Calorie restriction

caloric restrictionlow calorielow-calorie
. • CR Society International • Fasting • List of diets • Very low calorie diet • Okinawa diet • Mitohormesis • Intermittent fasting


Intermittent fasting. Juice fasting. List of diets. List of ineffective cancer treatments. Poustinia. Protein-sparing modified fast. Santhara. Simple living. Starvation response. Taboo food and drink. Vegetarianism and religion.


Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing. The word was coined by Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov in 1903, from the Greek γέρων, geron, "old man" and -λογία, -logia, "study of". The field is distinguished from geriatrics, which is the branch of medicine that specializes in the treatment of existing disease in older adults. Gerontologists include researchers and practitioners in the fields of biology, nursing, medicine, criminology, dentistry, social work, physical and occupational therapy, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, economics, political science, architecture, geography, pharmacy, public health, housing, and anthropology.

List of diets

crash dietDiets (list)invalid cookery
Pollo-pescetarian: Someone who eats both poultry and fish/seafood, though no meat from mammals. 5:2 diet: an intermittent fasting diet popularized by Michael Mosley in 2012. Intermittent fasting: Cycling between non-fasting and fasting as a method of calorie restriction. Body for Life: A calorie-control diet, promoted as part of the 12-week Body for Life program. Cookie diet: A calorie control diet in which low-fat cookies are eaten to quell hunger, often in place of a meal. The Hacker's Diet: A calorie-control diet from The Hacker's Diet by John Walker.

Outline of transhumanism

Outline of life extension. Neuroenhancement. Neurohacking. Intelligence amplification. Brain–computer interface. Brain implant. Cyberware. Neuroprosthetics. Neuroinformatics. Nootropic. Modafinil. Artificial intelligence. Exocortex. Augmented reality. Smartglasses. Mixed reality. Artificial intelligence. Exocortex. Computers. Smartphones. Wearable computer. Global brain. Prosthetics. Implant (medicine). Artificial organ. Anti-aging – another term for "life extension". Artificial intelligence – intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.

Aubrey de Grey

Dr. [Aubrey] de Greyde Grey, Dr. Aubrey
Aubrey David Nicholas Jasper de Grey (born 20 April 1963) is an English author and biomedical gerontologist. He is the Chief Science Officer of the SENS Research Foundation and VP of New Technology Discovery at AgeX Therapeutics, Inc. He is editor-in-chief of the academic journal Rejuvenation Research, author of The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (1999) and co-author of Ending Aging (2007). He is known for his view that medical technology may enable human beings alive today not to die from age-related causes. He is also an amateur mathematician who has contributed to the study of the Hadwiger–Nelson problem.

Outline (list)

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. An outline is used to present the main points (in sentences) or topics (terms) of a given subject. Each item in an outline may be divided into additional sub-items. If an organizational level in an outline is to be sub-divided, it shall have at least two subcategories, as advised by major style manuals in current use. An outline may be used as a drafting tool of a document, or as a summary of the content of a document or of the knowledge in an entire field.

Life extension

anti-aginganti-aging medicinelife-extension
Life extension is the idea of extending the human lifespan, either modestly – through improvements in medicine – or dramatically by increasing the maximum lifespan beyond its generally settled limit of 125 years. The ability to achieve such dramatic changes, however, does not currently exist.

Maximum life span

maximum lifespanlifespanlife span
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death. The term can also denote an estimate of the maximum amount of time that a member of a given species could survive between birth and death, provided circumstances that are optimal to that member's longevity.

Life expectancy

lifespanlife spanlife expectancies
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender. The most commonly used measure of life expectancy is at birth (LEB), which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort (all individuals born a given year) and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year.

Biological immortality

biologically immortalimmortalimmortalized
Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age. Various unicellular and multicellular species, including some vertebrates, achieve this state either throughout their existence or after living long enough. A biologically immortal living being can still die from means other than senescence, such as through injury or disease.

Indefinite lifespan

actuarial escape velocityindefinitelylive forever
Indefinite lifespan (also known as indefinite life extension or bio-indefinite) is a term used in the life extension movement and transhumanism to refer to the hypothetical longevity of humans (and other life-forms) under conditions in which ageing is effectively and completely prevented and treated. Their lifespans would be "indefinite" (that is, they would not be "immortal"), because protection from the effects of aging on health does not guarantee survival. Such individuals would still be susceptible to death by disease, starvation, accidents, or deliberate killing, but not death from aging.


Vrata is a Sanskrit word that means "vow, resolve, devotion", and refers to pious observances such as fasting and pilgrimage (Tirtha) found in Indian religions such as Jainism and Hinduism. It is typically accompanied with prayers seeking health and happiness for their loved ones.


life spanlong-livedlifespan
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography. However, the term longevity is sometimes meant to refer only to especially long-lived members of a population, whereas life expectancy is always defined statistically as the average number of years remaining at a given age. For example, a population's life expectancy at birth is the same as the average age at death for all people born in the same year (in the case of cohorts). Longevity is best thought of as a term for general audiences meaning 'typical length of life' and specific statistical definitions should be clarified when necessary.


Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.


HinduHindusHindu religion
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE), and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.


turned 100100th birthdaycentenarians
A centenarian is a person who lives to (or beyond) the age of 100 years. Because life expectancies worldwide are below 100 years, the term is invariably associated with longevity. In 2012, the United Nations estimated that there were 316,600 living centenarians worldwide.


supercentenarians110th birthdayage of 110
A supercentenarian (sometimes hyphenated as super-centenarian) is someone who has lived to or surpassed their 110th birthday. This age is achieved by about one in 1,000 centenarians. Anderson et al. concluded that supercentenarians live a life typically free of major age-related diseases until shortly before maximum human lifespan is reached.


Ramadan (رمضان ', ; also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan''') is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths.

Longevity escape velocity

actuarial escape velocity
Longevity escape velocity (sometimes referred to as Actuarial escape velocity ) is a term used in the life extension movement. It is a hypothetical situation in which life expectancy is being extended longer than the time that is passing. For example, in a given year in which longevity escape velocity would be maintained, technological advances would increase life expectancy more than the year that just went by.


Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.


physical exercisephysical activityexercising
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, including increasing growth and development, preventing aging, strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improving health and also for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and enhance well-being.

Yom Kippur

Day of AtonementJewish Day of Atonementthe Day of Atonement
Yom Kippur (, or ), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services.


A geroprotector is a senotherapeutic that aims to affect the root cause of aging and age-related diseases, and thus prolong the life span of animals. Some possible geroprotectors include melatonin, carnosine, metformin and delta sleep-inducing peptide.