New Age

new-ageNew Age Movementmind-body-spirit
Another early influence was the late 18th and early 19th century German physician and hypnotist Franz Mesmer, who claimed the existence of a force known as "animal magnetism" running through the human body. The establishment of Spiritualism, an occult religion influenced by both Swedenborgianism and Mesmerism, in the U.S. during the 1840s has also been identified as a precursor to the New Age, in particular through its rejection of established Christianity, its claims to representing a scientific approach to religion, and its emphasis on channeling spirit entities.

History of hypnosis

Gassner
-I. & Lavoisier, A., "Report of The Commissioners charged by the King with the Examination of Animal Magnetism", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol.50, No.4, (October 2002), pp. 332–363. doi=10.1080/00207140208410109. Harte, R., Hypnotism and the Doctors, Volume I: Animal Magnetism: Mesmer/De Puysegur, L.N. Fowler & Co., (London), 1902. Harte, R., Hypnotism and the Doctors, Volume II: The Second Commission; Dupotet And Lafontaine; The English School; Braid's Hypnotism; Statuvolism; Pathetism; Electro-Biology, L.N. Fowler & Co., (London), 1903. Yeates, L.B., James Braid: Surgeon, Gentleman Scientist, and Hypnotist, Ph.D.

Anomalistic psychology

Anomalistic Psychology Research Unitnon-paranormal
Trance mediumship, which is claimed by the Spiritualists to be caused by discarnate spirits speaking through the medium, has been proven in some cases to be the emergence of alternate personalities from the medium's subconscious mind. The medium may obtain information about their clients, called sitters, by secretly eavesdropping on sitter's conversations or searching telephone directories, the internet and newspapers before the sittings. Mediums are known for employing a technique called cold reading which involves obtaining information from the sitter's behavior, clothing, posture, and jewellery.

Franz Mesmer

MesmerFranz Anton MesmerDr. Mesmer
Franz Friedrich Anton Mesmer (23 May 1734 – 5 March 1815) was a German doctor with an interest in astronomy who theorised that there was a natural energy transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism. The theory attracted a wide following between about 1780 and 1850, and continued to have some influence until the end of the century. In 1843 the Scottish doctor James Braid proposed the term hypnosis for a technique derived from animal magnetism; today this is the usual meaning of mesmerism.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Pierre Janet advanced the idea of a subconscious mind, which could contain autonomous mental elements unavailable to the scrutiny of the subject. Behaviorism notwithstanding, the unconscious mind has maintained its importance in psychology. Cognitive psychologists have used a "filter" model of attention, according to which much information processing takes place below the threshold of consciousness, and only certain processes, limited by nature and by simultaneous quantity, make their way through the filter. Copious research has shown that subconscious priming of certain ideas can covertly influence thoughts and behavior.

James Braid (surgeon)

James BraidBraidBraid, James
There are only two other words I propose by way of innovation, and those are hypnotism for magnetism and mesmerism, and hypnotised for magnetised and mesmerised. It is important to recognize three things; namely, that: Although Braid was the first to use the terms hypnotism, hypnotise and hypnotist in English, the cognate terms hypnotique, hypnotisme, hypnotiste had been intentionally used by the French magnetist Baron Etienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers (1755–1841) at least as early as 1820. Braid, moreover, was the first person to use "hypnotism" in its modern sense, referring to a "psycho-physiological" theory rather than the "occult" theories of the magnetists.

Abbé Faria

Faria
Abbé Faria (Abade Faria), or Abbé (Abbot) José Custódio de Faria (31 May 1756 – 20 September 1819), was a Luso-Goan Catholic monk who was one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Mesmer. Unlike Mesmer, who claimed that hypnosis was mediated by "animal magnetism", Faria understood that it worked purely by the power of suggestion. In the early 19th century, Abbé Faria introduced oriental hypnosis to Paris.

Unconscious mind

unconsciousunconsciouslythe unconscious
Subconscious. Subconscious sex. Transpersonal psychology. Unconscious cognition. Unconscious communication. Books. Psyche (1846). The Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869). Matt Ffytche, The Foundation of the Unconscious: Schelling, Freud and the Birth of the Modern Psyche, Cambridge University Press, 2011. Jon Mills, The Unconscious Abyss: Hegel's Anticipation of Psychoanalysis, SUNY Press, 2002. Jon Mills, Underworlds: Philosophies of the Unconscious from Psychoanalysis to Metaphysics. Routledge, 2014. S. J. McGrath, The Dark Ground of Spirit: Schelling and the Unconscious, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012. Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind, "Implicit Memory".

