Low-FODMAP dietdiet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyolsFODMAP diet
FODMAPs are not the cause of irritable bowel syndrome nor other functional gastrointestinal disorders, but rather a person develops symptoms when the underlying bowel response is exaggerated or abnormal. Fructose malabsorption and lactose intolerance may produce IBS symptoms through the same mechanism but, unlike with other FODMAPs, poor absorption of fructose is found in only a minority. Lactose intolerance is found in a majority of adults with the exception of certain geographic populations, notably those of European descent. Many who benefit from a low FODMAP diet need not restrict fructose or lactose.

Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
Following a lifelong gluten-free diet is the only medically-accepted treatment for people with coeliac disease. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is described as a condition of multiple symptoms that improves when switching to a gluten-free diet, after coeliac disease and wheat allergy are excluded. People with NCGS may develop gastrointestinal symptoms, which resemble those of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or a variety of nongastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include any of the following: abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhoea or constipation), nausea, aerophagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.


diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
These include lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis, hyperthyroidism, bile acid diarrhea, and a number of medications. In most cases, stool cultures to confirm the exact cause are not required. Diarrhea can be prevented by improved sanitation, clean drinking water, and hand washing with soap. Breastfeeding for at least six months and vaccination against rotavirus is also recommended. Oral rehydration solution (ORS)—clean water with modest amounts of salts and sugar—is the treatment of choice. Zinc tablets are also recommended.

Food intolerance

intoleranceFood intolerancesfood sensitivity
Fructose malabsorption. Gluten sensitivity. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Fructose intolerance. Histamine intolerance, also related to biogenic amines intolerance / BAI. Lactose intolerance. Orthorexia. Salicylate sensitivity. Sodium phosphates. Sucrose intolerance.


abdominal bloatingbloatedbloat
Lactose intolerance, fructose intolerance and other food intolerances. Premenstrual Syndrome. Food allergy. Aerophagia (air swallowing, a nervous habit). Irritable bowel syndrome. Celiac disease. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Partial bowel obstruction. Gastric dumping syndrome or rapid gastric emptying. Gas-producing foods. Constipation. Visceral fat. Splenic-flexure syndrome. Menstruation, dysmenorrhea. Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cysts. Alvarez' syndrome, bloating of unknown or psychogenic origin without excess of gas in the digestive tract. Massive infestation with intestinal parasites (e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides). Diverticulosis. Certain medications, such as phentermine.


When excessive or malodorous, flatus can be a sign of a health disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or lactose intolerance. It can also be caused by certain medicines, such as ibuprofen, laxatives, antifungal medicines or statins. Some infections, such as giardiasis, are also associated with flatulence. Interest in the causes of flatulence was spurred by high-altitude flight and manned spaceflight; the low atmospheric pressure, confined conditions, and stresses peculiar to those endeavours were cause for concern. In the field of mountaineering, the phenomenon of high altitude flatus expulsion was first recorded over two hundred years ago.

Gluten-related disorders

gluten intolerancegluten sensitivityGluten intolerant
NCGS, which is possibly immune-mediated, now appears to be more common than coeliac disease, with a prevalence estimated to be 6–10 times higher. Gastrointestinal symptoms, which resemble those of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), may include any of the following: abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhea or constipation), nausea, aerophagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.

Wheat allergy

wheatBaker's asthmaWheat hypersensitivity
While gluten is also the causative agent of celiac disease (CD), celiac disease can be contrasted to gluten allergy by the involvement of different immune cells and antibody types (See Comparative pathophysiology of gluten sensitivities), and because the list of allergens extend beyond the classic gluten category of proteins. Prolamins and the closely related glutelins, a recent study in Japan found that glutenins are a more frequent allergen, however gliadins are associated with the most severe disease. A proteomics based study found a γ-gliadin isoform gene. Glutenin (wheat glutelin) is a predominant allergen in wheat.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
Coeliac disease is a common form of malabsorption, affecting up to 1% of people of northern European descent. An autoimmune response is triggered in intestinal cells by digestion of gluten proteins. Ingestion of proteins found in wheat, barley and rye, causes villous atrophy in the small intestine. Lifelong dietary avoidance of these foodstuffs in a gluten-free diet is the only treatment. Enteroviruses are named by their transmission-route through the intestine (enteric meaning intestinal), but their symptoms aren't mainly associated with the intestine. Endometriosis can affect the intestines, with similar symptoms to IBS.


