onlinethe Internetweb
While social networking sites were initially for individuals only, today they are widely used by businesses and other organizations to promote their brands, to market to their customers and to encourage posts to "go viral". "Black hat" social media techniques are also employed by some organizations, such as spam accounts and astroturfing. A risk for both individuals and organizations writing posts (especially public posts) on social networking websites, is that especially foolish or controversial posts occasionally lead to an unexpected and possibly large-scale backlash on social media from other Internet users.


e-mailelectronic maile-mails
For example, in comparison to 75% of those consumers in the US who used it, only 17% in India did., the number of Americans visiting email web sites had fallen 6 percent after peaking in November 2009. For persons 12 to 17, the number was down 18 percent. Young people preferred instant messaging, texting and social media. Technology writer Matt Richtel said in The New York Times that email was like the VCR, vinyl records and film cameras—no longer cool and something older people do. A 2015 survey of Android users showed that persons 13 to 24 used messaging apps 3.5 times as much as those over 45, and were far less likely to use email.


Facebook LiveFacebook, Inc.Facebook page
In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. The store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and mobile web users. On May 22, 2012, the Yahoo! Finance website reported that Facebook's lead underwriters, Morgan Stanley (MS), JP Morgan (JPM), and Goldman Sachs (GS), cut their earnings forecasts for the company in the middle of the IPO process. The stock had begun its freefall by this time, closing at 34.03 on May 21 and 31.00 on May 22. A "circuit breaker" trading curb was used in an attempt to slow down the stock price's decline.

Web search engine

search enginesearch enginessearch
There are two remaining reasons to submit a web site or web page to a search engine: to add an entirely new web site without waiting for a search engine to discover it, and to have a web site's record updated after a substantial redesign. Some search engine submission software not only submits websites to multiple search engines, but also add links to websites from their own pages. This could appear helpful in increasing a website's ranking, because external links are one of the most important factors determining a website's ranking.


The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites, mostly in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, and digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters.


Internet meme. Knowledge ecosystem. Meme pool. Mentifact. Mimesis. Seme (semantics). Social constructionism. Social osmosis. Sociofact. Sociocultural evolution. Sociotype. Spime. The Electronic Revolution. Universal Darwinism. Viral marketing. Boyd, Robert & Richerson, Peter J. (1985). Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago University Press. ISBN: 978-0-226-06933-3. Boyd, Rob & Richerson, Peter J. (2005). Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago University Press. ISBN: 0-226-71284-2. Edmonds, Bruce. 2002. "Three challenges for the survival of memetics."

Internet forum

forumforumsmessage board
Active Directory (Microsoft-proprietary single sign-on, access, remote and domain control service). Xenforo Forums. Delphi Forums. Adobe forums posting guidelines. The Purple Martin Forum Posting Policy. Ubuntu Forums: The BUMP Thread. Threadbombing: Bump Images. Why people like to use Internet forums.

Social networking service

social networkingsocial network servicesocial networking site
The number one reason for these users was privacy concerns (48%), being followed by a general dissatisfaction with the social networking website (14%), negative aspects regarding social network friends (13%) and the feeling of getting addicted to the social networking website (6%). Facebook quitters were found to be more concerned about privacy, more addicted to the Internet and more conscientious. Sites such as Facebook are becoming increasingly popular tools for methods of ending relationships and friendships, proving that although new media is being used as a tool for connecting with individuals, it is now creating new problems associated with disconnecting from others.


This feature adds websites to the bottom of a tweet's permalink page. If a website embedded a tweet onto one of their stories, the tweet will show the websites that mentioned the tweet. This feature was added onto Twitter so if the viewer doesn't understand what the tweet means, they can click on the sites to read more about what the person is talking about. In 2015, Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Polls are open for up to 7 days, and voters are not personally identified.

Online video platform

video sharingvideo-sharingvideo hosting service
Some websites prefer use open source video formats such as Ogg or WebM. The compression formats used for open source video formats are Theora (with Ogg) and VP8 (with WebM). In particular, the Wikipedia community advocates the Ogg format and some web sites now support searching specifically for WebM videos. On some websites, users share entire films by breaking them up into segments that are about the size of the video length limit imposed by the site (e.g. a 15-minute video length limit). An emerging practice is for users to obfuscate the titles of feature-length films that they share by providing a title that is recognizable by humans but will not match on standard search engines.

List of Internet phenomena

Internet phenomenoninternet sensationInternet phenomena
Distracted boyfriend meme – A stock photograph taken in 2015 which went viral as an Internet meme in August 2017. Dog shaming – Originating on Tumblr, these images feature images of dogs photographed with signs explaining what antics they recently got up to. Doge – Images of dogs, typically of the Shiba Inus, overlaid with simple but poor grammatical expressions, typically in the Comic Sans MS font, though have since been applied to any picture as a form of commentary. The meme has also spawned Dogecoin.

World Wide Web

Webthe webweb-based
Lists of websites. Prestel. Streaming media. Web 2.0. Web development tools. Web literacy. Webgraph. World Wide Telecom Web. The first website. Early archive of the first Web site. Internet Statistics: Growth and Usage of the Web and the Internet. Living Internet A comprehensive history of the Internet, including the World Wide Web. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). W3C Recommendations Reduce "World Wide Wait". World Wide Web Size Daily estimated size of the World Wide Web. Antonio A. Casilli, Some Elements for a Sociology of Online Interactions. The Erdős Webgraph Server offers weekly updated graph representation of a constantly increasing fraction of the WWW.


smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
Windows 10 Mobile (formerly called Windows Phone) is from Microsoft. It is closed source and proprietary. Unveiled on February 15, 2010, Windows Phone includes a user interface inspired by Microsoft's Metro Design Language. It is integrated with Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices were made primarily by Microsoft Mobile/Nokia, and also by HTC and Samsung.

