Library of Congress Guide to the American Revolution. Bibliographies of the War of American Independence https://web.archive.org/web/20151101171424/http://www.history.army.mil/reference/revbib/revwar.htm compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History. Political bibliography from Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.
Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was a statesman, diplomat, architect, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had been elected the second vice president of the United States, serving under John Adams from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. Jefferson was mainly of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia.
the War of 1812war1812
As Risjord (1961) notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; [Andrew] Jackson, who still bore scars from the first war of independence, held that view with special conviction. The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was also about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have often called it the United States' "Second War of Independence".
FLState of FloridaFloridian
Neither East Florida nor West Florida sent any representatives to Philadelphia to draft the Declaration of Independence. Florida remained a Loyalist stronghold for the duration of the American Revolution. Spain regained both East and West Florida after Britain's defeat in the American Revolution and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles in 1783, and continued the provincial divisions until 1821. Defense of Florida's northern border with the United States was minor during the second Spanish period. The region became a haven for escaped slaves and a base for Indian attacks against U.S. territories, and the U.S. pressed Spain for reform.
LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
As early as the 1850s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln redirected emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of American political values—what he called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism. The Declaration's emphasis on freedom and equality for all, in contrast to the Constitution's tolerance of slavery, shifted the debate. As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union speech of early 1860, "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself."
After securing enough votes for passage, independence was voted for on July 2. The Declaration of Independence was drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson and presented by the committee; it was unanimously adopted by the entire Congress on July 4, and each of the colonies became independent and autonomous. The next step was to form a union to facilitate international relations and alliances.
state holidaynational holidayHolidays
Observed with Jefferson Davis' Birthday, and known officially as National Memorial Day / Jefferson Davis' Birthday, in Mississippi. July 4 – Independence Day. September 1–7 (floating Monday) – Labor Day. November 11 – Veterans Day. Known officially as Armistice Day in Mississippi. November 22–28 (floating Thursday) – Thanksgiving. December 25 – Christmas. Confederate Memorial Day is a public holiday observed by Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Louisiana and Texas and an unofficially observed holiday in some other states. It is often in late April to align with the final surrender of the last Confederate Army. Texas observes Confederate Heroes Day.
Constitutionalism in the United States. History of democracy. List of national constitutions (world countries). List of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution. List of sources of law in the United States. National Constitution Center. Pocket Constitution. State constitution (United States). Second Constitutional Convention of the United States. The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation. Mayflower Compact (1620). Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639). Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641). Bill of Rights 1689 – English Bill of Rights. United States Declaration of Independence (1776). Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779).
Liberty Bell CenterBellL. Bell
Although no immediate announcement was made of the Second Continental Congress's vote for independence, and so the bell could not have rung on July 4, 1776, related to that vote, bells were rung on July 8 to mark the reading of the United States Declaration of Independence. While there is no contemporary account of the Liberty Bell ringing, most historians believe it was one of the bells rung. After American independence was secured, the bell fell into relative obscurity until, in the 1830s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies, who dubbed it the "Liberty Bell".
They did permit continuation of the British common law, which American lawyers and jurists understood, approved of, and used in their everyday practice. Historians have examined how the rising American legal profession adapted the British common law to incorporate republicanism by selective revision of legal customs and by introducing more choice for courts. Atlantic history. British America. British colonization of the Americas. Colonial American military history. Colonial government in the Thirteen Colonies. Colonial history of the United States. Colonial South and the Chesapeake. Credit in the Thirteen Colonies. Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies. History of the United States (1776–89).
The Second Congress managed the Colonial war effort and moved incrementally towards independence. It eventually adopted the Lee Resolution which established the new country on July 2, 1776, and it agreed to the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The Congress acted as the de facto national government of the United States by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties such as the Olive Branch Petition. The Second Continental Congress came together on May 11, 1775, effectively reconvening the First Continental Congress.
Georgiacolony of GeorgiaGeorgia Colony
It was the last of the thirteen original American colonies established by Great Britain in what later became the United States. In the original grant, a narrow strip of the province extended to the Pacific Ocean. The colony's corporate charter was granted to General James Oglethorpe on April 21, 1732, by George II, for whom the colony was named. The charter was finalized by the King's privy council on June 9, 1732. Oglethorpe envisioned a colony which would serve as a haven for English subjects who had been imprisoned for debt. General Oglethorpe imposed very strict laws that many colonists disagreed with, such as the banning of alcoholic beverages.
