George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonPresident Washington
Washington appointed fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph as Attorney General, Samuel Osgood as Postmaster General, Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State, and his commanding successor Henry Knox as Secretary of War. Finally, he appointed Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury. Washington's cabinet became a consulting and advisory body, not mandated by the Constitution. Washington's cabinet members formed rival parties with sharply opposing views, most fiercely illustrated between Hamilton and Jefferson. He restricted cabinet discussions to topics of his choosing, without participating in debate.

Washington, D.C.

WashingtonDistrict of ColumbiaWashington, DC
In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 mi on each side, totaling 100 sqmi.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
His proposals were included into a bill by Congress within slightly over a month after his departure as treasury secretary. Some months later Hamilton resumed his law practice in New York to remain closer to his family. Hamilton's resignation as Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 did not remove him from public life. With the resumption of his law practice, he remained close to Washington as an advisor and friend.

James Monroe

MonroePresident MonroePresident James Monroe
Monroe thought that foreign and Federalist elements had created the Quasi War of 1798–1800, and he strongly supported Thomas Jefferson's candidacy for president in 1800. Federalists were likewise suspicious of Monroe, some viewing him at best as a French dupe and at worst a traitor. With the power to appoint election officials in Virginia, Monroe exercised his influence to help Jefferson win Virginia's presidential electors. He also considered using the Virginia militia to force the outcome in favor of Jefferson. Jefferson won the 1800 election, and he appointed Madison as his Secretary of State.

Albert Gallatin

GallatinistGallatinA. A. Albert Gallatin
Gallatin's mastery of public finance led to his choice as Secretary of the Treasury by President Thomas Jefferson, despite Federalist attacks that he was a "foreigner" with a French accent. Under Jefferson and James Madison, Gallatin served as secretary from 1801 until February 1814. Gallatin retained much of Hamilton's financial system, though he also presided over a reduction in the national debt prior to the War of 1812. Gallatin served on the American commission that agreed to the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. In the aftermath of the war, he helped found the Second Bank of the United States.

Democratic-Republican Party

The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826 Volume 2 (1994).

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. Presidentpresidential
Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe. In spite of the strong two-term tradition, Ulysses S. Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in 1880, as did Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 (though it would have been only his second full term). Both were unsuccessful. In 1940, after leading the nation through the Great Depression, Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Founders Online – a searchable database of over 178,000 documents authored by or addressed to George Washington, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams (and family), Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. The Selected Papers of John Jay at Columbia University. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson at Princeton University. The Papers of James Madison at University of Virginia. The Washington Papers at University of Virginia. The Franklin Papers at Yale University. List of national founders (worldwide). History of the United States Constitution. Rights of Englishmen. Patriot (American Revolution). Sons of Liberty.

United States Attorney General

Attorney GeneralU.S. Attorney GeneralUS Attorney General
The Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of Defense are generally regarded as the four most important Cabinet officials in the United States because of the significance and age of their respective departments. It is the practice for the Attorney General, along with many other public officials, to give resignation with effect on the Inauguration Day (January 20) of a new President. The Deputy Attorney General, who is also required to tender their resignation, is commonly requested to stay on and act as Attorney General pending the confirmation by the Senate of the new Attorney General.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
The United States finally solved its debt and currency problems in the 1790s, when Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton secured legislation by which the national government assumed all of the state debts, and, in addition, created a national bank and a funding system based on tariffs and bond issues that paid off the foreign debts. Britain spent around £80 million and ended with a national debt of £250 million, (£ in today's money), generating a yearly interest of £9.5 million annually. The debts piled upon that which it had already accumulated from the Seven Years' War.

William H. Crawford

William CrawfordCrawfordCrawford Democratic- Republican
In 1813, President James Madison appointed Crawford as the U.S. minister to France, and Crawford held that post for the remainder of the War of 1812. After the war, Madison appointed him to the position of Secretary of War. In October 1816, Madison chose Crawford for the position of Secretary of the Treasury, and Crawford would remain in that office for the remainder of Madison's presidency and for the duration of James Monroe's presidency. Crawford suffered a severe stroke in 1823, but nonetheless sought to succeed Monroe in the 1824 election. The Democratic-Republican Party splintered into factions as several others also sought the presidency.

