Ancient history

antiquityancientancient world
Over time, a great variety of religions developed around the world, with some of the earliest major ones being Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism in India, and Zoroastrianism in Persia. The Abrahamic religions trace their origin to Judaism, around 1800 BC. The ancient Indian philosophy is a fusion of two ancient traditions: Sramana tradition and Vedic tradition. Indian philosophy begins with the Vedas where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. Jainism and Buddhism are continuation of the Sramana school of thought.

Culture of Asia

AsianAsian cultureAsian cultures
Referred to as the Indus Valley Civilisation or Harappan Civilisation it thrived for almost 2.000 years until the onset of the Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 600 B.C.). The great significance of the Vedic texts (that don't mention cities or urban life) for South Asian culture, their impact on family, societal organisation, religion, morale, literature etc. has never been contested. The Indus Valley Civilisation on the other hand has only come to light by means of 20th century archaeology. Scholars, who employ several periodization models argue over whether South Asian tradition is consciously committed to the Harappan culture.


Bhoj Shala
Bhojshala is presently an archaeological site under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India, but over the last century is has become a site disputed between Hindus and Muslims. The exploration of the location since the 19th century has yielded information on medieval religions particularly of Hinduism and Jainism. The general precinct around the Bhojshala is also the location of four Sufi tombs. The hypostyle mosque was built primarily from temple pillars and parts around 1390 CE, while the original tomb of Kamal al-Din Malawi (c. 1238-1330) is older. The Muslims use the mosque for Friday prayers and Islamic festivals, while the Hindus pray on Tuesday.

List of World Heritage Sites in India

Indiatentative listWorld Heritage
List of rock-cut temples in India. List of forts in India. List of museums in India. Lists of Indian Monuments of National Importance. Lists of World Heritage Sites in Asia. Table of World Heritage Sites by country. Tourism in India. World Heritage Committee. UNESCO INDIA. Seven UNESCO Natural World Heritage Sites In India.

Arts and entertainment in India

South AsianArts and entertainment in '''IndiaIndian bronzes
Thirayattam enacted in courtyards of sacred groves and village shrines, during Thirayattam festival. first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization, where stone and bronze carvings have been discovered. This is one of the earliest instances of sculpture in the world. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed further, India produced some of the most intricate bronzes in the world, as well as unriveled temple carvings. Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not actually constructed using blocks, but instead carved out of solid rock, making them perhaps the largest and most intricate sculptures in the world.

Agni Yoga

Living Ethics
There is a broad variety of yoga schools, practices, and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Yoga is a group of spiritual, mental, and physical practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. The term Yoga has been applied to a variety of practices and methods. In Hinduism these include Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga, Laya Yoga and Hatha Yoga. The term Rāja Yoga originally referred to the ultimate goal of yoga, which is Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि, ), but was popularised by Swami Vivekananda as the common name for Ashtanga Yoga. In the Ashtanga Yoga tradition, Samadhi is the eighth and final limb identified in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Demographics of the world

Bengali is spoken by around 250 to 300 million people worldwide, predominantly in Bangladesh and India. Hindi is spoken by about 200 million speakers, mostly in India. Portuguese is spoken by about 230 million speakers in Portugal, Brazil, East Timor, and Southern Africa. There are numerous other languages, grouped into nine major families: There are also hundreds of non-verbal sign languages.

History of the world

modern historymodern erahuman history
On the Indian subcontinent, the Delhi Sultanate and the Deccan sultanates would give way, beginning in the 16th century, to the Mughal Empire. Starting in the northwest, the Mughal Empire would by the late 17th century come to rule the entire subcontinent, except for the southernmost Indian provinces, which would remain independent. Against the Muslim Mughal Empire, the Hindu Maratha Empire was founded on the west coast in 1674, gradually gaining territory—a majority of present-day India—from the Mughals over several decades, particularly in the Mughal–Maratha Wars (1681–1701).

