Sierra Leone

Sierra LeoneanRepublic of Sierra LeoneSLE
Sierra Leone (, also, ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. It is bordered by Liberia to the southeast and Guinea to the northeast. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests, and a total area of 71740 km2 and a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census. The capital and largest city is Freetown. Bo is the second largest city in the country, and is located 150 miles from Freetown. Sierra Leone is divided into five administrative regions, which are further subdivided into sixteen districts.

Ashburn, Virginia

AshburnAshburn, VAAshburn Virginia
Ashburn is a census-designated place (CDP) in Loudoun County, Virginia. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 43,511. It is 30 mi northwest of Washington, D.C. and part of the Washington metropolitan area.

International Organization for Migration

IOMInternational Organisation for MigrationIntergovernmental Committee for European Migration
The campaign's stated purpose is: "to encourage safe migration and public action to prevent human trafficking and exploitation in the Asia Pacific region." IOM X has worked on a range of issues related to exploitation and human trafficking, such as protecting men enslaved in the Thai fishing industry, the use of technology to identify and combat human trafficking, and end the sexual exploitation of children. * Andrijasevic, Rutvica; Walters, William (2010): The International Organization for Migration and the international government of borders. In Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 28 (6), pp. 977–999.

United States Agency for International Development

USAIDU.S. Agency for International DevelopmentAgency for International Development
However, events in 1958 — notably a riot during Vice President Nixon's visit to Caracas, Venezuela in May 1958 — resulted in a reversal of the U.S. position in August 1958. With U.S. support, the Organization of American States created in April 1959 the Inter-American Development Bank, most of whose capital was contributed by the borrowing countries. To further engage other wealthy countries in development assistance, the USG supported the creation of the Aid India Consortium in August 1958. This was the first of several informal groupings of donors focussing on particular countries.

Migrant prostitution

Migrant sex workwoman migrating for work
Human trafficking. Laura María Agustín.

Central America

CentralCentral AmericanCentral American Isthmus
Middle America is usually thought to comprise Mexico to the north of the 7 states of Central America as well as Colombia and Venezuela to the south. Usually, the whole of the Caribbean to the northeast, and sometimes the Guyanas, are also included. In Ibero-America (Spanish and Portuguese speaking American countries), the Americas is considered a single continent, and Central America is considered a subcontinent separate from North America comprising the seven countries south of Mexico and north of Colombia.

People smuggling

human smugglingpeople smugglerspeople smuggler
An important distinction to make is that between human smuggling and human trafficking. Given the complex nature of human smuggling and trafficking operations, the difference between these two criminal operations is not always readily apparent. Delineating between the two involves taking closer look at the subtle differences between each. Generally speaking, human trafficking involves transporting individuals from one place to another either against their will or under some sort of false pretense. With smuggling, on the other hand, there is understood to be an agreement between smuggler and customer, a meeting of the minds and a contract between the two.


United Nations Children's FundUnited Nations Children’s FundUnited Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations agency responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children around the world. It was established in 1946 as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund by the U.N. General Assembly, at the behest of Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman, to provide immediate hunger relief and healthcare to children and mothers in countries devastated by World War II. In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries, and in 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System.

Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children

2000 UN TIP ProtocolProtocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in PersonsPalermo Protocol on human trafficking
In March 2009, UNODC launched the Blue Heart Campaign to fight human trafficking, to raise awareness, and to encourage involvement and inspire action. The protocol commits ratifying states to prevent and combat trafficking in persons, protecting and assisting victims of trafficking and promoting cooperation among states in order to meet those objectives.

Winchester, Virginia

WinchesterWinchester CityWinchester, VA
Winchester is an independent city located in the northern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States. It is the county seat of Frederick County, although the two are separate jurisdictions. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Winchester with surrounding Frederick County for statistical purposes. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 26,203. As of 2018, its population is an estimated 28,108.

Human rights in Azerbaijan

human rightslocal human rightsAzerbaijan
After adaptation of Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan (1995), new legislative acts and amendments were issued in line with democratic principles and in consistency with requirements of international law within the legal reforms in Azerbaijan. Generally, there are 48 Articles regarding principal human and Civil Rights and Freedoms in the Constitution of Azerbaijan.

