It ranks governments based on their perceived efforts to acknowledge and combat human trafficking. The report divides nations into tiers based on their compliance with standards outlined in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000. These tiers are: There also a few "Special Cases" such as Yemen, where the civil conflict and humanitarian crisis make gaining information difficult, and Sint Maarten where the devastation caused by Hurricane Irma has made reporting difficult. Some critics of the Trafficking in Persons Report focus on how its methodology could be improved.
Tier 2Tier 1Tier 2 Watchlist
forced laborforced labourunfree labor
UN.GIFT — Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking. Eliminating Forced Labor — Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. Slavery in the 21st century—BBC. Sex trade's reliance on forced labour—BBC. China's Forced Labour Camps—Laogai Research Foundation. The ILO Special Action Programme to combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL). Alleging Captive Labor, Foreign Students Walk Out of Work-Study Program at Hershey Plant Democracy Now!, September 1, 2011. Migrant Workers as Non-Citizens: The Case against Citizenship as a Social Policy Concept, by Donna Baines and Nandita Sharma. Studies in Political Economy 69. Autumn 2002, p. 75.
traffickingtrafficking in personstrafficked
Human Trafficking (miniseries). Financial abuse. Gaslighting. List of organizations opposing human trafficking. Kidnapping. Migrant sex work. Serious and Organised Crime Group. Sexual jihad. Sexual trafficking in Kosovo. Sharecropping. She Has a Name. South East Asia Court of Women on HIV and Human Trafficking. Transnational efforts to prevent human trafficking. Western princess. Wife selling. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. The Islamic State and its human trafficking practice, pp. 15–21.
sexual exploitationsex slavewhite slavery
Commercial sexual exploitation of adults (often referred to as "sex trafficking") is a type of human trafficking involving the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people, by coercive or abusive means for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Commercial sexual exploitation is not the only form of human trafficking and estimates vary as to the percentage of human trafficking which is for the purpose of transporting someone into sexual slavery. The BBC News cited a report by UNODC as listing the most common destinations for victims of human trafficking in 2007 as Thailand, Japan, Israel, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey and the US.
Tier 2 Watch ListMonitor and Combat Trafficking in PersonsNan Kennelly
National Human Trafficking Resource Center.
National Human Trafficking Resource CenterPolaris
Polaris is a nonprofit, non-governmental organization that works to combat and prevent modern-day slavery and human trafficking. For the past 10 years, Polaris has run the National Human Trafficking Hotline, working on some 40,000 cases of trafficking. From that work, the organization has built out one of the largest data sets on human trafficking in the United States. Based on this data set, in 2017 Polaris released The Typology of Modern Slavery, which classified human trafficking in the United States into 25 distinct businesses. The data set is publicly available for use by researchers through the Counter-Trafficking Data Collaborative, launched by Polaris and U.N.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. A system or network that allows trade is called a market.
The United Nations stated in 2009 that sex trafficking is the most commonly identified form of human trafficking and estimates that about 79% of human trafficking reported is for prostitution (although the study notes that this may be the result of statistical bias and that sex trafficking tends to receive the most attention and be the most visible). Sex trafficking has been described by Kul Gautum, Deputy Executive Director of UNICEF, as "the largest slave trade in history." It is also the fastest growing criminal industry, predicted to outgrow drug trafficking.
In 2014, for the first time in history, major leaders of many religions, Buddhist, Anglican, Catholic, Orthodox Christian, Hindu, Jewish, and Muslim met to sign a shared commitment against modern-day slavery; the declaration they signed calls for the elimination of slavery and human trafficking by the year 2020.
Trafficking Victims Protection ActVictims of Trafficking and Violence Protection ActTrafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000
Human Trafficking Prevention Act (H.R. 4449; 113th Congress) - this bill required regular training and briefings for some federal government personnel to raise awareness of human trafficking and help employees spot cases of it. Bureau of International Labor Affairs. Child Soldiers Prevention Act. Human trafficking in the United States. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. United States Department of State. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, FORCED LABOR, and SEX TRAFFICKING STATUTES ENFORCED at the Department of Justice. National Geographic September 2003 pp 23. List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor.
illegal immigrantillegal immigrantsundocumented immigrants
For example, research at San Diego State University estimates that there are 2.4 million victims of human trafficking among illegal Mexican immigrants in the United States. Some workers are smuggled into the United States and Canada by human traffickers. People have been kidnapped or tricked into slavery to work as laborers, after entering the country, for example in factories. Those trafficked in this manner often face additional barriers to escaping slavery, since their status as undocumented immigrants makes it difficult for them to gain access to help or services.
This, combined with the tendency to identify pimping with African-American masculinity, may provide some of the explanation for why approximately three-fifths of all "confirmed" human traffickers in the United States are African-American men. In fact, it has recently been argued that some of the extreme examples of violence cited in the article below come primarily from such stereotyping supported by Hollywood screenwriters, selective and decontextualized trial transcripts, and studies that have only interviewed parties to sex commerce in institutions of rescue, prosecution, and punishment, rather than engaging rigorous study in situ.