Secale cerealerye flourwinter rye
Like wheat, barley, and their hybrids and derivatives, rye contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy, among others. Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate rye or barley. Ergotism is an illness that can result from eating rye and other grains infected by ergot fungi (which produce LSD-25-like toxins in infected products).

Human gastrointestinal microbiota

gut floragut microbiotaintestinal flora
Irritable bowel syndrome is a result of stress and chronic activation of the HPA axis; its symptoms include abdominal pain, changes in bowel movements, and an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Overall, studies have found that the luminal and mucosal microbiota are changed in irritable bowel syndrome individuals, and these changes can relate to the type of irritation such as diarrhea or constipation. Also, there is a decrease in the diversity of the microbiome with low levels of fecal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, high levels of facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, and increased ratios of Firmicutes: Bacteroidetes.

Inflammatory bowel disease

inflammatory bowel diseasesIBDindeterminate colitis
Other diseases may cause an increased excretion of fecal calprotectin, such as infectious diarrhea, untreated coeliac disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal cystic fibrosis and neoplastic pediatric tumor cells. Conditions with similar symptoms as Crohn's disease includes intestinal tuberculosis, Behçet's disease, ulcerative colitis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, irritable bowel syndrome and coeliac disease. Conditions with similar symptoms as ulcerative colitis includes acute self-limiting colitis, amebic colitis, schistosomiasis, Crohn's disease, colon cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal tuberculosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy.


Inborn errors of metabolism such as fructose malabsorption. Infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis. Irritable bowel syndrome. Leukemia or lymphoma. Liver failure. Lyme disease. Neurological disorders such as narcolepsy, Parkinson's disease and post-concussion syndrome. Physical trauma and other pain-causing conditions, such as arthritis. Sleep deprivation or sleep disorders. Spring fever. Stroke. Thyroid disease such as hypothyroidism. Uremia, which is caused by kidney disease. Cancer-related fatigue. Combat stress reaction. Directed attention fatigue. Effects of fatigue on safety. Gaucher's disease. Heat illness. Malaise. Microsleep. Museum fatigue. Presenteeism.


malabsorption syndromeintestinal malabsorptionmalabsorption of nutrients
Gluten-free diet in coeliac disease. Lactose avoidance in lactose intolerance. Antibiotic therapy to treat Small Bowel Bacterial overgrowth. Cholestyramine or other bile acid sequestrants will help reducing diarrhoea in bile acid malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption. Protein losing enteropathy.

Food additive

food additivesadditivesadditive
Added ingredients, such as air, bacteria, fungi, and yeast, also contribute manufacturing and flavor qualities, and reduce spoilage. ISO has published a series of standards regarding the topic and these standards are covered by ICS 67.220. Acidulents :Acidulants confer sour or acid taste. Common acidulents include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. Acidity regulators : Acidity regulators are used for controlling the pH of foods for stability or to affect activity of enzymes. Anticaking agents : Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking.


There have been searches for an affordable and much better treatment, but the only treatment remains to abstain from ingesting any gluten. * α-/β-gliadins – soluble in low-percentage alcohols. γ-gliadins – ancestral form of cysteine-rich gliadin with only intrachain disulfide bridges. ω-gliadins – soluble in higher percentages, 30–50% acidic acetonitrile. Triticeae glutens. Immunochemistry of gluten. Anti-gliadin antibodies. Gluten immunochemistry. Glutenin. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Gluten-related disorders. Intestinal permeability.


Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.


allergiesallergic reactionallergic
Lactose intolerance, a common reaction to milk, is not a form of allergy at all, but rather due to the absence of an enzyme in the digestive tract. Those with tree nut allergies may be allergic to one or to many tree nuts, including pecans, pistachios, pine nuts, and walnuts. Also seeds, including sesame seeds and poppy seeds, contain oils in which protein is present, which may elicit an allergic reaction. Allergens can be transferred from one food to another through genetic engineering; however genetic modification can also remove allergens. Little research has been done on the natural variation of allergen concentrations in the unmodified crops.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
Idiopathic. irritable bowel syndrome (affecting up to 20% of the population, IBS is the most common cause of recurrent, intermittent abdominal pain). Diffuse. Peritonitis. Vascular: mesenteric ischemia, ischemic colitis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, sickle cell disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa. Small bowel obstruction. Irritable bowel syndrome. Metabolic disorders: ketoacidosis, porphyria, familial Mediterranean fever, adrenal crisis. Epigastric. Heart: myocardial infarction, pericarditis. Stomach: gastritis, stomach ulcer, stomach cancer. Pancreas: pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer. Intestinal: duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, appendicitis. Right upper quadrant.

Type 1 diabetes

diabetes mellitus type 1type I diabetesjuvenile diabetes
About 6 percent of people with type 1 diabetes also have celiac disease, but in most cases there are no digestive symptoms or are mistakenly attributed to poor control of diabetes, gastroparesis or diabetic neuropathy. In most cases, celiac disease is diagnosed after onset of type 1 diabetes. The association of celiac disease with type 1 diabetes increases the risk of complications, such as retinopathy and mortality. This association can be explained by shared genetic factors, and inflammation or nutritional deficiencies caused by untreated celiac disease, even if type 1 diabetes is diagnosed first.

Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseaseCrohn diseaseCrohn
Other conditions with similar symptoms as Crohn's disease includes intestinal tuberculosis, Behçet's disease, ulcerative colitis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease. Irritable bowel syndrome is excluded when there are inflammatory changes. Celiac disease can't be excluded if specific antibodies (anti-transglutaminase antibodies) are negative, nor in absence of intestinal villi atrophy. There is no cure for Crohn's disease and remission may not be possible or prolonged if achieved.

Peripheral neuropathy

.)), traumatic injury, including ischemia, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease, coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or viral infection. It can also be genetic (present from birth) or idiopathic (no known cause). In conventional medical usage, the word neuropathy (neuro-, "nervous system" and -pathy, "disease of") without modifier usually means peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathy affecting just one nerve is called "mononeuropathy" and neuropathy involving nerves in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body is called "symmetrical polyneuropathy" or simply "polyneuropathy".


A few decades later, when studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Louis Pasteur concluded that this fermentation was caused by a vital force contained within the yeast cells called "ferments", which were thought to function only within living organisms. He wrote that "alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, not with the death or putrefaction of the cells." In 1877, German physiologist Wilhelm Kühne (1837–1900) first used the term enzyme, which comes from Greek ἔνζυμον, "leavened" or "in yeast", to describe this process.


gluten ataxiaataxicloss of coordination
Gluten ataxia is an autoimmune disease triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Early diagnosis and treatment with a gluten-free diet can improve ataxia and prevent its progression. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the elapsed time from the onset of the ataxia until diagnosis, because the death of neurons in the cerebellum as a result of gluten exposure is irreversible. It accounts for 40% of ataxias of unknown origin and 15% of all ataxias. Less than 10% of people with gluten ataxia present any gastrointestinal symptom, yet about 40% have intestinal damage. Malfunction of the sodium-potassium pump may be a factor in some ataxias.


autisticautistic disorderautistic children
In the subset of people who have gluten sensitivity there is limited evidence that suggests that a gluten-free diet may improve some autistic behaviors. There is tentative evidence that music therapy may improve social interactions, verbal communication, and non-verbal communication skills. There has been early research looking at hyperbaric treatments in children with autism. Studies on pet therapy have shown positive effects. There is no known cure. Children recover occasionally, so that they lose their diagnosis of ASD; this occurs sometimes after intensive treatment and sometimes not.