Yoga, or mārga, in Hinduism is widely classified into four spiritual practices. The first mārga is Jñāna Yoga, the way of knowledge. The second mārga is Bhakti Yoga, the way of loving devotion to God. The third mārga is Karma Yoga, the way of works. The fourth mārga is Rāja Yoga, the way of contemplation and meditation. These mārgas are part of different schools in Hinduism, and their definition and methods to moksha. For example, the Advaita Vedanta school relies on Jñāna Yoga in its teachings of moksha. The three main sub-schools in Vedanta school of Hinduism - Advaita Vedanta, Vishistadvaita and Dvaita - each have their own views about moksha.


It refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies, and is one of the key, much debated fields of study in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, since ancient times. It is a theory of knowledge, and encompasses one or more reliable and valid means by which human beings gain accurate, true knowledge. The focus of Pramana is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.


Among the Astika schools of Hinduism, Vedanta, Samkhya, and Yoga philosophies influenced and were influenced by the śramaṇa philosophy. As Geoffrey Samuel notes, "Our best evidence to date suggests that [yogic practice] developed in the same ascetic circles as the early śramaṇa movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE." Some Brahmins joined the śramaṇa movement such as Cānakya and Sāriputta. Similarly, a group of eleven Brahmins accepted Jainism and become Mahavira's chief disciples or ganadharas.

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Yoga SutrasYoga SūtrasYogasutras
However, it is also to be noted that the Yoga Sutra, especially the fourth segment of Kaivalya Pada, contains several polemical verses critical of Buddhism, particularly the Vijñānavāda school of Vasubandhu. The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali bear an uncanny resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating influence of Jainism.


HinduHindusHindu religion
Iyengar, Paramahansa Yogananda, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Prabhupada (founder of ISKCON), Sri Chinmoy, Swami Rama and others who translated, reformulated and presented Hinduism's foundational texts for contemporary audiences in new iterations, raising the profiles of Yoga and Vedanta in the West and attracting followers and attention in India and abroad. Hindu practices such as Yoga, Ayurvedic health, Tantric sexuality through Neotantra and the Kama Sutra have spread beyond Hindu communities and have been accepted by several non-Hindus: "Hinduism is attracting Western adherents through the affiliated practice of yoga.


The epic declares that brahmacharya is one of twelve virtues, an essential part of angas in yoga and the path of perfecting perseverance and the pursuit of knowledge. Brahmacharya is one of the five major vows prescribed for the śrāvakā (layman) and ascetics in Jainism. For those Jains who adopt the path of monks, celibacy in action, words and thoughts is expected. For lay Jains who are married, the virtue of brahmacharya requires remaining sexually faithful to one's chosen partner. For lay Jains who are unmarried, chaste living requires Jains to avoid sex before marriage. Uttam Brahmacharya (Supreme Celibacy) is one of the ten excellencies of a Digambara monk.

Karma in Jainism

Duration and intensity of the karmic bond are determined by emotions or "[[Kashaya (Jainism)|]]" and type and quantity of the karmas bound is depended on yoga or activity. The karmic process in Jainism is based on seven truths or fundamental principles (tattva) of Jainism which explain the human predicament. Out that the seven tattvas, the four—influx (āsrava), bondage (bandha), stoppage (saṃvara) and release (nirjarā)—pertain to the karmic process. The karmic bondage occurs as a result of the following two processes: āsrava and bandha. Āsrava is the inflow of karma. The karmic influx occurs when the particles are attracted to the soul on account of yoga.


The 2011 census reported that the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam (14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others (0.9%). India has the world's largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Bahá'í populations, and has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country. Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500years.


Scholars contest whether the concept of Brahman is rejected or accepted in Jainism. The concept of a theistic God is rejected by Jainism, but Jiva or "Atman (soul) exists" is held to be a metaphysical truth and central to its theory of rebirths and Kevala Jnana. Bissett states that Jainism accepts the "material world" and "Atman", but rejects Brahman—the metaphysical concept of Ultimate Reality and Cosmic Principles found in the ancient texts of Hinduism. Goswami, in contrast, states that the literature of Jainism has an undercurrent of monist theme, where the self who gains the knowledge of Brahman (Highest Reality, Supreme Knowledge) is identical to Brahman itself.

