Huichol romanticize their past, when game was plentiful and they were free to roam the vast mountain ranges and deserts of their homeland.

Nayarit

State of NayaritVallarta-NayaritCongress of Nayarit
Home to Uto-Aztecan indigenous peoples such as the Huichol and Cora, the region was exposed to the conquistadores, Hernán Cortés and Nuño de Guzmán, in the 16th century. Spanish governance was made difficult by indigenous rebellions and by the inhospitable terrain of the Sierra del Nayar. The last independent Cora communities were subjugated in 1722. The state's name recalls the Cora people's label for themselves: Náayerite, commemorating Nayar, a resistance leader.

Uto-Aztecan languages

Uto-AztecanUto-Aztecan languageUto-Aztecan language family
The Southern languages are divided into the Tepiman languages (including O'odham and Tepehuán), the Tarahumaran languages (including Raramuri and Guarijio), the Cahitan languages (including Yaqui and Mayo), the Coracholan languages (including Cora and Huichol), and the Nahuan languages. The homeland of the Uto-Aztecan languages is generally considered to have been in the Southwestern United States or possibly Northwestern Mexico. An alternative theory has proposed the possibility that the language family originated in southern Mexico, within the Mesoamerican language area, but this has not been generally considered convincing.

San Luis Potosí

San Luis PotosiS.L.P.San Luís Potosí
Currently the Huichol people are trying to find outside groups to help them in the conservation of their land and culture by protecting this mountain. The current governor is Juan Manuel Carreras López (2015–2021) of the PRI party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) The State has a unique position within the country, since it is located in between three major cities; Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara, and near four major ports; Tampico, Altamira, Manzanillo, and Mazatlán. Its varied climate patterns and territory along with extensive communications networks enabled it to maintain attractive business environments.

Zacatecas

State of ZacatecasZacatecas, MexicoEstado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas
Indigenous languages spoken in the state include Huichol (1000 speakers), Nahuatl (500), Tepehuan (just under 500) and Tlapanec (about 400). The population of Zacatecas has more than tripled in a century; in 1900 its population was 462,190. Since 1990, the state's population has grown by at least 1.3% per year. Average life expectancy is slightly above the national average at 74.1 years for men and 78.5 for women. Principal causes of death are heart problems, malignant tumors and diabetes. The average number of years of schooling is 7.9 (second year of middle school), below the national average of 8.6. 5.9% have had no schooling at all and 66.8% have finished primary school.

Durango

State of DurangoDurango, Mexicoa state in Mexico called Durango
The second-largest indigenous group in Durango is the Huichol. Their communities are found on the edges of the state that border with Nayarit and Jalisco, where the Huichol are more numerous. The Huichol here identify with those in the other states, there is no separation. The Mexicaneros are the remnants of the indigenous brought by the Spanish from central Mexico to colonize the region. Today, only a small number survive in the communities of San Agustín de Buenaventura and San Pedro Jícaras in the municipality of Mezquital. This is a mixed ethnic zone and they live near groups of Tepehuanos and Huichols who have traditionally been their enemies.

Indigenous peoples of Mexico

indigenousindigenous people of Mexicoindigenous people
Indigenous peoples of Mexico (gente indígena de México), Native Mexicans (nativos mexicanos), or Mexican Native Americans (mexicanos nativos americanos), are those who are part of communities that trace their roots back to populations and communities that existed in what is now Mexico prior to the arrival of Europeans.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
Mexico (México ; Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (UMS; Estados Unidos Mexicanos, EUM, ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2000000 km2, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world.

Cora language

CoracokCora languages
Huichol language. Cora languages. Preuss, Konrad Theodor: Grammatik der Cora-Sprache, Columbia, New York 1932. Miller, Wick. (1983). Uto-Aztecan languages. In W. C. Sturtevant (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 10, pp. 113–124). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. Vázquez Soto, V. (2002). Some constraints on Cora causative constructions. TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES IN LANGUAGE, 48, 197-244. Vázquez Soto, V. (2011). The “uphill” and “downhill” system in Meseño Cora. Language Sciences, 33(6), 981-1005. Vázquez Soto, V. (2000). Morphology and Syllable Weight in Cora: The Case of the Absolutive Suffix-ti.

