Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
Alternatively, epidural or spinal anesthesia can be performed in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing all incoming sensation from nerves outside the area of the block. hypnosis (a temporary loss of consciousness and with it a loss of memory. In a pharmacological context, the word hypnosis usually has this technical meaning, in contrast to its more familiar lay or psychological meaning of an altered state of consciousness not necessarily caused by drugs—see hypnosis). analgesia (lack of sensation which also blunts autonomic reflexes). muscle relaxation.

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedating
(However, some benzodiazepines can be all three: sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics). Tranquilizer can refer to anxiolytics or antipsychotics. Soporific and sleeping pill are near-synonyms for hypnotics. widespread dispensation of antipsychotic drugs in residential care to make people with dementia easier to manage. use of methylphenidate to calm children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, though paradoxically this drug is known to be a stimulant. See also Antipsychotic controversy. Hypnotic. Antidepressants. Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Tranquilizer. Tranquilizer gun. Diphenhydramine citrate.

Amnesia

memory lossamnesicamnesiac
Posthypnotic amnesia occurs when events during hypnosis are forgotten, or where past memories are unable to be recalled. The failure to remember those events is induced by suggestions made during the hypnosis. Lacunar amnesia is the loss of memory about one specific event. Childhood amnesia (also known as infantile amnesia) is the common inability to remember events from one's own childhood. Sigmund Freud notoriously attributed this to sexual repression, while modern scientific approaches generally attribute it to aspects of brain development or developmental psychology, including language development, which may be why people do not easily remember pre-language events.

Recovered-memory therapy

recovered memoriesrecovered memory therapyrange of controversial therapies
It does not refer to a specific, recognized treatment method, but rather several controversial and/or unproven interviewing techniques, such as hypnosis and guided-imagery, and the use of sedative-hypnotic drugs, which are presently rarely used in the responsible treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and other dissociative disorders. Proponents of recovered memory therapy claim that traumatic memories can be buried in the subconscious and affect current behavior, and that these can be recovered. The term is not listed in DSM-IV nor is it recommended by mainstream ethical and professional mental health associations.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
Drugs which induce sleep, known as hypnotics, include benzodiazepines, although these interfere with REM; Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics such as eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), and zolpidem (Ambien); Antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and doxylamine; Alcohol (ethanol), despite its rebound effect later in the night and interference with REM; barbiturates, which have the same problem; melatonin, a component of the circadian clock, and released naturally at night by the pineal gland; and cannabis, which may also interfere with REM.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowel
Hypnosis can improve mental well-being, and cognitive behavioural therapy can provide psychological coping strategies for dealing with distressing symptoms, as well as help suppress thoughts and behaviours that increase the symptoms of IBS. Although the evidence base for effectiveness of psychotherapy and hypnosis is weak and such therapies are in general not recommended, in treatment-resistant cases where pharmacological therapies over a period of at least 12 months have failed to give relief, NICE clinical guidelines recommend that consideration should be given to psychological treatment strategies such as cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT], hypnotherapy and/or psychological therapy.

Theodore R. Sarbin

SarbinTheodore Sarbin
The tests employed were, eye-closure, eyelid catalepsy, arm immobilisation, arm rigidity, finger lock, verbal inhibition (unable to say own name), post-hypnotic hallucination of a voice, and post-hypnotic amnesia. The Friedlander-Sarbin scale already contained a great many of the elements which were to become central to the influential Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales (SHSS) in the 1960s. Sarbin subsequently became an early and influential critic of the "special state" theory of hypnosis, which interprets hypnotic responses as the result of a unique altered (abnormal) state of consciousness.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period (Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

NICENational Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas: * the use of health technologies within the National Health Service (NHS) (such as the use of new and existing medicines, treatments and procedures) * clinical practice (guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions) * guidance for public sector workers on health promotion and ill-health avoidance * guidance for social care services and users.

Hypnotic (disambiguation)

Hypnotic is a class of drugs. Hypnotic may also refer to: Hypnosis, an induced mental state or set of attitudes. Hypnotic (Thyrane album). Hypnotic (Wild Orchid album). Hypnotic, a song by Bomfunk Mc's form album Reverse Psychology. Hpnotiq, a brand of liqueur. Hypnotic, a sub-label of Cleopatra Records. "Hypnotic", a song by Zella Day from Kicker. "Hypnotik", a song by Alesha Dixon from Fired Up. Hypnotic (also Close Your Eyes and Doctor Sleep), a 2002 thriller film starring Goran Visnjic. Hypnotic Brass Ensemble, an American jazz group. Hypnotica (Benny Benassi album), a 2003 album by Benny Benassi. Thee Hypnotics, an English band.