History of Asian art

Asian artAsianOriental art
Indian art can be classified into specific periods, each reflecting certain religious, political and cultural developments. The earliest examples are the petroglyphs such as those found in Bhimbetka, some of them dating to before 5500 BC. The production of such works continued for several millenniums. The art of the Indus Valley Civilization followed. Later examples include the carved pillars of Ellora, Maharashtra state. Other examples are the frescoes of Ajanta and Ellora Caves. The contributions of the Mughal Empire to Indian art include Mughal painting, a style of miniature painting heavily influenced by Persian miniatures, and Mughal architecture.

Hinduism in the United States

HinduismAmerican HindusAmerican Hindu
The Texas-based Vedic Foundation and the American Hindu Education Foundation complained to California's Curriculum Commission, arguing that the coverage in sixth grade history textbooks of Indian history and Hinduism was biased against Hinduism. Points of contention included a textbook's portrayal of the caste system, the Indo-Aryan migration theory, and the status of women in Indian society. *Persecution of Hindus * Bhatia, Sunill. (2007). American Karma: Race, Culture, and Identity in the Indian Diaspora. ISBN: 0-8147-9959-0. Hindu American Foundation. Hindu University of America. Hinduism in Los Angeles. Hinduism Today. Persecution of Hindus. Hinduism in Guyana.

Teachings and philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda's visionteaching
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna. [4][5] He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world [6][7] and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. [8] He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India, and contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India. [9] Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission. [7] He is perhaps best known for his speech which began, "Sisters and brothers

Indian Americans

Indian AmericanIndian-AmericanIndian
Jains Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in the 20th century. The most significant time of Jain immigration was in the early 1970s. The US has since become a center of the Jain diaspora. The Federation of Jain Associations in North America is an umbrella organization of local American and Canadian Jain congregations. Unlike India and United Kingdom, the Jain community in United States doesn't find sectarian differences, Both Digambara and Śvētāmbara a share common roof.


DhrangdhraDhangadhraDhrangadhra State
Traditionally, the 'Sompura' cast from Dhrangadhra have built and designed many Jain derasars - a type of temple of Jain people all over Gujarat and India. It is known that the temple of Somnath is built by the Sompura cast living in Dhrangadhra. * Dhrangadhra (Vidhan Sabha constituency) Shree Swaminarayan Sanskardham Gurukul, Dhrangadhra.


One of the most widely used entheogens is cannabis, entheogenic use of cannabis has been used in regions such as China, Europe, and India, and, in some cases, for thousands of years. It has also appeared as a part of religions and cultures such as the Rastafari movement, the Sadhus of Hinduism, the Scythians, Sufi Islam, and others. The best-known entheogen-using culture of Africa is the Bwitists, who used a preparation of the root bark of Tabernanthe iboga.

List of religions and spiritual traditions

Otherreligious affiliationList of religions and religious denominations
*Pagan *Aum Shinrikyo *Manchu shamanism Religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them. *Buddhism in the United States ; Bhakti movements ; Neo-Hinduism ; Hindu philosophy major schools and movements Religions that originated in the Middle East; namely Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them. Certain Christian groups are difficult to classify as "Eastern" or "Western." Many Gnostic groups were closely related to early Christianity, for example, Valentinism.

Hinduism in Pakistan

HinduHinduismPakistani Hindus
In May 2014, a member of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Dr Ramesh Kumar Vankwani, revealed in the National Assembly of Pakistan that around 5,000 Hindus are migrating from Pakistan to India every year. Those Pakistani Hindus who have migrated to India allege that Hindu girls are harassed in Pakistani schools and their religious practices are mocked. The Indian government is planning to issue Aadhaar cards and PAN cards to Pakistani Hindu refugees, and simplifying the process by which they can acquire Indian citizenship. Many Hindus voluntarily converts to Islam for easily getting Watan Cards and National Identification Cards. These converts were also given land and money.


Humanitythe humanitieshumanistic
Over time, a great variety of religions developed around the world, with Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism in India, and Zoroastrianism in Persia being some of the earliest major faiths. In the east, three schools of thought were to dominate Chinese thinking until the modern day. These were Taoism, Legalism, and Confucianism. The Confucian tradition, which would attain predominance, looked not to the force of law, but to the power and example of tradition for political morality. In the west, the Greek philosophical tradition, represented by the works of Plato and Aristotle, was diffused throughout Europe and the Middle East by the conquests of Alexander of Macedon in the 4th century BC.

