American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)

American-led intervention in IraqIraq2014 American intervention in Iraq
On 12 August 2014, ISIL started a campaign of beheading Western and Japanese civilian hostages (announced 12 August, James Foley 19 August, Steven Sotloff 2 September, David Haines 13 September, Hervé Gourdel 24 September, Alan Henning 3 October, Peter Kassig 16 November, Haruna Yukawa sometime January 2015, Kenji Goto 30 January 2015) marketed via the internet. On 5 September, 15 September and 3 December 2014, different sets of countries came together to discuss concerted action against ISIL. Present at all three meetings were the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Canada, Turkey, and Denmark.

Jihadi John

Mohammed EmwaziJohnmilitants
Haruna Yukawa, age 42, was captured sometime before August 2014. Kenji Goto, age 47, was captured sometime in October 2014 while trying to rescue Yukawa. In January 2015, a threat was issued that they would be killed unless the Japanese government paid a ransom of $200 million. Yukawa was beheaded on 24 January, and Goto on 31 January 2015. Officially the FBI and United States National Security Council confirmed that the James Foley video, which ended with footage of a beheaded corpse, was genuine. David Cameron and the British Foreign Office also confirmed the authenticity of the video showing the death of David Haines.

John Cantlie

Lend Me Your Ears'' (video series)
ISIL beheading incidents. Austin Tice. 'The Beatles' terrorist cell. Beheading in Islamism. Daniel Pearl. David Cawthorne Haines. Foreign hostages in Iraq. Kenneth Bigley. Nick Berg. "Military journalists honour NYT's 'A Year at War', other contest entries", Jim Romenesko,, 29 September 2011.

Syrian Civil War

civil warSyriaSyrian uprising
On 19 August 2014, American journalist James Foley was executed by ISIL, who said it was in retaliation for the United States operations in Iraq. Foley was kidnapped in Syria in November 2012 by Shabiha militia. ISIL also threatened to execute Steven Sotloff, who was kidnapped at the Syrian-Turkish border in August 2013. There were reports ISIS captured a Japanese national, two Italian nationals, and a Danish national as well. Sotloff was later executed in September 2014. At least 70 journalists have been killed covering the Syrian war, and more than 80 kidnapped, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

ISISISILIslamic State
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL ), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS ), officially known as the Islamic State (IS) and also known by its Arabic-language acronym Daesh, is a terrorist militant group and a former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi jihadist doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre.


Global PostThe Global
GlobalPost now has 64 correspondents worldwide following the kidnapping and beheading of James Foley, an event which has raised questions about GlobalPost's role in sending unsupported personnel into conflict zones. In 2015, GlobalPost was acquired by WGBH. In 2009 GlobalPost announced syndication agreements with PBS and CBS. As part of the PBS partnership, GlobalPost correspondents began producing video segments for airing on The PBS NewsHour. Additional arrangements with media outlets including the New York Daily News, The World Weekly, Times of India, and Newark Star-Ledger offered news organizations unlimited rights to republish GlobalPost content in exchange for a flat service fee.

Steven Sotloff

Steven Joel Sotloff
The family claims the Assad government provided support for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant which was responsible for his murder. • 2014 American-led intervention in Iraq • ISIL beheading incidents • Beheading in Islamism • David Cawthorne Haines • Foreign hostages in Iraq • James Foley (journalist) • Nick Berg • Kenneth Bigley • John Cantlie • Austin Tice • Daniel Pearl • The Beatles, terrorist cell of the Islamic State that guarded and beheaded Sotloff • Mohammed Emwazi (nicknamed "Jihadi John" by the press), Kuwaiti-British terrorist who beheaded Sotloff *"The Life and Death of Steven Sotloff," Jonathan Zalman, Tablet (magazine), 18 June 2015, The ADL Daniel Pearl Award - given to


Followed the sharing of images showing the killing of American journalist James Foley in 2014, Twitter said that in certain cases it would delete pictures of people who had died after requests from family members and "authorized individuals". Twitter announced new reporting and blocking policies in December 2014, including a blocking mechanism devised by Randi Harper, a target of GamerGate. In February 2015, CEO Dick Costolo said he was 'frankly ashamed' at how poorly Twitter handled trolling and abuse, and admitted Twitter had lost users as a result.

Daniel Pearl

ADL Daniel PearlDaniel Pearl AwardPearl, Daniel
James Foley (photojournalist). Jack Hensley. Margaret Hassan. Paul Marshall Johnson Jr. Seif Adnan Kanaan. Shosei Koda. Yevgeny Rodionov. Piotr Stańczak. Kim Sun-il. Austin Tice. – 'Fahad Naseem, one of the three militants accused of kidnapping Pearl, told a judge in Karachi yesterday that Pearl was kidnapped because he was "a Jew and is working against Islam."'. – 'The intelligence official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said that information from American intelligence agencies helped Pakistani investigators track down the ring involved in the plot.