It was such a simple attack that by the time the patch was made, dozens of newspapers and hundreds of web sites published exact descriptions allowing tens of thousands of hackers to run rampant across Hotmail. The exploitable vulnerability exposed millions of accounts to tampering between August 7, 2001 and August 31, 2001. In 2004, Google announced its own mail service, Gmail. Featuring greater storage space, speed, and interface flexibility, this new competitor spurred a wave of innovation in webmail. The main industry heavyweights – Hotmail and Yahoo! Mail – introduced upgraded versions of their email services with greater speed, security, and advanced features.


Many of these integrated clients, for example the one in Microsoft's Outlook Express, are disliked by purists because of their misbehavior. With the rise of the World Wide Web (WWW), web front-ends (web2news) have become more common. Web front ends have lowered the technical entry barrier requirements to that of one application and no Usenet NNTP server account. There are numerous websites now offering web based gateways to Usenet groups, although some people have begun filtering messages made by some of the web interfaces for one reason or another. Google Groups is one such web based front end and some web browsers can access Google Groups via news: protocol links directly.


/b/4chan.orgthe "random" board on 4chan
Many Internet memes – catchphrases or images that spread quickly, peer to peer, across the Internet — have originated on 4chan, usually /b/, as its fast moving, crowd psychology nature enables content to quickly be passed on to large numbers of viewers. Other memes originating on the site have gained media attention of a lesser degree.

Social news website

social newsnewssocial news site
A social news website is an Internet website that features user-posted stories. Such stories are ranked based on popularity, as voted on by other users of the site or by website administrators. Users typically comment online on the news posts and these comments may also be ranked in popularity. Since their emergence with the birth of Web 2.0, social news sites have been used to link many types of information, including news, humor, support, and discussion. All such websites allow the users to submit content and each site differs in how the content is moderated. On the Slashdot and Fark websites, administrators decide which articles are selected for the front page.

Viral video

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Their online campaign continued to generate viral videos when Real Beauty Sketches was released in 2013 and spread all throughout social media, especially Facebook and Twitter. Albino Blacksheep. BuzzFeed. eBaum's World. Fail Blog. Facebook. Google Video. JibJab. LiveLeak. Metacafe. Newgrounds. Nico Nico Douga. Upworthy. Vine. VT (Viral Thread). WorldStar HipHop. YouTube. YTMND. Internet meme. List of Internet phenomena. List of viral videos. List of viral music videos. Positive feedback. Seeding agency. Shock site. Streisand effect. Viral marketing. CMU Viral Videos A public data set for viral video study. Viral Video Chart Guardian News, UK. Photos Gone Viral!


An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical object—and thus provides a depiction of it. In the context of signal processing, an image is a distributed amplitude of color(s).

Social network analysis

network analysissocial networking potentialsocial network
SNP coefficients have two primary functions: By calculating the SNP of respondents and by targeting High SNP respondents, the strength and relevance of quantitative marketing research used to drive viral marketing strategies is enhanced. Variables used to calculate an individual's SNP include but are not limited to: participation in Social Networking activities, group memberships, leadership roles, recognition, publication/editing/contributing to non-electronic media, publication/editing/contributing to electronic media (websites, blogs), and frequency of past distribution of information within their network.


youtube.comYouTube channelYouTuber
In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023. In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming internet memes, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance". The next year, YouTube added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude. In 2016, YouTube introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mode with Snoop Dogg.


subredditReddit AMAAMA
Also known as the "Slashdot effect", the Reddit effect occurs when a smaller website has a high influx of traffic after being linked to on Reddit. It is also called the "Reddit Hug of Death" among the website's users. Because Reddit is such a large site, the traffic is immense and can easily crash smaller sites. In order for users to see crashed websites, several Reddit bots have been created that take a snapshot of the website before large amounts of traffic flood the affected website. This is often unnecessary however and is not a common practice on the site. This is in stark contrast to the Slashdot effect, because a vast majority of reddit users do not read articles.

Remix culture

remixingremixablefreely re-edited
Internet memes are Internet-specific creative content which are created, filtered and transformed by the viral spreading process made possible by the web and its users. As a response to a more restrictive copyright system (Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension, DMCA), which started to limit the blooming sharing and remixing activities of the web, Lawrence Lessig founded the Creative Commons in 2001. In 2002 the Creative Commons released a set of licenses as tools to enable remix culture, by allowing a balanced, fair enabling release of creative works, "some rights reserved" instead of the usual "all rights reserved".


/.karmanaked and petrified
As an online community with primarily user-generated content, many in-jokes and internet memes have developed over the course of the site's history. A popular meme (based on an unscientific Slashdot user poll ) is, "In Soviet Russia, noun verb you!" This type of joke has its roots in the 1960s or earlier, and is known as a "Russian reversal". Other popular memes usually pertain to computing or technology, such as "Imagine a Beowulf cluster of these", "But does it run Linux?", or "Netcraft now confirms: BSD (or some other software package or item) is dying."


Viral marketing. World Federation of Advertisers. N. W. Ayer & Son - probably the first advertising agency to use mass media (i.e. telegraph) in a promotional campaign. Ernest Dichter - developed the field of motivational research, used extensively in advertising. E. St. Elmo Lewis - developed the first hierarchy of effects model (AIDA) used in sales and advertising. Arthur Nielsen - founded one of the earliest international advertising agencies and developed ratings for radio & TV. David Ogilvy - pioneered the positioning concept and advocated of the use of brand image in advertising.