The Zoist

The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Applications to Human WelfareThe Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology and Mesmerism and their Application to Human Welfare
(London): The choice of the "Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism" sub-title for their journal—rather than, that is, "Animal Magnetism & Phrenology"—is a measure of the pragmatic, materialist, "leading edge" proto-scientific orientation of both Elliotson and Engledue.

Pierre Janet

JanetJanet, P.Janetism
Janet was one of the first people to allege a connection between events in a subject's past life and his or her present-day trauma, and coined the words "dissociation" and "subconscious". His study of the "magnetic passion" or "rapport" between the patient and the hypnotist anticipated later accounts of the transference phenomenon. The 20th century saw Janet developing a grand model of the mind in terms of levels of energy, efficiency and social competence, which he set out in publications including Obsessions and Psychasthenia (1903) and From Anguish to Ecstasy (1926), among others.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianSigmund
In October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a three-month fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcot, a renowned neurologist who was conducting scientific research into hypnosis. He was later to recall the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research. Charcot specialized in the study of hysteria and susceptibility to hypnosis, which he frequently demonstrated with patients on stage in front of an audience. Once he had set up in private practice back in Vienna in 1886, Freud began using hypnosis in his clinical work.

Joseph-Ignace Guillotin

GuillotinDr GuillotinGuillotine
-S., "Secret Report on Mesmerism or Animal Magnetism", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol.50, No.4, (October 2002), pp. 364–368. doi=10.1080/00207140208410110. Franklin, B., Majault, M.J., Le Roy, J.B., Sallin, C.L., Bailly, J.-S., d'Arcet, J., de Bory, G., Guillotin, J.-I. & Lavoisier, A., "Report of The Commissioners charged by the King with the Examination of Animal Magnetism", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol.50, No.4, (October 2002), pp. 332–363. doi=10.1080/00207140208410109.

Autosuggestion

auto-suggestionself-hypnosisself-suggestion
In 1885, his investigations of hypnotism and the power of the imagination began with Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault and Hippolyte Bernheim, two leading exponents of "hypnosis", of Nancy, with whom he studied in 1885 and 1886 (having taken leave from his business in Troyes). Following this training, "he dabbled with ‘hypnosis’ in Troyes in 1886, but soon discovered that their Liébeault's techniques were hopeless, and abandoned ‘hypnosis’ altogether".

Benjamin Franklin

FranklinBen FranklinFranklin, Benjamin
-S., "Secret Report on Mesmerism or Animal Magnetism", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol.50, No.4, (October 2002), pp. 364–68. Franklin, B., Majault, M.J., Le Roy, J.B., Sallin, C.L., Bailly, J.-S., d'Arcet, J., de Bory, G., Guillotin, J.-I. & Lavoisier, A., "Report of The Commissioners charged by the King with the Examination of Animal Magnetism", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 50, No. 4, (October 2002), pp. 332–63. The Papers of Benjamin Franklin online, Sponsored by The American Philosophical Society and Yale University. Benjamin Franklin Reader edited by Walter Isaacson (2003).

Stage hypnosis

stage hypnotisthypnotisthypnosis act
The two work together as a unit in applying Power Hypnosis. The operation of the two energies in combination is what Mesmer referred to as "animal magnetism". However, this is not what Braid meant by "hypnotism", a term coined in opposition to theories of Mesmerism, to stress the fact that the results were due to ordinary psychological and physiological processes, such as suggestion and focused attention, rather than telepathy or animal magnetism. Indeed, after meeting with Mr.

Hypnotic induction

Hypnotic induction is the process undertaken by a hypnotist to establish the state or conditions required for hypnosis to occur. Self-hypnosis is also possible, in which a subject listens to a recorded induction or plays the roles of both hypnotist and subject. James Braid in the nineteenth century saw fixing the eyes on a bright object as the key to hypnotic induction. A century later Freud saw fixing the eyes, or listening to a monotonous sound as indirect methods of induction, as opposed to “the direct methods of influence by way of staring or stroking” —all leading however to the same result, the subject's unconscious concentration on the hypnotist.

Age regression in therapy

hypnotic regressionage regressionregression
The purpose of hypnotic age regression is to reframe the negative feelings and perceptions of the past to facilitate progress towards the patient's goals. It allows patients to find the cause of their current blocks and eliminate their past traumas. When patients are hypnotized, they are in an altered state that allows for their subconscious mind to be accessed. The subconscious mind holds the behaviors and habits that people exhibit to protect them. These behaviors and habits are repeated until they are not necessary any more. Hypnotic age regression allows for patients to reframe and purge their unnecessary behaviors.

