Hurricane Frances

FrancesHurricanes Frances2004's Hurricane Frances record rainfall
Add in the estimated US$100 million damage (2004 dollars) done to space and military facilities at Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, and Patrick Air Force Base, Florida and the total damage was estimated to be about US$9 billion (2004 dollars), making it the fourth costliest hurricane in United States history at that time, behind Hurricane Andrew of 1992 and Hurricanes Charley and Ivan of 2004. At the time, adjusted for inflation, it became the seventh costliest hurricane for the lower 48 United States. Flooding was also reported in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Hurricane Jeanne

JeanneTropical Storm Jeanne2004
Timeline of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. NHC's public advisory archive on Hurricane Jeanne. HPC's public advisory archive on TD Jeanne. Puerto Rico Hurricanes & Tropical Storms.

Saffir–Simpson scale

major hurricaneCategory 5Category 1 hurricane
Other examples of storms that peaked at Category 4 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Hazel (1954), Flora (1963), Cleo (1964), Betsy (1965), Frederic (1979), Joan (1988), Iniki (1992), Luis (1995), Iris (2001), Charley (2004), Dennis (2005), Gustav (2008), Ike (2008), Joaquin (2015), Harvey (2017), and Michael (2018). Catastrophic damage will occur Category 5 is the highest category of the Saffir–Simpson scale. These storms cause complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings, and some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away.

Hurricane Ivan

IvanIvan 2004Ivan Relief Efforts
Timeline of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. NHC advisory archives for Hurricane Ivan. HPC Rainfall Page for Ivan. Thanks for the Pageviews, Ivan. Ivan May Just Be a Messenger. "Waves Hit Navarre Pier Hard During Hurricane Ivan's Approach" as found in the State Library and Archives of Florida. Hurricane Ivan (YouTube).


FLState of FloridaFloridian
In 1992, Florida was the site of what was then the costliest weather disaster in U.S. history, Hurricane Andrew, which caused more than $25 billion in damages when it struck during August; it held that distinction until 2005, when Hurricane Katrina surpassed it, and it has since been surpassed by six other hurricanes. Andrew is currently the second costliest hurricane in Florida's history.

2017 Atlantic hurricane season

2017Tropical Storm Philippe2017 season
It was the most intense tropical cyclone to move ashore the US mainland since Hurricane Charley in 2004 until Hurricane Michael in 2018, and the first Category 4 hurricane to make landfall in Texas since Hurricane Carla in 1961. A westward-moving tropical wave, first monitored over western Africa on August 26, organized into Tropical Storm Irma around 15:00 UTC on August 30. Amid an environment of low wind shear and warm ocean temperatures, the newly formed cyclone moved generally westward while strengthening. Irma gradually became better organized; by 09:00 UTC on August 31, it was a high end tropical storm with winds of 70 mph (115 km/h).

Punta Gorda, Florida

Punta GordaPunta Gorda, FLCity of Punta Gorda
Punta Gorda was the scene of massive destruction after Charley, a Category 4 hurricane, came through the city on August 13, 2004. Charley was the strongest tropical system to hit Florida since Hurricane Andrew in 1992, and the first hurricane since Hurricane Donna in 1960 to make a direct hit on Florida's southwest coast. In the immediate years following the storm, buildings were restored or built to hurricane-resistant building codes. The new buildings, restorations and amenities concurrently preserved the city's past while showcasing newer facilities.

Tropical cyclone

hurricanetropical stormhurricanes
Hurricane Iniki in 1992 was the most powerful storm to strike Hawaii in recorded history, hitting Kauai as a Category 4 hurricane, killing six people, and causing U.S. $3 billion in damage. Other destructive Eastern Pacific hurricanes include Pauline and Kenna, both causing severe damage after striking Mexico as major hurricanes. In March 2004, Cyclone Gafilo struck northeastern Madagascar as a powerful cyclone, killing 74, affecting more than 200,000, and becoming the worst cyclone to affect the nation for more than 20 years.


