Titus Pomponius Atticus

AtticusLetters to AtticusPomponius Atticus
Titus Pomponius Atticus (c. 110 – 31 March 32 BC; also known as Quintus Caecilius Pomponianus) was a Roman editor, banker, and patron of letters, best known for his correspondence and close friendship with prominent Roman statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero. Atticus was from a wealthy Roman family of the equestrian class (lower aristocratic non-ruling class) and from the Pomponian gens. Close friends since childhood, Cicero dedicated his work, Laelius de Amicitia, to Atticus.

Secular humanism

secular humanisthumanistsecular humanists
To promote and unify "Humanist" identity, prominent members of the IHEU have endorsed the following statements on Humanist identity: According to the Council for Secular Humanism, within the United States, the term "secular humanism" describes a world view with the following elements and principles: A Secular Humanist Declaration was issued in 1980 by the Council for Secular Humanism's predecessor, CODESH.

Roman consul

consulsuffect consulconsulship
Nevertheless, the office remained largely in the hands of a few families as, according to Gelzer, only fifteen novi homines - "new men" with no consular background - were elected to the consulship until the election of Cicero in 63 BC. Modern historians have questioned the traditional account of plebeian emancipation during the early Republic (see Conflict of the Orders), noting for instance that about thirty percent of the consuls prior to Sextius had plebeian, not patrician, names. It is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family.

Asiatic style

Asiatic schoolAsianismAsiatic
In this sense, although Cicero identified with an Attic orator, he never went so far as to completely criticise Asiatic oratory, and professed a mixed or middle style (genus medium; Quintilian 12.10.18: genus Rhodium...velut medium...atque ex utroque mixtum) between the low or plain Attic style and the high Asiatic style, called the Rhodian style by association with Molo of Rhodes and Apollonius the Effeminate (Rhodii, Cicero, Brutus xiii 51).

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature. Against philosophical rationalists, Hume held that passion rather than reason governs human behaviour. Hume argued against the existence of innate ideas, positing that all human knowledge is founded solely in experience.

Terentia

Introducing Cicero: A selection of passages from the writings of Marcus Tullius Cicero. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2002.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
The orator, said Cicero, needed to be knowledgeable about all areas of human life and culture, including law, politics, history, literature, ethics, warfare, medicine, even arithmetic and geometry. Cicero gave rise to the idea that the "ideal orator" be well-versed in all branches of learning: an idea that was rendered as "liberal humanism", and that lives on today in liberal arts or general education requirements in colleges and universities around the world. Quintilian (35–100 AD) began his career as a pleader in the courts of law; his reputation grew so great that Vespasian created a chair of rhetoric for him in Rome.

Demosthenes

Démosthène Demosthenes Demosthenem
Plutarch drew attention in his Life of Demosthenes to the strong similarities between the personalities and careers of Demosthenes and Marcus Tullius Cicero: The divine power seems originally to have designed Demosthenes and Cicero upon the same plan, giving them many similarities in their natural characters, as their passion for distinction and their love of liberty in civil life, and their want of courage in dangers and war, and at the same time also to have added many accidental resemblances.

Virtue

virtuesvirtuouspurity
Humanitas – "humanity" – refinement, civilization, learning, and generally being cultured. Industria – "industriousness" – hard work. Innocencia - "selfless" - Roman charity, always give without expectation of recognition, always give while expecting no personal gain, incorruptibility is aversion towards placing all power and influence from public office to increase personal gain in order to enjoy our personal or public life and deprive our community of their health, dignity and our sense of morality, that is an affront to every Roman. Laetitia - "Joy, Gladness" - The celebration of thanksgiving, often of the resolution of crisis, a public virtue.

Tullia (daughter of Cicero)

TulliaTullia M. f. M. n.
Tullia, sometimes referred to affectionately as Tulliola ("Little Tullia", 5 August 79 or 78 BC – February 45 BC), was the first child and only daughter of Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero, by his first marriage to Terentia. Her younger brother, Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor, born in 65 BC, was consul in 30 BC. What is known of Tullia's life is from Plutarch's account of Cicero and the letters that Cicero wrote to others, particularly to her mother, and to his friend, the eques Titus Pomponius Atticus. In 66 BC, Tullia was betrothed to Gaius Calpurnius Piso Frugi. They were married in 63, when Tullia was fifteen or sixteen, and Piso not much older.