Jet Fuel Formula

Hypnotized by Boris, Bullwinkle is able to remember the recipe. However, by the time he does so Boris has fallen asleep, and when Bullwinkle reveals the formula he is "scrootched" (frozen) by the Moon Men. Boris then steals the frozen Bullwinkle. When he revives Boris puts him to work in a new lab where he remembers the new recipe is "2 cups of flour, a pound of kumquats and a hat full of vanilla to give it character" along with "3oz of methylene bromide and a cube of diphenyl phosphate and now a dozen benzochloranes". Boris transmits the moose's research to his superiors, who are blown up trying to repeat it. He also attempts to immobilize the Moon Men with sleeping pills.

Hypnos

Somnusgod of sleepGreek God Hypnos
The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name, referring to the fact that when hypnotized, a person is put into a sleep-like state (hypnos "sleep" + -osis "condition"). The class of medicines known as "hypnotics" which induce sleep also take their name from Hypnos. Additionally, the English word "insomnia" comes from the name of his Latin counterpart, Somnus.

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
The anterograde amnesia and sedative-hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam are sometimes used by predators on unwitting victims as date rape drugs, or for the purpose of robbery. A large-scale, nationwide, U.S. government study of pharmaceutical-related emergency department (ED) visits by SAMHSA found sedative-hypnotics are the pharmaceuticals most frequently used outside of their prescribed medical purpose in the United States, with 35% of drug-related emergency department visits involving sedative-hypnotics. In this category, benzodiazepines are most commonly used. Males and females use benzodiazepines for nonmedical purposes equally.

Truth serum

truth drugnarcoanalysisnarco analysis
Sedatives or hypnotics that alter higher cognitive function include ethanol, scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, potent short or intermediate acting hypnotic benzodiazepines such as midazolam, flunitrazepam, and various short and ultra-short acting barbiturates, including sodium thiopental (commonly known by the brand name Pentothal) and amobarbital (formerly known as sodium amytal). While there have been many clinical studies of the efficacy of narcoanalysis in interrogation or lie detection, there is dispute whether any of them qualify as a randomized, controlled study, that would meet scientific standards for determining effectiveness.

List of concepts in Artemis Fowl

C Cubemesmeract in the ''Artemis Fowl'' series
However, if one's state of consciousness is artificially changed (using sleeping pills, for example), the person in question will have dropped out of the time-stopped area into the outside world. The person will later wake up after the time-stop has disappeared, while to anyone still in the time-stop, the person will have disappeared. A fairy with strong magic skills who is highly trained in the magical arts. In the past warlocks have been used to stop time and wipe minds. In modern times, since Foaly "had them do their thing into lithium batteries," Warlocks are still trained in the magical arts, but their training leans more towards the medical sides, such as emergency medicine.

Leonid Brezhnev

BrezhnevBrezhnev, LeonidBrezhnevite
His physical condition was deteriorating; he had been a heavy smoker until the 1970s, had become addicted to sleeping pills, and had begun drinking to excess. Over the years he had become overweight. From 1973 until his death, Brezhnev's central nervous system underwent chronic deterioration and he had several minor strokes as well as insomnia. In 1975 he suffered his first heart attack. When receiving the Order of Lenin, Brezhnev walked shakily and fumbled his words. According to one American intelligence expert, United States officials knew for several years that Brezhnev had suffered from severe arteriosclerosis and believed he had suffered from other unspecified ailments as well.

Trance

trance stateprogressive trancesystemic trance
HypnosisAndSuggestion.org Exploring the science behind hypnosis and suggestion. InduceTrance.com Induce Hypnotic Trance Naturally. "Trance State Meditation" Khris Krepcik, The Hooded Sage. The Emergence of Novel Information during Trance.