Landfall is the event of a storm or waterspout moving over land after being over water.

Gulf of Mexico

GulfGulf CoastGUL'''F of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The U.S. states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida border the Gulf on the north, which are often referred to as the "Third Coast", in comparison with the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

List of costliest Atlantic hurricanes

costliestcostliest Atlantic hurricanecostliest hurricane
In the 1990s, twelve tropical cyclones accrued at least a billion in damage, including Hurricane Andrew in 1992. The system greatly exceeded the damage figure of any preceding tropical cyclone, causing $27.3 billion in damage, mostly in South Florida. Nineteen tropical cyclones in the 2000s caused at least $1 billion in damage. The 2005 season had six billion-dollar hurricanes, the most of any season on record. Hurricanes Ivan in 2004 and Irma in 2017 caused at least $1 billion in damage in four separate countries. Thus far in the 2010s, twelve storms have caused at least $1 billion in damage, the most recent of which is Hurricane Michael, which accrued at least $15.1 billion in damage.


O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. ISBN: 978-0812217322. Rogozinski, January 1999. A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and Carib to the Present. Revised version, New York, USA. ISBN: 0-8160-3811-2. Scott, Caroline 1999. Insight Guide Barbados. Discovery Channel and Insight Guides; fourth edition, Singapore. ISBN: 0-88729-033-7. Overview Video—Barbados Tourism Investment Inc. (Courtesy of US Television)., by the Ministry of Energy and the Environment, under the Office of the Prime Minister.

Coordinated Universal Time

Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated to UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, and is not adjusted for daylight saving time. In some countries where English is spoken, the term Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is often used as a synonym for UTC.

Trough (meteorology)

troughridgeupper-level trough
A trough is an elongated (extended) region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. Troughs may be at the surface, or aloft, or both under various conditions. Most troughs bring clouds, showers, and a wind shift, particularly following the passage of the trough. This results from convergence or "squeezing" which forces lifting of moist air behind the trough line.

Hurricane Irma

Irmaanother major hurricaneHurricanes Irma
Furthermore, when Irma made landfall on Barbuda, Saint Martin, Virgin Gorda, and Cuba as a Category 5 hurricane, it became one of only two recorded Atlantic storms to make landfall in multiple nations at this strength; the other was Hurricane Andrew in 1992, which struck both Eleuthera and the United States as a Category 5 hurricane. Irma made landfall in the Florida Keys with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a pressure of 931 mbar (hPa; 27.49 inHg), making it the strongest hurricane to strike Florida in terms of wind speed since Charley in 2004, and the most intense to strike the state in terms of barometric pressure since Andrew in 1992.

North Carolina

It was not until 1992 that another African American was elected as a US Representative from North Carolina. As in the rest of the former Confederacy, North Carolina had become a one-party state, dominated by the Democratic Party. Impoverished by the Civil War, the state continued with an economy based on tobacco, cotton and agriculture. Towns and cities remained few in the east. A major industrial base emerged in the late 19th century in the western counties of the Piedmont, based on cotton mills established at the fall line. Railroads were built to connect the new industrializing cities.

Atlantic hurricane season

seasonhurricane seasonAtlantic hurricane database
The second time was August 2002 when Hurricane Andrew was upgraded to a Category 5. Recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 19th and 20th centuries by various researchers have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events. Possible changes for the years 1951 onward are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years.

List of Florida hurricanes (2000–present)

2004 hurricane season
August 12, 2004 – Tropical Storm Bonnie moves ashore on Saint Vincent Island, producing light rainfall and minor damage along its path. August 13, 2004Hurricane Charley passed over Upper Captiva at Cayo Costa with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) then made an unexpected 90° turn and headed straight for Pine Island making landfall at the center of Pine Island, devastating the cities of St. James, Pineland and Bokeelia. It then proceeded to the mainland portion of the state at Punta Gorda, becoming the strongest hurricane to hit the United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992.