John Breckinridge (U.S. Attorney General)

John BreckinridgeAttorney General John Breckinridgeformer Attorney General in the Jefferson Administration
Attorney General Levi Lincoln resigned in December 1804, Jefferson and Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin sought a replacement. Virginia's John Thomson Mason, Gallatin's first choice, declined the appointment. U.S. Navy Secretary Robert Smith desired the office, and Jefferson agreed to appoint him, contingent upon finding a suitable replacement for Smith as Secretary of the Navy. Jefferson appointed Massachusetts Congressman Jacob Crowninshield to replace Smith, and both appointments were confirmed by the Senate March 3, 1805. Crowninshield refused his appointment, however, and Smith was forced to remain as Secretary of the Navy.

William Branch Giles

William B. GilesWilliam GilesGiles, William Branch
During this first period in Congress, he fervently supported his fellow Virginians James Madison and Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton and his ideas for a national bank. He introduced three sets of resolutions in 1793, which criticized Hamilton's conduct as Secretary of the Treasury to the point of accusing him of misconduct in office; he opposed the first Bank of the United States and Jay's Treaty; he resisted naval appropriations during the Quasi-War of 1798. In the same year, he voted for the Virginia Resolutions in the House of Delegates.

Continental Congress

CongressContinental Congressman from DelawareDelegate to the Continental Congress
June 7: Richard Henry Lee of Virginia presents a three-part resolution to Congress, calling on Congress to declare independence, form foreign alliances, and prepare a plan of colonial confederation. June 10: Congress votes on June 10 to postpone further discussion of Lee's resolution for three weeks to allow time for the delegates to confer with their state assemblies. June 11: Congress appoints a "Committee of Five", Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Sherman of Connecticut and Robert R. Livingston of New York, to draft a declaration justifying independence.

College of William & Mary

William & MaryCollege of William and MaryWilliam and Mary
During the period of the American Revolution, freedom of religion was established in Virginia notably with the 1786 passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Future U.S. President James Madison was a key figure in the transition to religious freedom in Virginia, and Right Reverend James Madison, his cousin and Thomas Jefferson, who was on the Board of Visitors, helped the College of William & Mary to make the transition as well. In 1779 the college became the first American university with the establishment of the graduate schools in law and medicine.

Three-Fifths Compromise

three-fifthsthree-fifths clausethree-fifths rule
As Thomas Jefferson wrote in his notes on the debates, the southern states would be taxed "according to their numbers and their wealth conjunctly, while the northern would be taxed on numbers only". After proposed compromises of one-half by Benjamin Harrison of Virginia and three-fourths by several New Englanders failed to gain sufficient support, Congress finally settled on the three-fifths ratio proposed by James Madison. But this amendment ultimately failed, falling two states short of the unanimous approval required for amending the Articles of Confederation (only New Hampshire and New York were opposed).

Andrew Jackson

JacksonJacksonianPresident Andrew Jackson
Jackson acted cautiously at first, but wrote letters to public officials, including President Thomas Jefferson, vaguely warning them about the scheme. In December, Jefferson, a political opponent of Burr, issued a proclamation declaring that a treasonous plot was underway in the West and calling for the arrest of the perpetrators. Jackson, safe from arrest because of his extensive paper trail, organized the militia. Burr was soon captured, and the men were sent home. Jackson traveled to Richmond, Virginia, to testify on Burr's behalf in trial. The defense team decided against placing him on the witness stand, fearing his remarks were too provocative.

University of Virginia

VirginiaUVAthe University of Virginia
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia. The flagship university of Virginia, it is also a World Heritage site of the United States. It was founded in 1819 by Declaration of Independence author and former President Thomas Jefferson. UVA is known for its historic foundations, student-run honor code, and secret societies. The original governing Board of Visitors included Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of its foundation and earlier Presidents Jefferson and Madison were UVA's first two rectors.