Southeast Asia

South East AsiaSouth-East AsiaSoutheast Asian
These belief systems were later supplanted by Hinduism and Buddhism after the region, especially coastal areas, came under contacts with Indian subcontinent during the 1st century. Indian Brahmins and traders brought Hinduism to the region and made contacts with local courts. Local rulers converted to Hinduism or Buddhism and adopted Indian religious traditions to reinforce their legitimacy, elevate ritual status above their fellow chief counterparts and facilitate trade with South Asian states. They periodically invited Indian Brahmins into their realms and began a gradual process of Indianisation in the region.

Kutch district

KutchKachchhKachchh District
There are several sites related to the Indus valley civilization in the region, and it is mentioned in Hindu mythology. In historic times, Kutch is mentioned in Greek writings during Alexander. It was ruled by Menander I of Greco-Bactrian Kingdom which was overthrown by Indo-Scythians followed by Maurya Empire and Sakas. In the first century, it was under Western Satraps followed by Gupta Empire. By the fifth century, Maitraka of Valabhi took over from which its close association with the ruling clans of Gujarat started. Chavdas ruled the eastern and central parts by seventh century but came under Chaulukyas by tenth century. After the fall of Chaulukya, Vaghelas ruled the state.

Rajasthani people

RajasthaniRajasthanis Rajasthani
Although history of Rajasthan goes back as far as Indus Valley Civilization, the foundation of Rajasthani community took shape with the rise of Western Middle Kingdoms such as Western Kshatrapas. Western Kshatrapas (35-405 BC) were rulers of the western part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Southern Sindh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan). They were successors to the Indo-Scythians who invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era (with Saka calendar), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps kingdom. Saka calendar (also been adopted as Indian national calendar) is used by Rajasthani community and adjoining areas such as Punjab and Haryana.


GurukulGurukulamJain Gurukul
The Gurukula system of education is available outside of India as well. At the Jain Culture Center of Antwerp, children between the ages of 8 till 16 study Vedic mathematics, Art, Music, as well as Vedic Astrology, Jyotishi, Sanskrit and Yoga. Children participate in this Gurukula during holiday times at the traditional schools, for a week in October / November, 2 weeks during Easter break, and 1 month during summer break. Education in India. History of education in the Indian subcontinent. Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya. Gurukul Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, Suryakund, Budaun. Uchi-deshi (a similar system in Japan). Swaminarayan Gurukul. Photography Gurukul. Acharyakulam.

Indian psychology

Hindu psychology
Varied topics have been addressed to date in Indian psychology publications. Chaudhary noted that the Handbook contains sections on schools of thought (Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and various related traditions), specific psychological processes and constructs ("values, personality, perception, cognition, emotion, creativity, education, and spirituality" ), and applications to individual psychology and group dynamics, including meditation from different traditions, yoga, and ayurveda. The Indian psychology literature also includes case studies of a number of prominent Indian spiritual figures and their legacies, including Saint Tukārāma, B. G.


Meguti Jain Temple, on tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of Aihole temple complex. Muchhal Mahavir Temple in Rajasthan. Rata Mahaveerji, Bijapur, Rajasthan. Bhandavapur Jain Tirth. Dimapur Jain Temple. Jivantasvami. Arihant (Jainism). God in Jainism. History of Jainism. Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence. Timeline of Jainism.

Jaggi Vasudev

SadhguruSadhguru Jaggi VasudevSadguru jaggi vasudev
Sadhguru was conferred the Padma Vibhushan civilian award by the Government of India in 2017 in recognition of his contribution to the field of spirituality. Born in Mysore, Karnataka, India, in a Telugu speaking family, Jaggi Vasudev was the youngest of four children – two boys and two girls. His mother was a homemaker and father was an ophthalmologist with the Indian Railways. Due to the nature of his father's job, the family moved frequently. At the age of 12, he came in contact with Malladihalli Sri Raghavendra Swamiji who taught him a set of simple yoga asanas, the practice of which he regularly maintained.