Tuxpan de Bolaños

Tuxpán de Bolaños
Tuxpan de Bolaños is an indigenous community of culture (Huichol), has 1269 inhabitants according to INEGI 2010, consolidating it as the more inhabited in its type. It is located in Bolaños Municipality, Jalisco, Mexico. The community bears the name "Kuruxi Manúka" in their native language. It has with basic education, higher average and education for older adults (INEA). It has the services of health, electricity, drinking water and drainage.

Guachichil

GuachichilesHuachichilGuachichil people
It may have been an Uto-Aztecan language closely related to the Huichol language. * Hernandez, Manuel G. “Cartas de Indias: Publicalas Por Primera Vez” Ministerio De Formento 1877. 326-340. Madrid. Print. Powell, Philip Wayne. “Soldiers, Indians & silver; the northward advance of New Spain, 1550-1600.” Berkeley: University of California Press, 1952. Print Santa Maria, Guillermo de. “Guerra de los Chichimecas : Mexico 1575 – Zirosto 1580” Paleography by Carrillo Cazares, Alberto. 2nd Ed. University of Guadalajara, Michoacan College, University of Norte, University Los Lagos, 220. San Luis College 2003. Print.

Huichol art

that of the Huichol
Their numbers are estimated at 50,000 and the name Huichol is derived from the word Wirriarika, which means soothsayer or medicine man in the Huichol language. After the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, the Huichols retreated into the rugged mountains of northern Jalisco and Nayarit. While nominally converted to Christianity in the colonial period by Franciscan missionaries, most of the native Huichol culture managed to survive intact due to the isolation, and because the area lacked mineral or other resources of interest to the Spanish.

Mesoamerican languages

Mesoamerican languageindigenous Mesoamerican languageindigenous languages
The Western area was inhabited mostly by speakers of Purépecha and some Uto-Aztecan languages such as Huichol and Nahuatl. The Northern Rim area has been inhabited by semi-nomadic speakers of Uto-Aztecan languages (the Tepiman and Cora-Huichol groups) as well as Pamean (Oto-Mangue), and other languages that are now extinct. The Gulf area is traditionally the home of speakers of Totonacan languages in the northern and central area and Mixe–Zoque in the southern area. However, the northern gulf area became home to the speakers of Huastec in the preclassic period, and the southern area fell under Nahuan dominance in the post-classic period.

List of endangered languages in Mexico

An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct": * Vulnerable * Definitely endangered * Severely endangered * Critically endangered

Costalegre

In the north of Jalisco, the indigenous Huichol people live in towns in mountainous areas that are difficult to access. They call themselves wixarica, "The People," in their own language. The name "Huichol" is derived from the name that was given to them by Nahuatl speakers. Along Constalegre it is possible to find Huichol handmade crafts, drapes and traditional toys. Related to Nahuatl, the Huichol language belongs to the Coracholan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Jalisco is the center of the Mexican tequila industry.

Mirrors in Mesoamerican culture

mirrorsmirrormirror-back
The Huichol people of the Nayarit state of western Mexico have a considerable body of native lore regarding mirrors. They view mirrors as supernatural portals and link them symbolically with the sun, moon, eyes, faces and flowers, much like at Teotihuacan during the Classic period. The Huichol use circular glass mirrors for divination; in the Huichol language they are called nealika, a word with a dual meaning of "face". In modern Huichol lore, the first nealika seeing-instrument was formed by a spider-web across a gourd bowl. In Huichol mythology, fire first appeared as a mirror. In modern Nahua tradition the sky is regarded as a living crystal mirror.

Léon Diguet

Leon Diguet
He also conducted historical research of cochineal, studied the Huichol language, analyzed the different types of agave and investigated the properties of jojoba. On his journeys, he took many photographs of the country. the negatives later being housed at the Musée de l'Homme in Paris. The genus Diguetia bears his name, and his name is also associated with numerous zoological and botanical species, two examples being: Sceloporus digueti (synonym Sceloporus orcutti, the granite spiny lizard) and Ferrocactus diguetii (a species of barrel cactus). 1. A return trip to Baja California in 1893-1894. 2.

Chichimeca War

Chichimec WarChichimecaChichimeca War (1550–1590)
The Huicholes are believed to be the descendants of the Guachichiles. About 20,000 of them live in an isolated area on the borders of Jalisco and Nayarit. They are noted for being conservative, successfully preserving their language, religion, and culture. There are about 10,000 speakers of the Pame languages in Mexico, primarily in the municipality of Santa Maria Acapulco in an isolated region in southeastern San Luis Potosí province. They are conservative and nominal Catholics, but mostly still practicing their traditional religion and customs. Another group of about 1,500 Chichimeca Jonaz live in the state of Guanajuato.

