Same-sex marriage

gay marriagemarriage equalitysame sex marriage
The Human Rights Campaign, the largest LGBT rights organization in the United States, states that "many same-sex couples want the right to legally marry because they are in love—many, in fact, have spent the last 10, 20 or 50 years with that person—and they want to honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to offer, by making a public commitment to stand together in good times and bad, through all the joys and challenges family life brings." Journalist Gail Mathabane likens prohibitions on same-sex marriage to past prohibitions on interracial marriage in the United States.

Hollingsworth v. Perry

Perry v. SchwarzeneggerPerry v. Brownfederal trial
Horton, that Proposition 8 was a lawful enactment, but that same-sex marriages contracted before its passage remained valid. The National Center for Lesbian Rights, Lambda Legal and American Civil Liberties Union had originally obtained the right to same-sex marriage in California in In re Marriage Cases and defended it in ''Strauss v. Horton." Three days before the Strauss decision, the American Foundation for Equal Rights (AFER) filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California to challenge the validity of Proposition 8 on behalf of two same-sex couples. The couples' legal team was led by David Boies and former U.S.

2008 California Proposition 8

Proposition 8California Proposition 8Prop 8
LGBT rights in California. [[List of former U.S. state constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions by type]]. Obergefell v. Hodges—a 2015 U.S. Supreme Court case holding that the right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples. San Francisco 2004 same-sex weddings—a prior controversy that sparked In re Marriage Cases and led to Proposition 8. United States v. Windsor—a 2013 U.S. Supreme Court case, decided along with Hollingsworth v. Perry, that struck down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act, thereby granting federal benefits to same sex couple who are married under state law. 8 (or 8 the Play)—an American play that portrays the closing arguments of Perry v.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
United States v. Windsor (2013, same-sex marriage). Shelby County v. Holder (2013, voting rights). Obergefell v. Hodges (2015, same-sex marriage). Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States, 5 vols., Detroit [etc.] : Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. The Rules of the Supreme Court of the United States (2013 ed.) (PDF). Biskupic, Joan and Elder Witt. (1997). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. ISBN: 1-56802-130-5. Harvard Law Review Assn., (2000). The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 17th ed. [18th ed., 2005. ISBN: 978-600-01-4329-9]. Irons, Peter. (1999). A People's History of the Supreme Court.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
In 2013, Democrats in the Senate passed S.744, which would reform immigration policy to allow citizenship for illegal immigrants in the United States and improve the lives of all immigrants currently living in the United States. The Democratic Party is supportive of LGBT rights. Most support for same-sex marriage in the United States has come from Democrats, although some favor civil unions instead or oppose same-sex marriage. Support for same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade according to ABC News.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, DCWashington D.C.District of Columbia
The city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profits, lobbying groups, and professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, and the American Red Cross. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws.

Barack Obama

ObamaPresident ObamaPresident Barack Obama
During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was fully legalized in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning global warming and immigration.

Freedom to Marry

Freedom to Marry CoalitionYoung Conservatives for the Freedom to Marry
They represent young conservatives across the country that agree all Americans should be able to share in the freedom to marry. Notable members of Young Conservatives Leadership Committee include S.E. Cupp, Abby Huntsman, and Meghan McCain. The effort is managed by conservative activist Tyler Deaton. On June 4, 2014 the campaign launched a national effort to "reform the RNC platform." The "reform the platform" campaign launched in New Hampshire, consisting of a plan focused on the presidential primary states and "leading up to the Republican National Convention in 2016." * Young Conservatives for the Freedom to Marry LGBT rights in the United States. List of LGBT rights organizations.

LGBT rights by country or territory

gay rightsLGBT rightsequality
Rights affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or jurisdiction — encompassing everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty for homosexuality. Notably, 28 countries recognize same-sex marriage, they are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Uruguay.