Indus Valley Civilisation

HarappanIndus ValleyIndus Valley Civilization
Marshall identified the figure as an early form of the Hindu god Shiva (or Rudra), who is associated with asceticism, yoga, and linga; regarded as a lord of animals; and often depicted as having three eyes. The seal has hence come to be known as the Pashupati Seal, after Pashupati (lord of all animals), an epithet of Shiva. While Marshall's work has earned some support, many critics and even supporters have raised several objections. Doris Srinivasan has argued that the figure does not have three faces, or yogic posture, and that in Vedic literature Rudra was not a protector of wild animals.


Haribhadra''' (author)Ācārya Haribhadra
Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya (Compendium of Six Philosophies'') - which compares Jainism with other schools of Indian philosophy. Samarāiccakahā (The Story of Samarāicca) - a narrative which outlines the effects of karma in a story about the enmity of its characters which endures over several reincarnations. Sāstravārtāsamuccaya (The Array of Explanatory Teachings). Yogabindu (The Seeds of Yoga) - a work on yoga. Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (An Array of Views on Yoga) - another work on yoga. Yogaśataka - a third work on yoga. In these three volumes, he compares the yoga of Jainism with the other varieties of yoga prevalent in India at the time. Sanmatti Prakaran.


absence of desiresAparigraha''' (virtue)less greedy
This Jain vow is the principle of limiting one’s possessions (parimita-parigraha) and limiting one’s desires (iccha-parimana). In Jainism, worldly wealth accumulation is considered as a potential source of rising greed, jealousy, selfishness and desires. Giving up emotional attachments, sensual pleasures and material possession is a means of liberation, in Jain philosophy. Eating enough to survive is considered more noble than eating for indulgence. Similarly, all consumption is more appropriate if it is essential to one's survival, and inappropriate if it is a form of hoarding, show off or for ego.


The concept of mantras in Jainism is not focused on material aspects, rather mainly deals with seeking forgiveness, praising Arihants, or deities like Nakoda, Padmavati, Manibhadra, Saraswati, Lakshmi, and others. Yet some mantras are claimed to enhance intellect, prosperity, wealth or fame. There are many mantras in Jainism; most of them are in Sanskrit or Prakrit, but in the last few centuries, some have been composed in Hindi or Gujrati languages. Mantras, couplets, are either chanted or sung, either aloud or by merely moving lips or in silence by thought. Some examples of Jain mantras are Bhaktamara Stotra, Uvasagharam Stotra, etc.


Asteya''' (virtue)Caurya Pariharanon-stealing
It is a virtue in Jainism. The practice of asteya demands that one must not steal, nor have the intent to steal another's property through action, speech and thoughts. Asteya is considered as one of five major vows of Jainism. It is also considered one of ten forms of temperance (virtuous self-restraint) in Indian philosophy. The word "asteya" is a compound derived from Sanskrit language, where "a" refers to "non-" and "steya" refers to "practice of stealing" or "something that can be stolen". Thus, asteya means "non-stealing". In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all Śrāvakas and Śrāvikās (householders) as well as monastics must observe.


non-violencegenerally pacifist traditionnon-harming
Ahimsa is imperative for practitioners of Patañjali's eight limb Raja yoga system. It is included in the first limb and is the first of five Yamas (self restraints) which, together with the second limb, make up the code of ethical conduct in Yoga philosophy. Ahimsa is also one of the ten Yamas in Hatha Yoga according to verse 1.1.17 of its classic manual Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The significance of Ahimsa as the very first restraint in the very first limb of Yoga (Yamas), is that it defines the necessary foundation for progress through Yoga.

Karma yoga

karmakarma margaKarma yogi
Discussions on Karma yoga are also found in chapter 33 of Narada Purana. Later, new movements within Hinduism added raja yoga as the fourth spiritual path, but this is not universally accepted as distinct to other three. According to Constance Jones and James Ryan, karma yoga is "yoga of action" while kriya yoga is "yoga of ritual action". Kriya yoga is found in tantric texts, and believed by its practitioners to activate chakra and energy centers in the body. In that sense, kriya yoga is a subset of karma yoga. * All life is yoga, Pravin K. Shah, Jain Study Center of North Carolina, Harvard Archives Flow (psychology). Taṇhā – greed, craving.