The Confederate military leadership included many veterans from the United States Army and United States Navy who had resigned their Federal commissions and had won appointment to senior positions in the Confederate armed forces. Many had served in the Mexican–American War (including Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis), but some such as Leonidas Polk (who graduated from West Point but did not serve in the Army) had little or no experience. The Confederate officer corps consisted of men from both slave-owning and non-slave-owning families. The Confederacy appointed junior and field grade officers by election from the enlisted ranks.
Current members of the United States House of Representatives. Current members of the United States Senate. List of United States Congresses. Lobbying in the United States. 115th United States Congress. Party divisions of United States Congresses. Term limits in the United States. United States Congressional Baseball Game. United States congressional hearing. United States presidents and control of congress. United States Congress Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction. Radio and Television Correspondents' Association. Baker, Ross K. (2000). House and Senate, 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton. (Procedural, historical, and other information about both houses).
WashingtonGeneral WashingtonPresident Washington
On January 31, 1781 (before he had even begun his presidency), he was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. During the United States Bicentennial, to ensure Washington would never by outranked, Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 passed on January 19, 1976, with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1976. Parson Weems's hagiographical account The Life of Washington (1809) helped elevate Washington to heroic legendary status.
resolution of independenceresolutiona resolution
The Lee Resolution (also known as "The Resolution for Independence") was the formal assertion passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 2, 1776 which declared the establishment of a new country of United Colonies as independent from the British Empire, creating what became the United States of America. News of this act was published that evening in the Pennsylvania Evening Post and the next day in the Pennsylvania Gazette. The text of the document formally announcing this action was the Declaration of Independence, approved two days later on July 4, 1776, which is celebrated as Independence Day.
Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of President of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries. Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. It lasted in about half the states until 1865, when it was prohibited nationally by the Thirteenth Amendment. As an economic system, slavery was largely replaced by sharecropping.
Richard LeeFrancis Lightfoot Lee IILee
Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732 – June 19, 1794) was an American statesman from Virginia best known for the Lee Resolution, the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation, and his "resolution for independency" of June 1776 led to the United States Declaration of Independence, which Lee signed. He also served a one-year term as the President of the Congress of the Confederation, and was a United States Senator from Virginia from 1789 to 1792, serving during part of that time as the second President pro tempore of the upper house.
MDState of MarylandMd.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, and by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key political and military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U.S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, and mass immigration from Europe.
GeorgiaGAState of Georgia
The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, and was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
states rightsstate's rightsstate sovereignty
They argue that it was instead the result of the increasing cognitive dissonance in the minds of Northerners and (some) Southern non-slaveowners between the ideals that the United States was founded upon and identified itself as standing for, as expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of Rights, and the reality that the slave-power represented, as what they describe as an anti-democratic, counter-republican, oligarchic, despotic, authoritarian, if not totalitarian, movement for ownership of human beings as the personal chattels of the slaver.
SCState of South CarolinaS.C.
The College of Charleston, founded in 1770 and chartered in 1785, is the oldest institution of higher learning in South Carolina, the 13th oldest in the United States, and the first municipal college in the country. The college is in company with the Colonial Colleges as one of the original and foundational institutions of higher education in the United States. Its founders include three signers of the United States Declaration of Independence and three signers of the United States Constitution. The college's historic campus, listed on the U.S. Department of the Interior's National Register of Historic Places, forms an integral part of Charleston's colonial-era urban center.
the MallMallWashington Mall
Victory Garden at the National Museum of American History. Heirloom Garden at the National Museum of American History, Behring Center. Native Landscape at the National Museum of the American Indian. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. United States Capitol and its grounds (no. 7 on image). Union Square, containing:. Capitol Reflecting Pool (no. 8 on image). Ulysses S. Grant Memorial (east of no. 8 on image). Peace Monument (in traffic circle northeast of no. 8 in image). United States Botanic Garden (no. 9 on image). James A. Garfield Monument (in traffic circle northeast of no. 9 in image). United States Department of Agriculture South Building.
National Public RadioNational Public Radio (NPR)NPR.org
Starting on July 4, 1988, NPR has broadcast an annual reading of the United States Declaration of Independence over the radio. In 2017 it began using Twitter as a medium for reading the document as well. On July 4, 2017, the 100+ tweets were met with considerable opposition, some online supporters of Donald Trump mistakenly believing the words of the Declaration referring to George III of the United Kingdom to be directed towards the president. The tweets were called "trash" and were accused of being left-wing propaganda, condoning violence and calling for revolution. Source: NPR member station managers. Mike Crane, director, Wisconsin Public Radio.