. • Bullerby Syndrome • IKEA • Scandinavian design • Swedish Cultural Center • Swedish cuisine • Swedish diaspora • Swedish festivities


self-worthself-respectself esteem
"idealized love of self...rejected the part of him" that he denigrates – "this destructive little child" within.

Stockholm syndrome

Lima syndromeidentification with the aggressora savior
Stockholm syndrome is a condition which causes hostages to develop a psychological alliance with their captors during captivity. These alliances result from a bond formed between captor and captives during intimate time together, but they are generally considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims. The FBI's Hostage Barricade Database System and Law Enforcement Bulletin indicate that roughly 8% of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome.

Otto F. Kernberg

Otto KernbergKernbergOtto Friedmann Kernberg
He distinguished three types, namely the idealizing, the mirror, or the twinship transference. His debate with Kernberg concerns mostly the idealizing transference, which, according to Kohut, relates to a fixation at an archaic level of normal development. Still Kernberg believed that the idealizing transference is nothing more than a pathological type of idealization that is produced as a response to the substantial instigation of the grandiose self in the transference. Otto F. Kernberg and Heinz Kohut regard the analytic process as well as the role of the analyst in quite different terms.

Electrical element

circuit elementelementelements
These ideal electrical elements represent real, physical electrical or electronic components but they do not exist physically and they are assumed to have ideal properties, while actual electrical components have less than ideal properties, a degree of uncertainty in their values and some degree of nonlinearity. To model the nonideal behavior of a real circuit component may require a combination of multiple ideal electrical elements in order to approximate its function. For example, an inductor circuit element is assumed to have inductance but no resistance or capacitance, while a real inductor, a coil of wire, has some resistance in addition to its inductance.

Abusive power and control

controlling behaviorcoercive controlcontrolling behaviour
Abusive power and control (also controlling behavior and coercive control) is the way that an abusive person gains and maintains power and control over another person in order to subject that victim to psychological, physical, sexual, or financial abuse. The motivations of the abuser are varied and can include devaluation, envy, personal gain, personal gratification, psychological projection, or just for the sake of the enjoyment of exercising power and control.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
People with BPD often engage in idealization and devaluation of others, alternating between high positive regard for people and great disappointment in them. Their feelings about others often shift from admiration or love to anger or dislike after a disappointment, a threat of losing someone, or a perceived loss of esteem in the eyes of someone they value. This phenomenon is sometimes called splitting. Combined with mood disturbances, idealization and devaluation can undermine relationships with family, friends, and co-workers.

Narcissistic abuse

and her ownintimidates and threatens anyone opposed to his ideasParental narcissistic abuse
Estela Welldon, Mother, Madonna, Whore: The Idealization and Denigration of Motherhood (1988). Shahida Arabi POWER: Surviving and Thriving After Narcissistic Abuse: A Collection of Essays on Malignant Narcissism and Recovery from Emotional Abuse Paperback (2017).

Self psychology

self-psychologyempathic failuresSelf psychologist
Kohut saw idealizing as a central aspect of early narcissism. 'The therapeutic activation of the omnipotent object (the idealized parent image) ... referred to as the idealizing transference, is the revival during psychoanalysis' of the very early need to establish a mutual selfobject connection with an object of idealization. In terms of 'the Kleinian school ... the idealizing transference may cover some of the territory of so-called projective identification'. For the young child, ' idealized selfobjects "provide the experience of merger with the calm, power, wisdom, and goodness of idealized persons"'.

Father figure

mother figurefather or brother figuresfather-figure
Other functions a father figure can provide include: helping establish personal boundaries between mother and child; promoting self-discipline, teamwork and a sense of gender identity; offering a window into the wider world; and providing opportunities for both idealisation and its realistic working-through. Studies have shown that a lack of a father figure in a child's life can have severe negative psychological impacts upon a child's personality and psychology, whereas positive father figures have a significant role in a child's development. • Father complex • Mentor • Paternal bond • Responsible fatherhood • Social father • Wise old man Leaders such as Franklin D.

Narcissistic personality disorder

The merging of the inflated self-concept and the actual self is evident in the grandiosity component of narcissistic personality disorder; also inherent to that psychological process are the defense mechanisms of idealization and devaluation and of denial. The DSM-5 indicates that: "Many highly successful individuals display personality traits that might be considered narcissistic. Only when these traits are inflexible, maladaptive, and persisting, and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress, do they constitute narcissistic personality disorder."

Southern belle

southern bellesbellebelles
The Southern belle archetype has been criticized as part of an overall idealization of the Antebellum era American South in popular culture. Slavery figured strongly into the region's economy during the plantation era.

Fantasy bond

The origins of a fantasy bond can be found in the failures of childhood parenting, denial of which leads to an over-valuation and idealisation of the parent/parents in question. The result can be a sense of grandiosity based on the internalisation of the parental value systems, an acceptance of the inner critic with its automatic thoughts as a substitute for real relating. Such over-idealisation of the past protects against the re-emergence of painful memories, but also ties into the perpetuation of current ersatz relationships with only the object of idolatry changed in the new fantasy bond.