Servius Sulpicius Rufus

Sulpicus RufusSulpicius Rufusconsul of 51 BC
He died in 43 BC while on a mission from the senate to Marcus Antonius at Mutina, and was eulogized in Cicero's ninth Philippic. Sulpicius was accorded a public funeral, and a statue was erected to his memory in front of the Rostra. Two excellent specimens of Sulpicius's style are preserved in Cicero's letters. One of these is a letter of condolence to Cicero after the death of his daughter, Tullia. It is a letter that posterity has much admired, full of subtle, melancholy reflection on the transiency of all things. Byron has quoted this letter in his Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.

Cicero Minor

MarcusMarcus Tullius Cicero MinorCicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor (Minor, Latin for "the younger"), or Cicero the Younger, was born in 65 BC. He was the son of Marcus Tullius Cicero, who as a distinguished orator and consular senator was one of the leading figures of the Roman Republic during the 1st century BC, and his first wife, Terentia. Cicero Minor had an elder sister, Tullia, who was born in 79 BC and died in 45 BC. In the beginning Cicero wished to have a military career. On the outbreak of Caesar's Civil War in 49 BC, he joined the side of Pompey like his father. After Pompey’s defeat by Julius Caesar at Pharsalus in 48 BC, Cicero Minor was pardoned by Caesar.

Second Triumvirate

triumvirstriumvirTreaty of Brundisium
The most notable victims were Marcus Tullius Cicero, who had opposed Caesar and excoriated Antony in his Philippicae, and Marcus Favonius, a follower of Cato and an opponent of both triumvirates. The proscription of Caesar's legate Quintus Tullius Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero's younger brother) seems to have been motivated by the perceived need to destroy Cicero's family. For ancient writers, the most shocking proscriptions were those of Caesar's legate Lucius Julius Caesar, and Lepidus' brother Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. They were added to the list because they had been the first to condemn Antony and Lepidus after the two allied. In fact they both survived.

List of patricides

patricidepatricidalfather
For example, according to Marcus Tullius Cicero, in the Roman Republic it was the only criminal act for which the punishment was an execution. Patricide is a common archetype that is prevalent throughout many religions and cultures, and particularly in the mythology and religion of Greek culture. Some key examples of patricide from various cultures are included as follows: In the United States between 1980 and 2010 fathers were more likely than mothers to be killed by their children.

Antiochus of Ascalon

AntiochusAntiochean PlatonismAntiochean Platonist
Studies in Cicero's Academic Books, Leiden: Brill, 1997, pp. 257–275. Tarrant, H., Scepticism or Platonism? The Philosophy of the Fourth Academy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Middle Platonism Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Lentulus

Cornelii LentuliLentuliLentulus (gens)
Appietas) is coined by Cicero (Ad Fam. iii. 7, 5 ) to express the attributes of a pronounced aristocrat. The three first of the name were L. Cornelius Lentulus (consul 327 BC), Servius Cornelius Lentulus (consul 303) and L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus (consul 275). Their connection with the later Lentuli (especially those of the Ciceronian period) is very obscure and difficult to establish. The following members of the family deserve mention. See also Publius Lentulus, apocryphal governor of Jerusalem, supposedly the author of an epistle describing Jesus. * Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus, consul 146 BCE. Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus, consul 72 BCE.