Non-governmental organizations (also known as NGOs, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations ) are organizations independent of any government. They are usually non-profit, and many NGOs are active in humanitarian or social areas; however, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. NGOs are a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services, benefits, and premises only to members.
Human trafficking. Kidnap and ransom insurance. Kidnappings in Colombia. List of kidnappings. Stockholm syndrome.
At the turn of the 21st century, several trends have increased the number of foreigners residing in the country such as the 2008–2014 Spanish financial crisis, increasing gang-related violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the ongoing political and economic crisis in Venezuela, and the automotive industry boom led by Japanese and South Korean investment. Despite being a notoriously diverse country; the big majority of Mexicans are united under the same national identity.
People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The Global Slavery Index estimated that in 2016 more than 3.8 million people were living in "conditions of modern slavery", or 0.25% of the population, including victims of human trafficking, forced labor, forced marriage, child labor, and state-imposed forced labor. All except the last category are illegal. The state-imposed forced system was formally abolished in 2013 but it is not clear the extent to which its various practices have stopped. The Chinese penal system includes labor prison factories, detention centers, and re-education camps, which fall under the heading Laogai ("reform through labor").
commercial sexual exploitationforced into prostitutionenforced prostitution
Human trafficking, especially of girls and women, often leads to forced prostitution and sexual slavery. According to a report by the UNODC, internationally, the most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand, Japan, Israel, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey and the United States. The major sources of trafficked persons are Thailand, China, Nigeria, Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Following the first international conference on the prevention of trafficking of women in Paris in 1885 a series of initiatives to restrict the trade of women into the sex trade were initiated.
It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands. The 2008–2012 global recession significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the Congressional Budget Office. It brought high unemployment (which has been decreasing but remains above pre-recession levels), along with low consumer confidence, the continuing decline in home values and increase in foreclosures and personal bankruptcies, an escalating federal debt crisis, inflation, and rising petroleum and food prices. The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century.
first citizens' initiative
Human trafficking in Finland. Censorship in Finland. Same-sex marriage in Finland. Homepage of the Parliamentary Ombudsman for Human Rights. Human Rights and Finnish Foreign Policy. Archive of Finland reports at Amnesty International. Archive of Finland reports at Human Rights Watch. 2005 Finland report of Freedom House. 2004 World Press Freedom Review, published by the International Press Institute. Homepage of the Institute for Human Rights at Åbo Akademi University. The Finnish League for Human Rights. Censorship cases in Finland – IFEX. Review of Finland by the United Nations Human Rights Council's Universal Periodic Review, 9 April 2008. Religious Freedom Report 2005.
Human trafficking in the United States. Human trafficking in Michigan. Human trafficking in California.
VenezuelanBolivarian Republic of VenezuelaVEN
Castro defaulted on Venezuela's considerable foreign debts and declined to pay compensation to foreigners caught up in Venezuela's civil wars. This led to the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–1903, in which Britain, Germany and Italy imposed a naval blockade of several months before international arbitration at the new Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague was agreed. In 1908, another dispute broke out with the Netherlands, which was resolved when Castro left for medical treatment in Germany and was promptly overthrown by Juan Vicente Gómez (1908–1935).
FLState of FloridaFloridian
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive (65755 sqmi), the 3rd-most populous (21,312,211 inhabitants), and the 8th-most densely populated (384.3 /sqmi) of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.
Republic of AzerbaijanAzerbaijan RepublicAZE
Azerbaijan (, ; Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, and has an long border with Turkey in the northwest.
exploitationexploitation of workersexploit
Human trafficking. Indentured servant. International child abduction. Labour, class struggle and false consciousness. Laogai. Mutualism. Neocolonialism. Overexploitation. Property income. Prosumerism. Rate of exploitation. Sharecropping. Surplus value. Sweatshop. Trafficking of children. Unearned income. Unequal exchange. Unfree labour. Wage slavery. The Communist Manifesto. Wage Labour and Capital.
crisis in Bolivarian VenezuelaVenezuelan crisisCrisis in Venezuela (2012–present)
In November 2017, The Economist estimated Venezuela's debt at US$105 billion and its reserves at US$10 billion. In 2018, Venezuela's debt grew to US$156 billion and as of March 2019, its reserves had dropped to US$8 billion. With the exception of PDVSA's 2020 bonds, as of January 2019, all of Venezuela's bonds are in default, and Venezuela's government and state-owned companies owe nearly US$8 billion in unpaid interest and principal. As of March 2019, the government and state-owned companies have US$150 billion in debt. By 2018 the political and economic troubles facing Venezuela had engulfed the El Tigre-San Tomé region, a key region for oil production in eastern Venezuela.