Erica Kane

EricaErika Kane
"Erica idealized her father—who was a son of a bitch—and she refused to see that," Heflin said. Whenever Eric disappoints Erica, she blames her mother. "Then, of course, would come the moment of breakdown when she would cry on [Mona's] shoulder," Helfin said. "So it's more or less human. Really, more human and less saccharine than most of the mother/children relationships on soaps. It has an awful lot of bit in it." After Mona's death in 1994, the character continues on as a god-like figure Erica looks to for guidance repeatedly throughout the series. From the start of the series, the lack of a relationship with her father serves as motivation for Erica's actions.

Psychological projection

Melanie Klein saw the projection of good parts of the self as leading potentially to over-idealisation of the object. Equally, it may be one's conscience that is projected, in an attempt to escape its control: a more benign version of this allows one to come to terms with outside authority. Projection tends to come to the fore in normal people at times of personal or political crisis but is more commonly found in personalities functioning at a primitive level as in narcissistic personality disorder or borderline personality disorder.

Dramaturgy (sociology)

dramaturgydramaturgical perspectivedramaturgical
When the performer wants to stress something, s/he will carry on the dramatic realization. 4) Idealization. A performance often presents an idealized view of the situation to avoid confusion (misrepresentation) and strengthen other elements (fronts, dramatic realization). Audiences often have an 'idea' of what a given situation (performance) should look like and performers will try to carry out the performance according to that idea. 5) Maintenance of expressive control refers to the need to stay 'in character'.

Index of psychology articles

List of psychological topics
and devaluation - Ideas bank - Ideas of reference - Ideasthesia - Ideation - Identification (information) - Identity crisis (psychology) - Ideomotor effect - Idiot savant - Idiothetic - Image schema - Imagination - Imitation - Immediate memory - Implementation intention - Impotence - Impregnation fetish - Imprinting (psychology) - Impulse (psychology) - Impulse control disorder - Incentive salience - Incest - Incest taboo - Incompetent to stand trial - Indirect realism - Individual differences psychology - Individual psychology - Individuation - Inductive reasoning - Industrial and organizational psychology - paraphilic infantilism - Infantophilia - Inference - Inferiority complex - Informed


"Recent feminist theory has clarified the use of the term as it applies to the genre" of the sentimental novel, stressing the way that 'different cultural assumptions arising from the oppression of women gave liberating significance to the works' piety and mythical power to the ideals of the heroines". ''' The sentimental fallacy is an ancient rhetorical device that attributes human emotions, such as grief or anger, to the forces of nature.

Id, ego and super-ego

In "The Ego and the Id" (1923), Freud presents "the general character of harshness and cruelty exhibited by the [ego] ideal — its dictatorial Thou shalt; thus, in the psychology of the ego, Freud hypothesized different levels of ego ideal or superego development with greater ideals: ". . . nor must it be forgotten that a child has a different estimate of [their] parents at different periods of [their] life. At the time at which the Oedipus complex gives place to the super-ego they are something quite magnificent; but later, they lose much of this.

Devaluation (disambiguation)

Devaluation is a reduction in the value of a currency with respect to other monetary units.

Workplace bullying

Workplace bullying is a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes either physical or emotional harm. It can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation. This type of workplace aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical school bully, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organization and their society. In the majority of cases, bullying in the workplace is reported as having been done by someone who has authority over the victim. However, bullies can also be peers, and occasionally subordinates.


The SatyriconCena TrimalchionisSatyrica
Petronius mixes together two antithetical genres: the cynic and parodic menippean satire, and the idealizing and sentimental Greek romance. The mixing of these two radically contrasting genres generates the sophisticated humor and ironic tone of Satyricon. The name “satyricon” implies that the work belongs to the type to which Varro, imitating the Greek Menippus, had given the character of a medley of prose and verse composition. But the string of fictitious narrative by which the medley is held together is something quite new in Roman literature.

Mircea Nedelciu

The "need for freedom", Diniţoiu argues, is associated in Nedelciu's fiction with "surprisingly romance" love affairs, whose female protagonists "are often on the verge of ideal projection." The narrative is generally laid out as a ceaseless travel, and the often guide-like protagonists seem to suffer their crises only in rare moments of respite. An allusive background to these fictional biographies is provided by the social context: like the author himself, the characters are often uprooted people who relate to historical events as a seminal but mysterious collective trauma.

Symbolic equation

Symbolic equations have been connected to the splitting of the paranoid-schizoid position; alternatively they can be seen as the result of a failure to make distinctions between self and others, or between real and idealised objects. • Elliott Jaques • Mentalization • Peter Fonagy • Psychic equivalence *Hanna Segal, The Work of Hanna Segal (New York 1981) * Symbolic Equation Psychological trauma can lead to a collapse of the boundaries between inner and outer worlds, so that anything reminiscent of the trauma becomes by symbolic equation the trauma itself.

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder

complex PTSDcomplex traumacomplex posttraumatic stress disorder
The RR ratios presented in Table 5 revealed that the following symptoms were highly indicative of placement in the BPD rather than the CPTSD class: (1) frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, (2) unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation, (3) markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self, and (4) impulsiveness.