Home automation

smart homedigital homedomotics
Internet of Things. List of network buses. Mobile manipulator and Mobile robot. Smart device and smart speaker. Web of Things.


GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating system
Linux distributions have been created to provide hands-on experience with coding and source code to students, on devices such as the Raspberry Pi. In addition to producing a practical device, the intention is to show students "how things work under the hood". The Ubuntu derivatives Edubuntu and The Linux Schools Project, as well as the Debian derivative Skolelinux, provide education-oriented software packages. They also include tools for administering and building school computer labs and computer-based classrooms, such as the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP). Instant WebKiosk and Webconverger are browser-based Linux distributions often used in web kiosks and digital signage.

Android (operating system)

AndroidAndroid operating systemAndroid OS
Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS, for wearable devices such as wrist watches, Android TV for televisions, and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things. Additionally, by providing infrastructure that combines dedicated hardware and dedicated applications running on regular Android, Google have opened up the platform for its use in particular usage scenarios, such as Android Auto for cars, and Daydream, a Virtual Reality platform.

Apama (software)

ApamaApama Real-time Analytics
Apama focuses on high throughput, low latency and memory efficient performance; used in both Intel benchmarks and smaller machines such as the Raspberry Pi, routers and other Edge/IoT devices. It is particularly noteworthy within the CEP space as being one of the earliest projects, a long term market leader, and innovator of many patents. Apama Ltd. was founded in 1999 by Dr John Bates, Dr Giles Nelson and Dr Mohamad Afshar, who met while undertaking research at the Cambridge University Department of Computer Science and Technology. In 2005, Apama Limited was acquired by Progress Software for $25 million. In 2013, Apama was acquired by Software AG from Progress for an undisclosed amount.


MySensors is a free and open source DIY (do-it yourself) software framework for wireless IoT (Internet of Things) devices allowing devices to communicate using radio transmitters. The library was originally developed for the Arduino platform. The MySensors devices create a virtual radio network of nodes that automatically forms a self healing mesh like structure. Each node can relay messages for other nodes to cover greater distances using simple short range transceivers. Each node can have several sensors or actuators attached and can interact with other nodes in the network.

Machine to machine

M2Mmachine-to-machinemachine to machine (M2M)
In April 2013, OASIS MQTT standards group is formed with the goal of working on a lightweight publish/subscribe reliable messaging transport protocol suitable for communication in M2M/IoT contexts. IBM and StormMQ chair this standards group and Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp is the secretary. In May 2014, the committee published the MQTT and NIST Cybersecurity Framework Version 1.0 committee note to provide guidance for organizations wishing to deploy MQTT in a way consistent with the NIST Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.

Embedded system

embedded systemsembeddedembedded device
These platforms include, but are not limited to, Arduino and Raspberry Pi. A common array for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip (SoC) that contains a complete system consisting of multiple processors, multipliers, caches and interfaces on a single chip. SoCs can be implemented as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Embedded systems talk with the outside world via peripherals, such as: As with other software, embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers, and debuggers to develop embedded system software.

Constrained Application Protocol

CoAPConstrained Application Protocol (CoAP)IETF's Constrained Application Protocol
Internet of Things. OMA Lightweight M2M. Web of Things. Features and specification summaries and lists of programming language libraries and tools. Interactive web server interoperability tests. RFC 7252 "The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)".


JabberExtensible Messaging and Presence ProtocolJabber/XMPP
Matrix. xmpp-iot.org - the XMPP-IoT (Internet of Things) initiative. Real-Time Communications Quick Start Guide. Jabber User Guide.


WiFiwireless internetwireless
These embedded devices are also called The Internet of Things and are low-power, battery-operated embedded systems. A number of Wi-Fi manufacturers design chips and modules for embedded Wi-Fi, such as GainSpan. Increasingly in the last few years (particularly ), embedded Wi-Fi modules have become available that incorporate a real-time operating system and provide a simple means of wirelessly enabling any device which has and communicates via a serial port. This allows the design of simple monitoring devices. An example is a portable ECG device monitoring a patient at home. This Wi-Fi-enabled device can communicate via the Internet.