History of slavery in Florida

After California and New York, Florida has the most human trafficking cases in the United States. Florida has had cases of sex trafficking, domestic servitude, and forced labor. Florida has a large agricultural economy and a large immigrant population, which has made it a prime environment for forced labor, particularly in the tomato industry. Concerted efforts have led to the freeing of thousands of slaves in recent years. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center reported receiving 1,518 calls and emails in 2015 about human trafficking in Florida. *Indian slave trade in the American Southeast#Slavery in Florida

Serious and Organised Crime Command

Serious and Organised Crime Group
The Serious and Organised Crime Command (SCD7 – Specialist Crime Directorate 7) was a unit of the Metropolitan Police in Greater London, United Kingdom. It was part of the Specialist Crime Directorate (now Specialist Crime & Operations (SC&O) - created by the merger of Specialist Crime Directorate and Central Operations) and is today part of Met Operations 7 (MO7). It was divided into 10 units: * Kidnap Unit - provides fast responses to life-threatening crimes in action, for example extortion, blackmail or kidnap for ransom where the hostage has not been recovered.

Summit County, Ohio

Summit CountySummitOhio
Summit County is an urban county in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 541,781 making it the fourth-most populous county in Ohio. Its county seat is Akron. The county was formed on March 3, 1840, from portions of Medina, Portage and Stark Counties. It was named "Summit County" because the highest elevation on the Ohio and Erie Canal is located in the county.

Human rights in the Netherlands

freedom of expression in the Netherlands
In 2005 The US Department of State observed several problems with human rights such as the societal discrimination and violence against religious and ethnic minorities, especially after the murder of Theo van Gogh and the human trafficking in women and girls for sexual exploitation. Human trafficking is a widely recognised problem. The Netherlands is listed by the UNODC as a top destination for victims of human trafficking. In the Netherlands, it is estimated that there are from 1,000 to 7,000 trafficking victims a year.

Human trafficking in California

Tulare County Human Trafficking Task Force. East Bay Human Trafficking Task Force. Fresno Coalition Against Human Trafficking. Los Angeles Metro Area Task Force on Human Trafficking. North Bay Human Trafficking Task Force. Orange County Human Trafficking Task Force. Riverside County Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force. Sacramento Innocence Lost Task Force. San Diego North County Anti-Trafficking Task Force. San Jose/South Bay Human Trafficking Task Force. Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST) is a Los Angeles-based anti-human trafficking organization.

Wasatch Front

Northern UtahGreat Salt Lake Valleymountainous regions
The Wasatch Front is a metropolitan region in the north-central part of the U.S. state of Utah. It consists of a chain of contiguous cities and towns stretched along the Wasatch Range from approximately Nephi in the south to Brigham City in the north. Roughly 80% of Utah's population resides in this region, which contains the major cities of Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Layton, and Ogden.

Human trafficking in Guyana

Identified foreign victims have come from Venezuela and Brazil. Forced prostitution occurs in brothels on the coast and around mining camps, as well as in rum shops and Chinese restaurants. The common Guyanese practice of poor, rural families sending children to live with higher income family members or acquaintances in more populated areas has the potential to evolve into forced domestic servitude. Trafficking victims in Guyana may not self-identify to authorities due to fear of retribution from trafficking offenders, fear of resettlement to abusive home situations, and lack of awareness that human trafficking is a crime.

Human rights in Ireland

In 2015, the US State department that Ireland was a destination country for human trafficking, including sex trafficking and forced labour. Whilst the Department's report still categorised Ireland as a Tier 1 nation, meaning that the country's efforts to eliminate the issue were found to comply the minimum standards of the US, it was further noted that whilst Irish law enforcement efficiently investigated human trafficking offences, often the traffickers were not convicted. In 2018, Ireland was downgraded, in the United States’ Trafficking of Persons Report 2018, from Tier 1, to Tier 2; Tier 2 including countries that fall below US standards in combatting human trafficking.

Women in Venezuela

The Supreme Tribunal with 32 appointed judges (16 women and 16 men) is the only institution in Venezuela that presents parity of gender in its members. At the community level women are increasingly present, which is crucial in the empowerment of lower-class barrio women. Nonetheless, these female leaders of communal councils have reported that their presence is ignored at the higher levels and they are being excluded from political opportunities. * Human trafficking in Venezuela Venezuelan Women Are Dying From Buttock Injections, by Alasdair Baverstock, from The Atlantic magazine. Venezuelan Thieves Target Women’s Hair, by Claire Groden, from Time magazine.


Prostitution in the Netherlands. Human trafficking in the Netherlands.

History of slavery in Virginia

slavery in VirginiaslavesVirginia
Human trafficking in Virginia. Indentured servitude in Virginia. Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: Norton, 1975.