Pro Roscio Amerino

Pro Sexto Roscio AmerinoPro Sexto Roscio
Pro Roscio Amerino is a defence speech given by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of Sextus Roscius, a Roman citizen from the municipality of Ameria accused of murdering his father. Delivered in 80 BC, it was Cicero's first major public case. It is also his second-earliest surviving speech (after the pro Quinctio). Cicero's narrative, outlining the 'pact' (societas) centred around Chrysogonus, is the basis for our understanding of the events leading up to the trial. It is worth remembering, however, that we only have Cicero's version, and some scholars have questioned the truthfulness of his account.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Fundamentally, Marx assumed that human history involves transforming human nature, which encompasses both human beings and material objects. Humans recognise that they possess both actual and potential selves. For both Marx and Hegel, self-development begins with an experience of internal alienation stemming from this recognition, followed by a realisation that the actual self, as a subjective agent, renders its potential counterpart an object to be apprehended. Marx further argues that by moulding nature in desired ways the subject takes the object as its own and thus permits the individual to be actualised as fully human.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
This story explains the theory of forms with their different levels of reality, and advances the view that philosopher-kings are wisest while most humans are ignorant. One student of Plato (who would become another of the most influential philosophers of all time) stressed the implication that understanding relies upon first-hand observation. Aristotle moved to Athens from his native Stageira in 367 BC and began to study philosophy (perhaps even rhetoric, under Isocrates), eventually enrolling at Plato's Academy.

In Verrem

Verrine OrationsAgainst Verres Iprosecution of Verres
At the same time, Marcus Tullius Cicero was an up-and-coming political figure. After defending Sextus Roscius of Ameria in 80 BC on a highly politically charged case of parricide, Cicero left for a voyage to Greece and Rhodes. There, he learned a new and less-strenuous form of oratory from Molon of Rhodes before rushing back into the political arena upon Sulla's death. Cicero would serve in Sicily in 75 BC as a quaestor, and in doing so made contacts with a number of Sicilian towns.

Sicilia (Roman province)

SicilySiciliaRoman Sicily
Even in the period of Cicero, Greek was the main language used by the elite and almost all the Sicilians mentioned by Cicero in the Verrine Orations have Greek names. Cicero also refers to the Greek calendar (in use throughout Sicily in this period), Greek festivals, relations between the Sicilian cities and panhellenic sanctuaries like Delphi, Sicilian victors of the Olympic Games, and Greek civic architecture. Literature remained almost exclusively Greek, with authors like Diodorus Siculus and Caecilius of Calacte.

Pro Quinctio

Publius Quinctius and Naevius
Pro Quinctio was a defence speech delivered by Marcus Tullius Cicero in 81 BC, on behalf of Publius Quinctius. It is noteworthy as the earliest of Cicero's published speeches to survive. The speech is a private legal case, centred around the business relationship between Gaius Quinctius and Sextus Naevius. The two were close partners (socii) for many years, with Naevius even marrying Gaius' cousin. Their chief investments were in cattle farms and land in Gallia Narbonensis. When Gaius died suddenly in ca. 84 BC, he left his brother, Publius Quinctius, as his heir. Publius also inherited Gaius' outstanding debts, and intended to sell some of his own private property to pay them off.

Verres

Gaius Verresanother Roman governor
Verres returned to Rome in 70, and in the same year, at the request of the Sicilians, Marcus Tullius Cicero prosecuted him: Cicero later published the prosecution speeches as the Verrine Orations. Verres entrusted his defence to the most eminent of Roman advocates, Quintus Hortensius, and he had the sympathy and support of several of the leading Roman patricians. The court was composed exclusively of senators, some of whom may have been his friends. However, the presiding judge, the city praetor, Manius Acilius Glabrio, was a thoroughly honest man, and his assessors were at least not accessible to bribery.

Sextus Roscius

Sextus Roscius AmerinusSextus Roscius of AmeriaSextus Roscius Sex. f.
Big Finish Productions adapted the trial of Sextus Roscius in Cicero by David Llewellyn. Sextus Roscius is portrayed by Simon Ludders.

Individualism

individualistindividualisticindividual freedom
Humanism is a perspective common to a wide range of ethical stances that attaches importance to human dignity, concerns, and capabilities, particularly rationality. Although the word has many senses, its meaning comes into focus when contrasted to the supernatural or to appeals to authority. Since the 19th century, humanism has been associated with an anti-clericalism inherited from the 18th-century Enlightenment philosophes. 21st century Humanism tends to strongly endorse human rights, including reproductive rights, gender equality, social justice, and the separation of church and state. The term covers organized non-theistic religions, secular humanism, and a humanistic life stance.