United States Department of Justice

Department of JusticeU.S. Department of JusticeJustice Department
United States Attorneys Offices. United States Trustees Offices. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). Community Relations Service. Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States. INTERPOL, U.S. National Central Bureau. National Drug Intelligence Center (former). Obscenity Prosecution Task Force (former). United States Parole Commission. Capital punishment in the United States. Incarceration in the United States. Justice. Litigation. OneDOJ. Punishment. USDOJ in the Federal Register. Human Rights First; In Pursuit of Justice: Prosecuting Terrorism Cases in the Federal Courts (2009). Indictment against internet poker using UIGEA.

Evan Wolfson

Evan Wolfson (born February 4, 1957) is an attorney and gay rights advocate. He is the founder and president of Freedom to Marry, a group favoring same-sex marriage in the United States. Wolfson authored the book Why Marriage Matters: America, Equality, and Gay People's Right to Marry, which Time Out New York magazine called, "Perhaps the most important gay-marriage primer ever written..." He was listed as one of Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in the World. He has taught as an adjunct professor at Columbia Law School, Rutgers Law School, and Whittier Law School and argued before the Supreme Court in Boy Scouts of America v. Dale.

LGBT social movements

gay rights movementgay rightsLGBTQ rights movement
It is unusual approach that supports human rights of all people and same-sex marriages. Age of consent. Biphobia. Bisexuality in the United States. Civil rights. Coming out. Declaration of Montreal. Gay culture. Gay icon. Gay men in American history. GLSEN. Heterosexism. Homosexual agenda. Identity politics. International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia. Intersex human rights. Leicester Gay Liberation Front. Lesbian American history. LGBT movements in the United States. LGBT rights by country or territory. Lesbian separatism. List of gay-rights organizations. List of LGBT rights activists. List of social movements. Minority rights. Pink capitalism.

Out & Equal

Selisse BerryOut & Equal Workplace AdvocatesOut and Equal Workplace Advocates
LGBT rights in the United States. List of LGBT rights organizations. Out & Equal — official website. Out & Equal's newest program linking diversity friendly employers with top LGBT talent-Out & Equal's LGBTCareerlink.

Obergefell v. Hodges

ObergefellObergefell vs. HodgesJune Supreme Court ruling
Department of Public Health (2003), the court case that legalized same-sex marriage in Massachusetts (first state to do so in the U.S.). Lawrence v. Texas (2003), which held that states cannot criminalize same-sex sexual activity. LGBT rights in the United States. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 576. Loving v. Virginia (1967), which held state bans on interracial marriage unconstitutional. Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States. Romer v. Evans (1996), which overturned state law aimed against homosexuals as failing rational basis review. Same-sex marriage, a global overview. Same-sex marriage in the United States.

Joe Solmonese

Joe Solomonese
Joe Solmonese was the president of the Human Rights Campaign of the United States and its affiliate the Human Rights Campaign Foundation. He was appointed to this position on March 9, 2005, replacing Cheryl Jacques. A native of Attleboro, Massachusetts, Solmonese lives in Washington, D.C. He graduated from Boston University in 1987 with a Bachelor of Science degree in communications. Solmonese is the former Chief Executive Officer of EMILY's List, where he oversaw one of the nation's prominent pro-choice Democratic political action committees, including its Political Opportunity Program. Solmonese has worked for numerous campaigns and in government positions.

Bill Clinton

ClintonPresident ClintonPresident Bill Clinton
Advocacy for these issues, paired with the politically unpopular nature of the gay rights movement at the time, led to enthusiastic support for Clinton's election and reelection by the Human Rights Campaign. Clinton came out for gay marriage in July 2009 and urged the Supreme Court to overturn DOMA in 2013. He was later honored by GLAAD for his prior pro-gay stances and his reversal on DOMA. The 1996 United States campaign finance controversy was an alleged effort by the People's Republic of China (PRC) to influence the domestic policies of the United States, before and during the Clinton administration, and involved the fundraising practices of the administration itself.