Atlantic hurricane

Atlantic tropical cyclonehurricaneAtlantic basin
The most tornadoes spawned by a hurricane was 127 by Hurricane Ivan (2004 season). The strongest landfalling hurricane was the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 (892 hPa). The deadliest hurricane was the Great Hurricane of 1780 (22,000 fatalities). The deadliest hurricane to make landfall on the continental United States was the Galveston Hurricane in 1900 which may have killed up to 12,000 people. The most damaging hurricane was both Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Harvey of the 2005 and 2017 seasons, respectively, both of which caused $125 billion in damages in their respective years. However, when adjusted for inflation, Katrina is the costliest with $161 billion.

Central Florida

CentralCentral Florida areaOrlando/Daytona Beach/Melbourne
Hurricanes are a threat to the coastal cities as evident by the 2004 hurricane season, which brought three major hurricanes to the Central Florida area: Charley, Jeanne, and Frances.Winters are dry and temperate with the average winter high temperature in Orlando being 72 F. Summers are hot and humid with high temperatures averaging 92 F. Peak summer heat generally arrives in early June and continues to early October. The combination of high temperatures, high humidity, and opposing sea breezes from both the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, results in significant thunderstorm activity from June to September for the interior counties.

List of historical tropical cyclone names

assigned it with the local namenamed stormtropical cyclone naming lists
The names were subsequently submitted in time for the 2004 session, however, India had still not submitted their names, despite promising to do so. The rapporteur presented the 4 lists of names that would be used with a gap left for India's names and recommended that the India Meteorological Department's Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in New Delhi name the systems. The rapporteur also recommended that the naming lists were used on an experimental basis during the season, starting in May or June 2004 and that the lists should only be used until 2009 when a new list would be drawn up for the following ten years.

List of Florida hurricanes

FloridaFlorida hurricaneshurricanes
Eight cyclones affected the state in both 2004 and 2005, which were the years with the most tropical cyclones impacting the state. Every year included at least one tropical cyclone affecting the state. The strongest hurricane to hit the state during the period was Michael, which was the strongest hurricane to strike the United States since Hurricane Andrew. Additionally, hurricanes Charley, Ivan, Jeanne, Dennis, Wilma, Irma, and Michael made landfall on the state as major hurricanes. The following major hurricanes either made landfall on the state as a major hurricane or brought winds of Category 3 status to the state.

List of United States hurricanes

United States hurricanesGulf Coast Hurricanesknown hazards, like hurricanes
It was one of only five hurricanes to move ashore as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; the others were Karen in 1962, Camille in 1969, Andrew in 1992, and Yutu in 2018, which had a landfalling pressure of 932 mbar, 900 mbar, 922 mbar, and 900 mbar, respectively. Hurricane Michael in 2018 was the fourth most intense hurricanes to strike the country with a pressure of 919 mbar, while Hurricanes Katrina in 2005 and Maria in 2017 are tied as the fifth most intense hurricanes to strike the country, each with a pressure of 920 mbar.

Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida

after-effects of Hurricane WilmaWilma
Damage in Florida totaled $18.6 billion, making Wilma the costliest hurricane in the state since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. After the hurricane had passed, a storm surge from the backwash of up to 8 ft (2.4 m) from the Gulf of Mexico completely inundated a large portion of the lower Keys. Low-lying areas of Key West and the lower Keys, including major tourist destinations were under up to 3 ft (.9 m) of water from the storm surge. 60% of the homes in Key West were flooded. Much of the originally settled "oldtown", such as the Solares Hill and cemetery areas did not flood due to their higher elevations of 12–16 ft (3.7-4.9 m).

Effects of Hurricane Charley in South Carolina

The effects of Hurricane Charley in South Carolina included $20 million (2004 USD) in damage and 135,000 power outages. Hurricane Charley lasted from August 9 to August 15, 2004, and at its peak attained 150 mph (240 km/h) winds, making it a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm made landfall in southwestern Florida at maximum strength, making it the strongest hurricane to hit the United States since Hurricane Andrew struck Florida twelve years before, in 1992.