Mentalism

mentalistmind readingmentalists
Performances may appear to include hypnosis, telepathy, clairvoyance, divination, precognition, psychokinesis, mediumship, mind control, memory feats, deduction, and rapid mathematics. Mentalists are sometimes categorized as psychic entertainers, although that category also contains non-mentalist performers such as psychic readers and bizzarists. Much of what modern mentalists perform in their acts can be traced back directly to "tests" of supernatural power that were carried out by mediums, spiritualists, and psychics in the 19th century. However, the history of mentalism goes back even further.

Hypnotic induction

Hypnotic induction is the process undertaken by a hypnotist to establish the state or conditions required for hypnosis to occur. Self-hypnosis is also possible, in which a subject listens to a recorded induction or plays the roles of both hypnotist and subject. James Braid in the nineteenth century saw fixing the eyes on a bright object as the key to hypnotic induction. A century later Freud saw fixing the eyes, or listening to a monotonous sound as indirect methods of induction, as opposed to “the direct methods of influence by way of staring or stroking” —all leading however to the same result, the subject's unconscious concentration on the hypnotist.

Stage hypnosis

stage hypnotisthypnotisthypnosis act
In "The Art and Secrets of Stage Hypnotism" he stressed a terminological distinction between "hypnotism" and "hypnosis", stating that "hypnotism is the art of creating the illusion of hypnosis". Tsander calls his show "I Can't Believe It's NOT Hypnosis", a title since adopted by others. Tsander boldly states in publicity that no participant is ever in a "state of hypnosis". He argues, in "Beyond Hypnosis", that all activities that use hypnotic protocols, such as in hypnotherapy, are based in the cultural influence of roles and schemas of what it is to be hypnotised, ultimately created and sustained through the impressions made by stage hypnotists, manipulating social psychological factors.

Suggestion

suggestedsuggestibleclaimed
With the intention of "saturating the cognitive microenvironment of the mind", Coué's therapeutic method approach was based on four non-controversial principles: Modern scientific study of hypnosis, which follows the pattern of Hull's work, separates two essential factors: "trance" and suggestion. The state of mind induced by "trance" is said to come about via the process of a hypnotic induction—essentially instructing and suggesting to the subject that they will enter a hypnotic state. Once a subject enters hypnosis, the hypnotist gives suggestions that can produce sought effects.

James Braid (surgeon)

James BraidBraidBraid, James
There are only two other words I propose by way of innovation, and those are hypnotism for magnetism and mesmerism, and hypnotised for magnetised and mesmerised. It is important to recognize three things; namely, that: Although Braid was the first to use the terms hypnotism, hypnotise and hypnotist in English, the cognate terms hypnotique, hypnotisme, hypnotiste had been intentionally used by the French magnetist Baron Etienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers (1755–1841) at least as early as 1820. Braid, moreover, was the first person to use "hypnotism" in its modern sense, referring to a "psycho-physiological" theory rather than the "occult" theories of the magnetists.

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
However, many doctors do not recommend relying on prescription sleeping pills for long-term use. It is also important to identify and treat other medical conditions that may be contributing to insomnia, such as depression, breathing problems, and chronic pain. Non-medication based strategies have comparable efficacy to hypnotic medication for insomnia and they may have longer lasting effects. Hypnotic medication is only recommended for short-term use because dependence with rebound withdrawal effects upon discontinuation or tolerance can develop.

Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalgoofballs
Short-acting and intermediate-acting barbiturates are usually prescribed as sedatives and sleeping pills. These pills begin acting fifteen to forty minutes after they are swallowed, and their effects last from five to six hours. Slang terms for barbiturates include barbs, bluebirds, dolls, wallbangers, yellows, downers, goofballs, sleepers, 'reds & blues' and tooties. Thiopental is a barbiturate with one of the C-O double bonds (with the carbon being labelled 2 in the adjacent diagram) replaced with a C-S double bond, R 1 being CH 2 CH 3 and R 2 being CH(CH 3 )CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. * U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Source for some public domain text used on this page.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
Depressants, used as hypnotics, sedatives, and anesthetics, depending upon dosage. Stimulants, which activate the central nervous system. These are used recreationally for their euphoric effects. Hallucinogens (psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants), which induce perceptual and cognitive alterations. Hypnotics, which depress the central nervous system. Opioid analgesics, which also depress the central nervous system. These are used recreationally because of their euphoric effects. Inhalants, in the forms of gas aerosols, or solvents, which are inhaled as a vapor because of their stupefying effects.