John Tyler

TylerPresident TylerJohn Tyler, Jr.
He was nominated in December 1825 for governor of Virginia, a position which was then appointed by the legislature. Tyler was elected 131–81 over John Floyd. The office of governor was powerless under the original Virginia Constitution (1776–1830), lacking even veto authority. Tyler enjoyed a prominent oratorical platform but could do little to influence the legislature. His most visible act as governor was delivering the funeral address for former president Jefferson, a Virginian, who had died on July 4, 1826. Tyler was deeply devoted to Jefferson, and his eloquent eulogy was well received. Tyler's governorship was otherwise uneventful.


industrial hemphemp seedhemp rope
Additional presidents known to have farmed hemp include Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Zachary Taylor, and Franklin Pierce. Historically, hemp production had made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky's economy. Before the American Civil War, many slaves worked on plantations producing hemp. In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed in the United States, levying a tax on anyone who dealt commercially in cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. The passing of the Act to destroy the US hemp industry has been disputed to involve businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst and the Du Pont family.

List of University of Virginia people

University of Virginia is one of only two institutions of higher learning in the United States which was founded by a U.S. President, the other being the State University of New York at Buffalo. This page is a partial list of notable alumni and faculty of the University of Virginia. * (364 KB) Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President of the United States (1801–1809); founder, Rector (1819–1826). James Madison – 4th President of the United States (1809–1817); Rector (1826–1836). James Monroe – 5th President of the United States (1817–1825). Joseph C. Cabell – Rector (1834-1836 & 1845-1856). Chapman Johnson – Rector (1836-185).

Economic history of the United States

economic historyAmericanAmerican economic history
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison opposed a strong central government (and, consequently, most of Hamilton's economic policies), but they could not stop Hamilton, who wielded immense power and political clout in the Washington administration. In 1801, however, Jefferson became president and turned to promoting a more decentralized, agrarian democracy called Jeffersonian democracy. (He based his philosophy on protecting the common man from political and economic tyranny. He particularly praised small farmers as "the most valuable citizens".) However, Jefferson did not change Hamilton's basic policies.

List of Columbia University people in politics, military and law

Franklin MacVeagh—(J.D. 1864) 45th United States Secretary of the Treasury (1909–13). F. David Mathews—(Ph.D. 1975) 11th Secretary of United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare under Gerald Ford (1975–1977); President, University of Alabama. Rogers Morton—(CUCP&S–attended) Special Counselor to President Gerald Ford (with Cabinet rank); 39th United States Secretary of the Interior (1971–1975); 22nd United States Secretary of Commerce (1975–1976); chairman of the Republican National Committee. Jim Nicholson—(M.A.) 5th United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs (2005–2007) under George W. Bush.

List of fictional United States presidencies of historical figures (A–B)

. * In the short story "The War of '07" by Jayge Carr in the anthology Alternate Presidents, Aaron Burr became the 3rd President by manipulating events in the 1800 United States presidential election in which he defeated Thomas Jefferson. At the beginning of his presidency, Edmund Randolph was vice president, Edward Livingston was Secretary of State, Alexander Hamilton was Secretary of War, James Madison was Attorney General, Albert Gallatin was Secretary of Commerce and President Burr's son-in-law Joseph Alston was Secretary of the Treasury. By 1807, Hamilton had become vice president whereas General Henry "Light-Horse" Lee replaced him as Secretary of War.

Scottish Americans

Nineteen of the fifty-six delegates who signed the Declaration of Independence came from Scotland or Ulster or, like the Scottish-tutored Thomas Jefferson, had ancestors there. Other founding fathers like James Madison had no ancestral connection but were imbued with ideas drawn from Scottish moral philosophy. Scottish Americans who made major contributions to the revolutionary war included Commodore John Paul Jones, the "Father of the American Navy", and Generals Henry Knox and William Alexander. Another person of note was a personal friend of George Washington, General Hugh Mercer, who fought for Charles Edward Stuart at the Battle of Culloden.