Suggestion

suggestedsuggestibleclaimed
(iv) specific-moment influence (Bernheim's suggestions à longue échéance, 'suggestions to be realised after a long interval'), which are (i) intended "to produce a particular effect at a designated later hour", (ii) have "no influence before the appointed hour", (iii) nor "after it had expired" (Barrows, 1896, pp.22–23), or. (4) post-hypnotic suggestions, delivered to dehypnotised-but-not-yet-completely-reoriented subjects. Affirmations. Attitude. Autosuggestion. Autogenic training. Crowd manipulation. Hypnosis. Hypnotic susceptibility. Nancy School. Neuro-linguistic programming. Posthypnotic amnesia. The Salpêtrière School of Hypnosis. Self-hypnosis. Subconscious. Suggestibility.

Psychotherapy

psychotherapistpsychotherapeutictherapy
Another influential movement was started by Franz Mesmer (1734–1815) and his student Armand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis of Puységur (1751–1825). Called Mesmerism or animal magnetism, it would have a strong influence on the rise of dynamic psychology and psychiatry as well as theories about hypnosis. In 1853 Walter Cooper Dendy introduced the term "psycho-therapeia" regarding how physicians might influence the mental states of sufferers and thus their bodily ailments, for example by creating opposing emotions to promote mental balance. Daniel Hack Tuke cited the term and wrote about "psycho-therapeutics" in 1872, in which he also proposed making a science of animal magnetism.

Amand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis of Puységur

Marquis de PuységurPuységurArmand Marie Jacques de Chastenet, marquis de Puységur
In this work, Sloterdijk emphasized Puységur's contributions in his refutation of the common idea that intellectuals of the Enlightenment were not interested in the subconscious mind. Gauld, A., A History of Hypnotism, Cambridge University Press, 1992. Harte, R., Hypnotism and the Doctors, Volume I: Animal Magnetism: Mesmer/De Puysegur, L.N. Fowler & Co., (London), 1902.

Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers

He is credited for popularizing a system of scientific nomenclature by using the prefix "hypn" in words such as hypnotique (hypnotic), hypnotisme (hypnotism) and hypnotiste (hypnotist). He used these terms as early as 1820, and is believed by many to have coined these names. In 1820 he became editor of the Archives du Magnetisme Animal (Archives of Animal Magnetism). * Etienne Felix d'Henin de Cuvillers A founder of hypnosis

Albert Moll (German psychiatrist)

Albert Moll
Moll was a leading researcher on subject of hypnotism. Moll published his account of the history of hypnotism and his own experiments in Hypnotism, 1889, in preparation of which he was assisted by support from Prof. Auguste Forel and Dr. Max Dessoir. Moll was strong critic of mysticism, occultism and spiritualism. Even though he studied parapsychical research he was critical of it and offered naturalistic psychological explanations for paranormal phenomena. He frequently indulged in the unmasking of mediums and séances. His book Christian Science, Medicine, and Occultism (1902) is an early text on anomalistic psychology.

Hypnosis in popular culture

Chris Joneshypnotic induction in film and television
. * The fictional crime-fighter, The Red Panda, featured on Decoder Ring Theatre, uses a highly fictionalized form of hypnotic power. • HypnosisHypnotic induction • History of hypnosis • Secret police *Bolesław Prus, Pharaoh, translated from the Polish by Christopher Kasparek, 2nd, rev. ed., Warsaw, Polestar Publications, ISBN: 83-88177-01-X, and New York, Hippocrene Books, 2001. Edgar Allan Poe, "The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar" (1845) about a mesmerist who puts a man in a suspended hypnotic state at the moment of death. Ambrose Bierce's story "The Realm of the Unreal" (1890) pivots on the idea of a very long hypnosis.

Hypnotherapy

hypnotherapistclinical hypnosishypnotherapists
Hypnosis. Hypnosurgery. Indian board of clinical hypnotherapy. The Pregnant Man and Other Cases From a Hypnotherapist's Couch. Psychotherapy. Subconscious mind. Suggestibility. The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Applications to Human Welfare.

Sleep-learning

hypnopediasleep learninghypnopedic
She suggests that the latest scientific method of "subconscious learning" will help. She records the lessons on a tape which plays repeatedly while he is asleep. He passes the quiz after the answers "come to him" while looking at the questions. In the 1965 episode of "I Spy" titled Chrysanthemum, the assigned partner of Bill Cosby and Robert Culp's characters, Maximilian de Broget claims to have learned Mandarin Chinese in his sleep. In the 1965 movie The Monkey's Uncle, a college student connects a phonograph to an automatic timer, which plays to sleeping students the voice of a girl reading their lessons aloud.