Republican Party (United States)

RepublicanRepublican PartyR
Reuters journalist Jeff Mason remarked that "Republicans who stake out strong opposition to gay marriage could be on shaky political ground if their ultimate goal is to win the White House" given the divide between the social conservative stalwarts and the rest of the United States that opposes them. In 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled bans on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional, thus legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide. In 2016, after being elected President, Republican Donald Trump stated that he was "fine" with same-sex marriage.

8 (play)

88'' (play)
William Tam – (same-sex marriage leads to polygamy, pedophilia, and incest). George Takei (Ebell of Los Angeles). Ken Leung (Broadway). Ben Phillips. Evan Wolfson – Founder of Freedom to Marry. Cleve Jones (Ebell of Los Angeles). Larry Kramer (Broadway). George Raya (Sacramento). Maggie Gallagher – NOM President (opponent of same-sex marriage). Jane Lynch (Ebell of Los Angeles). Jayne Houdyshell (Broadway). Janis Stevens (Sacramento). Broadcast Journalist. Campbell Brown (Ebell of Los Angeles). Campbell Brown (Broadway). Same-sex marriage in the United States. 8: The Mormon Proposition. 8, the play - Official website. American Foundation for Equal Rights. Transcripts from Perry Trial.

United States Senate

U.S. SenatorUnited States SenatorU.S. Senate
Bill Hammons' American Politics Guide – Members of Congress by Committee and State with Partisan Voting Index. First U.S. Senate session aired by C-SPAN via C-SPAN. Senate Manual via (U.S. Government Publishing Office). United States Senate Calendars and Schedules. Information about U.S. Bills and Resolutions.

Cleve Jones

Jones, Cleve
Cleve Jones (born October 11, 1954) is an American AIDS and LGBT rights activist. He conceived the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt which has become, at 54 tons, the world's largest piece of community folk art as of 2016. In 1983, at the onset of the AIDS pandemic Jones co-founded the San Francisco AIDS Foundation which has grown into one of the largest and most influential People with AIDS advocacy organizations in the United States. Jones was born in West Lafayette, Indiana. He moved with his family to Scottsdale, Arizona, when he was 14 and was a student at Arizona State University for a time. Jones claimed, however, he never really accepted the Phoenix area as his home.


MormonLDSMormon community
At Young's death in 1877, he was followed by other LDS Church presidents, who resisted efforts by the United States Congress to outlaw Mormon polygamous marriages. In 1878, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Reynolds v. United States that religious duty was not a suitable defense for practicing polygamy, and many Mormon polygamists went into hiding; later, Congress began seizing church assets. In September 1890, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a Manifesto that officially suspended the practice of polygamy.

Hillary Clinton

ClintonHillary Rodham ClintonHillary
On LGBT rights, she supported the right to same-sex marriage. In 2013, Clinton first expressed support for a national right to same-sex marriage; in 2000, she was against such unions altogether and in 2006, she said only that she would support a state's decision to permit same-sex marriages. In 2000, she was the first spouse of a US president to march in an LGBT pride parade. In 2016, she was the first major-party presidential candidate ever to write an op-ed for an LGBT newspaper (Philadelphia Gay News).

Same-sex relationship

same-sex couplessame-sex couplesame-sex relationships
Government recognition of same-sex marriage is available in twenty-six countries (Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Uruguay) and several sub-national jurisdictions allow same-sex couples to marry.


MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts became the first state in the U.S. to legalize same-sex marriage after a Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruling in November 2003 determined that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the right to a civil marriage was unconstitutional. This decision was eventually superseded by the U.S. Supreme Court's affirmation of same-sex marriage in the United States in 2015. In 2004, Massachusetts senator John Kerry who won the Democratic nomination for President of the United States narrowly lost to incumbent George W. Bush. Eight years later, former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney (Republican nominee) lost to Barack Obama in 2012.

Equal Protection Clause

equal protectionequal protection of the lawsEqual Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
In 2015, the Supreme Court held in a 5–4 decision that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and required all states to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples and to recognize same-sex marriages validly performed in other jurisdictions. Affirmative action is the consideration of race, gender, or other factors, to benefit an underrepresented group or to address past injustices done to that group.