Microsoft Azure

AzureMicrosoft Azure Service BusWindows Azure
On February 4, 2016, Microsoft announced the General Availability of the Azure IoT Hub service. On December 5, 2017, Microsoft announced the Public Preview of Azure IoT Central; its Azure IoT SaaS service. On October 4, 2017, Microsoft began shipping GA versions of the official Microsoft Azure IoT Developer Kit (DevKit) board; manufactured by MXChip. On April 16, 2018, Microsoft announced the launch of the Azure Sphere, an end-to-end IoT product that focuses on microcontroller-based devices and uses Linux. On June 27, 2018, Microsoft launched Azure IoT Edge, used to run Azure services and artificial intelligence on IoT devices.

OASIS (organization)

OASISOrganization for the Advancement of Structured Information StandardsOASIS standards body
MQTT — MQ Telemetry Transport, a machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity protocol for IoT (Internet of Things) devices designed to achieve interoperability compatibility between locally controlled IoT devices with MQTT clients via a "MQTT Broker" (installed as a MQTT Server). oBIX — open Building Information Exchange, an extensible XML specification for enterprise interaction with building-based (or other) control systems, including HVAC, Access Control, Intrusion Detection, and many others.

Broadcom Corporation

BroadcomBroadVoiceBroadcom Inc.
Eben Upton, creator of the Raspberry Pi single-board computer. Broadcom homepage. Broadcom SEC Filings. 20th Century History of Broadcom corporation.

Windows IoT

11.65%WESWindows 10
Windows 10 IoT Core is considered by some to be the successor to Windows Embedded Compact, although it maintains very little compatibility with it. Optimized for smaller and lower-cost industry devices, it is also provided free of charge for use in devices like the Raspberry Pi for hobbyist use. Windows 10 IoT Core Pro provides the ability to defer and control updates and is licensed only via distributors; it is otherwise identical to the normal IoT Core version.

SensorThings API

SensorThings API is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard providing an open and unified framework to interconnect IoT sensing devices, data, and applications over the Web. It is an open standard addressing the syntactic interoperability and semantic interoperability of the Internet of Things. It complements the existing IoT networking protocols such CoAP, MQTT, HTTP, 6LowPAN. While the above-mentioned IoT networking protocols are addressing the ability for different IoT systems to exchange information, OGC SensorThings API is addressing the ability for different IoT systems to use and understand the exchanged information.


OpenWrt is an open source project for embedded operating system based on Linux, primarily used on embedded devices to route network traffic. The main components are Linux, util-linux, musl, and BusyBox. All components have been optimized to be small enough to fit into the limited storage and memory available in home routers.

Comparison of MQTT implementations

__INDEX__ MQTT-SN (MQTT v1.2), standardized by IBM. MQTT v3.1, standardized by Eurotech and IBM. MQTT v3.1.1, standardized by OASIS. MQTT v5.0, standardized by OASIS. 1) At most delivery (fire and forget). 2) At least once delivery (acknowledged delivery). 3) Exactly once delivery (assured delivery).


Node-RED is a flow-based development tool for visual programming developed originally by IBM for wiring together hardware devices, APIs and online services as part of the Internet of Things. Node-RED provides a web browser-based flow editor, which can be used to create JavaScript functions. Elements of applications can be saved or shared for re-use. The runtime is built on Node.js. The flows created in Node-RED are stored using JSON. Since version 0.14 MQTT nodes can make properly configured TLS connections. In 2016, IBM contributed Node-RED as an open source JS Foundation project. Raspberry Pi. Siemens, SIMATIC IOT 2020. Samsung, Artik. Intel, IoT Gateway. GE, Predix Developer Kit.


Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET.


IEEE 802.15.4Zigbee lighting protocolZigBee or Zwave
Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as for home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection. Hence, Zigbee is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity (i.e., personal area) wireless ad hoc network.

Internet protocol suite

TCP/IPInternet protocolsIP
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). It is occasionally known as the Department of Defense (DoD) model because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense through DARPA.