San Andrés Cohamiata

San Andres CohamiataSan Andrés
San Andrés Cohamiata is an autonomously governed Wixárika (Huichol) village located in Mezquitic, Jalisco, Mexico. The village is called Tatei Kié in the native Wixárika language. Other Wixárika ceremonial centers that share similar autonomous governments include: Santa Catarina Cuexcomatitián (Tuapurie), San Sebastián Teponahuaxtlán (Wautia) and Tuxpan de Bolaños (Tutsipa) which are all in the state of Jalisco, and Guadalupe Ocotán (Xatsitsarie) in the state of Nayarit.

Languages of Mexico

indigenous languageindigenous languagesindigenous languages of Mexico
Corachol branch: Cora and Huichol. Nahuan branch: Nahuatl, Nahuan dialects. '''Totonacan languages:. Totonac (different varieties). Tepehua (different varieties). Oto-Manguean languages:. Oto-pamean branch: Northern Pame, Southern Pame, Chichimeca Jonaz, Otomí, Mazahua, Matlatzinca and Ocuiltec. Popolocan branch: Popoloca language, Chocho, Ixcatec language*, Mazatecan languages. Tlapanec–Subtiaban branch: Me'phaa. Amuzgoan branch: Amuzgo de Guerrero, Amuzgo de Oaxaca. Mixtecan branch: Mixtecan languages, Cuicatec and Trique language. Zapotecan branch: Chatino (and its dialects), Zapotec languages. Chinantec branch: Chinantec (and its dialects). Chiapaneca–Mangue branch: Chiapaneco*.

Wirikuta

The Wirikuta, a sacred place for the Huichol peoples, is being threatened by First Majestic Silver, which has obtained permission from the Mexican government for its proposed La Luz Silver Project for the extraction of silver in the Sierra Decatorce, even though it is transgressing the law in covenants that protect the area Wirikuta and the Wixarika peoples at national and international levels. The mining site represents a threat to the environment balance and health of the population in the area. It is adding greater social impacts through the division of local peoples.

Real de Catorce

Real del Catorce
It is illegal for anyone but Huichol Indians to gather, or possess, the peyote cactus. Others come to Real de Catorce for health reasons. At almost 9000 ft the city is an excellent training ground for bicyclists and runners. Although in the southern range of the Chihuahuan desert, due to its altitude, Real can be very cool at night. Although days, particularly in summer, can be very hot, it is advised to always bring a jacket, even in summer. Real de Catorce was named a "Pueblo Mágico" in 2001. The Cerro Quemado mountain is an important site for the Huichol ceremonial migration, Peyote hunt, and deer dance.

Peyote

Lophophora williamsiipeyotlAnhalonium lewinii
Research into the huichol natives of central-western Mexico, who have taken peyote regularly for an estimated 1,500 years or more, found no evidence of chromosome damage in either men or women. The Huichol religion consists of four principal deities: Corn, Blue Deer, Peyote, and the Eagle, all descended from their Sun God, "Tao Jreeku". Schaefer has interpreted this to mean that peyote is the soul of their religious culture and a visionary sacrament that opens a pathway to the other deities.

Mezquitic

Mezquitic Municipality, Jalisco
The municipality includes a number of autonomously governed Wixárika (Huichol) communities, including San Andrés Cohamiata. The population in Mezquitic is predominantly Roman Catholic, while other denominations are present in the region like Jehovah Witness, as well as The Seventh-day Adventist church. Catholicism is primary religion in the region, which a lot of their festivities are religion based.

Tepic

Tepic, NayaritGreater Tepicmunicipality of Tepic
The most prominent groups among them are the Huichol (3,276), Cora (527) and Purépecha (101). Catholicism is the most prominent religion in Tepic with 94.2% of the population. Its Catedral de la Purísima Concepción, dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, is the cathedral episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tepic, a suffragan see in the ecclesiastical province of the Archdiocese of Guadalajara. Nayarit had small stadiums built for football and baseball. Both now demolished, there are plans to construct new, modern, and bigger stadiums; the state has three sport private clubs.