Jnana yoga

jnanajnana''-yogajñāna yoga
A Jnana yogi may also practice Karma yoga or Bhakti yoga or both, and differing levels of emphasis. According to Robert Roeser, the precepts of Jnana yoga in Hinduism were likely systematized by about 500 BCE, earlier than Karma yoga and Bhakti yoga. In the Bhagavad Gita, jnana yoga is also referred to as buddhi yoga and its goal is self-realization. The text considers jnana marga as the most difficult, slow, confusing for those who prefer it because it deals with "formless reality", the avyakta. It is the path that intellectually oriented people tend to prefer.


UmāsvātiUmaswamiUmaswami''' (author)
Umaswami, also known as Umaswati, was an early 1st-millennium Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism. He authored the Jain text Tattvartha Sutra (literally '"All That Is", also called Tattvarthadhigama Sutra). Umaswati's work was the first Sanskrit language text on Jain philosophy, and is the earliest extant comprehensive Jain philosophy text accepted as authoritative by all four Jain traditions. His text has the same importance in Jainism as Vedanta Sutras and Yogasutras have in Hinduism. Umaswati is claimed by both the Digambara and Śvētāmbara sects of Jainism as their own.


The 11th-century Jain text ‘’Bhairavapadmavatikalpa’’, for example, equates Padmavati of Jainism with Tripura-bhairavi of Shaivism and Shaktism. Among the major goddesses of Jainism that are rooted in Hindu pantheon, particularly Shaiva, include Lakshmi and Vagishvari (Sarasvati) of the higher world in Jain cosmology, Vidyadevis of the middle world, and Yakshis such as Ambika, Cakreshvari, Padmavati and Jvalamalini of the lower world according to Jainism. Shaiva-Shakti iconography is found in major Jain temples. For example, the Osian temple of Jainism near Jodhpur features Chamunda, Durga, Sitala and a naked Bhairava.

Brahma Sutras

Brahma SutraBrahma sūtrasBrahmaSutras
The text reviews and critiques most major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy as well as all heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism, with the exception of Samkhya and Yoga philosophies which it holds in high regards and recurrently refers to them in all its four chapters, adding in sutras 2.1.3 and 4.2.21 that Yoga and Samkhya are similar. The text cites and quotes from the ten Principal Upanishads often, the Kaushitaki Upanishad and the Shvetashvatara Upanishad in several sutras, but also mentions Upanishads now unknown and lost.

Tattvartha Sutra

TattvārthasūtraTattvartha Sutra''' (universal book)Tattvarthasūtra
Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswati, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD. It is the one of the Jain scripture written in the Sanskrit language. Tattvartha Sutra is also known in Jainism as the Moksha-shastra (Scripture describing the path of liberation). The Tattvartha Sutra is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative text in Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Digambara and Śvētāmbara sects. Its importance in Jainism is comparable with that of the Brahma Sutras and Yoga Sutras of Patanjali in Hinduism.


VedicvedaVedic literature
Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Carvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools. Despite their differences, just like the texts of the śramaṇa traditions, the layers of texts in the Vedas discuss similar ideas and concepts. The Sanskrit word "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root vid- "to know". This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root, meaning "see" or "know", cognate to Greek εἶδος "aspect", "form". This is not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense, cognate to Greek οἶδα (w)oida "I know".

Maurya Empire

Chandragupta Maurya embraced Jainism after retiring, when he renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of the Jain monk Bhadrabahu. It is said that in his last days, he observed the rigorous but self-purifying Jain ritual of santhara (fast unto death), at Shravana Belgola in Karnataka. However, his successor, Bindusara, was a follower of another ascetic movement, Ājīvika, and distanced himself from Jain and Buddhist movements. Samprati, the grandson of Ashoka, also patronized Jainism. Samprati was influenced by the teachings of Jain monks and he is said to have built 125,000 derasars across India.


Acharya Kundakunda
Acharya Kundakunda was a Digambara Jain monk and philosopher, who is still revered. He authored many Jain texts such as: Samayasara, Niyamasara, Pancastikayasara, Pravachanasara, Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Digambara Jain acharyas, a position comparable to Christ in Christianity and Muhammad in Islam. All Digambara Jains say his name before starting to read the scripture. Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century.


Kautilya ArthashastraKautilya’s ‘Arthashastra”law
The Arthashastra then posits its own theory that there are four necessary fields of knowledge, the Vedas, the Anvikshaki (philosophy of Samkhya, Yoga and Lokayata), the science of government and the science of economics (Varta of agriculture, cattle and trade). It is from these four that all other knowledge, wealth and human prosperity is derived.