Beheading video

a videobeheading videosbeheadings are videotaped
ISIL beheading incidents. Decapitation. Beheading in Islam. Martyrdom video. Snuff film. Live streaming crimes. The Beatles, terrorist cell of the Islamic State that made public a number of beheading videos. " Ben Vanderford Hoax Video" - Spike TV. Jones, Ronald H. " Terrorist Beheadings: Cultural and Strategic Implications." Hosted at Air University.

David Haines (aid worker)

David HainesDavid Cawthorne Haines
She has also befriended freed captive Motka who was with her father. 2014 American intervention in Iraq. 2014 ISIL beheading incidents. Beheading in Islamism. Steven Sotloff. Foreign hostages in Iraq. James Foley (journalist). Nick Berg. Kenneth Bigley. John Cantlie. Austin Tice. Daniel Pearl. The Beatles, terrorist cell of the Islamic State that guarded and beheaded Sotloff.

Killing of captives by ISIL

ISIL beheading incidents. Persecution of Assyrians by ISIL. Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL. Genocide of Shias by ISIL. Abu Azrael.

The Beatles (terrorist cell)

The BeatlesJihadi BeatlesBeatles
Jihadi John beheaded or participated in the beheadings of American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff, as well as British humanitarian aid workers David Haines and Alan Henning, American aid worker Peter Kassig, Japanese private military contractor Haruna Yukawa, Japanese journalist Kenji Goto, and 22 members of the Syrian armed forces in a period from August 2014 to January 2015. A former ISIS member said that using a British man to carry out the beheadings was likely a deliberate effort by ISIS to "project the image that a European, or a Western person, killed an American so that they can ... appeal to others outside Syria and make them feel that they belong to the same cause."

Austin Tice

. * 2014 ISIL beheading incidents. Foreign hostages in Iraq. List of kidnappings. Kenneth Bigley. Nick Berg. Peter Theo Curtis. James Foley (journalist). Daniel Pearl. Matt Schrier. Steven Sotloff. The Family of Austin Tice site. Free Austin Tice on Facebook. Austin Tice on Flickr. Austin Tice on Twitter. Free Austin Tice on Twitter.

Alan Henning

James Foley (journalist). Steven Sotloff. 2014 ISIL beheading incidents.


Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunnis make up the largest religious group in Syria.


Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 99% of the country's million citizens are Muslims, with tiny minorities of Christians, Yarsans, Yezidis and Mandeans also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Iraq War

Operation Iraqi FreedomIraqwar in Iraq
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict.

Time (magazine)

TimeTime MagazineTime'' magazine
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and for many years it was run by its influential co-founder Henry Luce. A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.


Decapitation is the complete separation of the head (caput) from the body. Such an injury is fatal to humans and animals, since it deprives all other organs of the involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function, while the brain is deprived of oxygenated blood and blood pressure.

Agence France-Presse

AFPAgence France PresseAgence France Press
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France. Founded in 1835 as Agence Havas, it is the world's oldest news agency.


CallinicumRaqqahRaqqa, Syria
Raqqa, also called Raqa, Rakka and ar-Raqqah''', is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo. It is located 40 km east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine city and bishopric Callinicum (formerly a Latin and now a Maronite Catholic titular see) was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid. It was also the capital of Islamic State Caliphate between 2014 and 2017 under Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, Raqqa was the sixth largest city in Syria.

Aafia Siddiqui

Amjad Mohammed KhanAfia SiddiquiAafia Siddique
ISIS have offered to trade her for prisoners on two separate occasions: once for James Foley and once for Kayla Mueller. Siddiqui came to the United States on a student visa in 1990 for undergraduate and graduate education and eventually settled in Massachusetts. While completing the requirements for her Masters and her PhD in neuroscience in less than four years, she found time to marry and start a family, and volunteer with the Muslim Student Association and Al-Kifah Refugee Center, proselytizing, urging greater religious observance among Muslims, doing charity work, and urging support for jihad in Muslim countries such as Afghanistan and Bosnia.

Human rights in ISIL-controlled territory

held as slaveshuman rights abusesHuman rights in ISIL-controlled territory § Slave trade
The unit executed American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff and released beheading videos. Eight of the other journalists were released for ransom: Danish journalist Daniel Rye Ottosen, French journalists Didier François, Edouard Elias, Nicolas Hénin, and Pierre Torres, and Spanish journalists Marc Marginedas, Javier Espinosa, and Ricardo García Vilanova. The unit continues to hold hostage British journalist John Cantlie and a female aid worker. Cyber-security group the Citizen Lab released a report finding a possible link between ISIL and a digital attack on the Syrian citizen media group Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently (RSS).

Robot of Sherwood

On 4 September 2014, the BBC announced that a beheading scene from the episode's climatic battle had been edited out due to the recent murders of James Foley and Steven Sotloff by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. In the original scene, Robin would have decapitated the Sheriff, revealing that the Sheriff was a robot. Lines spoken by the Sheriff alluding to his unique nature remain in the edited episode; after replacing his severed head on his robot body, he goads Robin as he pursues him that someone who is "half man, half engine" is too much for him to fight.