La Violencia

ColombiaThe Violencecivil and political crisis
On April 9, 1948 Liberal Party leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán was assassinated by Juan Roa Sierra on the street in Bogotá, via three shots from a revolver. Gaitán was a popular candidate and would have been the likely winner of the 1950 election. This began the Bogotazo as angry mobs beat Roa Sierra to death and headed to the presidential palace with the intent of killing President Ospina Pérez. The murder of Gaitán and subsequent rioting sparked other popular uprisings throughout the country. Because of the Liberal nature of these revolts, the police and military, who had been largely neutral before, either defected or became aligned with the Conservative government.


El BogotazoBogotáEvents of
A bystander, Gabriel Restrepo, collected the remains of his clothes and found some personal documents, which identified him as 26-year-old Juan Roa Sierra. There have been a number of theories concerning Gaitán's murder, some claiming that the assassination was planned and undertaken by other persons in addition to Juan Roa Sierra; or that the latter was not the real killer. Sierra was born into a poor family. There was a history of mental illness amongst Sierra's brothers, and he may himself have been unstable. He was seen often in Gaitán's office asking for a job, since he was unemployed, but Gaitán had never received him.


COLRepublic of ColombiaColombian
Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April 1948. The ensuing riots in Bogotá, known as El Bogotazo, spread throughout the country and claimed the lives of at least 180,000 Colombians. Colombia entered the Korean War when Laureano Gómez was elected president. It was the only Latin American country to join the war in a direct military role as an ally of the United States. Particularly important was the resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy.


BogotaBogotá, ColombiaBogotá, D.C.
Bogotá has historical museums like the Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Museum, the Museum of Independence (Museo de la Independencia), the Quinta de Bolívar and the Casa Museo Francisco José de Caldas, as well as the headquarters of Maloka and the Children's Museum of Bogotá. New museums include the Art Deco and the Museum of Bogotá.

Colombian Liberal Party

Liberal PartyLiberalLiberals
In the 1940s, the liberal party turned towards socialism under the influence of the charismatic lawyer Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, despite the antipathy it provoked among oligarchs party members and liberal leaders. In the rural area, Gaitanism faced a bloody repression to which its scrupulous respect for legality did not prepare it: 15,000 militants were murdered between 1945 and 1948 by death squads supposedly close to the conservatives. Gaitán himself, who was a likely winner of the next presidential election, was shot down in 1948.

Mariano Ospina Pérez

Mariano Ospina PerezMariano Pérez
During his presidency, on April 9, 1948, the liberal leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán was assassinated in confusing circumstances by Juan Roa. Gaitán was running for the presidency of Colombia for a second time; this time he had won his party's primaries and had large support from the masses. The confusion and anger triggered by Gaitán's assassination provoked the huge Bogotazo riots that extended throughout the Colombian capital Bogotá and extended later to the rest of the country to generate a ten-year period of violence known as La Violencia.

Communism in Colombia

ColombiaColombian communismLiberal Republic
The popular Colombian Liberal Party leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán led the National Left-wing Revolutionary Union or UNIR (Unión de Izquierda Revolucionaria), and they organized protest movements against the Conservative policies which started tension between the two parties. Gaitan was shot and killed about 1:15 p.m. on April 9, 1948 near the corner of Carrera Séptima and Jimenez de Quesada in Central Bogotá during the 9th Pan-American Conference. After the death of Gaitán, riots erupted in Bogotá. The angry mob killed his murderer Juan Roa Sierra and dragged his body in the streets to the front of the presidential palace where they hanged it publicly.

Operation Pantomime

Espirito says that he then traveled to Colombia as part of a team of US agent, who eventually contacted and used Colombian Juan Roa Sierra to assassinate Gaitán on April 9, 1948. Two former CIA officers recognized in the book "The Invisible Government" CIA involvement in the murder of Gaitán. * (in Spanish) [ Fragmentos de «Pantomima». Colombia 9 de abril de 1948]

President of Colombia

PresidentColombian PresidentPresident of the Republic
The President of Colombia (Presidente de Colombia), officially known as the President of the Republic of Colombia (Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of Colombia. The office of president was established upon the ratification of the Constitution of 1819, by the Congress of Angostura, convened in December 1819, when Colombia was the "Gran Colombia". The first president, General Simón Bolívar, took office in 1819. His position, initially self-proclaimed, was subsequently ratified by Congress.

Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada

Gonzalo Jimenez de QuesadaGonzalo de QuesadaJimenéz de Quesáda

Francisco de Paula Santander

Francisco de Paula Santander y OmañaSantanderFrancisco de Paula Santander Room
Francisco José de Paula Santander y Omaña (Villa del Rosario de Cúcuta, Colombia, April 2, 1792 – Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, May 6, 1840), was a Colombian military and political leader during the 1810–1819 independence war of the United Provinces of New Granada (present-day Colombia). He was the acting President of Gran Colombia between 1819 and 1826, and later elected by Congress as the President of the Republic of New Granada between 1832 and 1837. Santander came to be known as "The Man of the Laws" ("El Hombre de las Leyes").

1946 Colombian presidential election

1946election of 1946elections of 1946
Two years after the election, the second Liberal Party candidate, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala, was assassinated. This in turn sparked a ten-year civil war known as La Violencia.

List of mayors of Bogotá

Mayor of BogotámayorBogotá
Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, June 1936 – March 1937. Gonzalo Restrepo, March 1937 – May 1937. Manuel Rueda Vargas, May 1937 – March 1938. Gustavo Santos, March 1938 – October 1938. Germán Zea Hernández, October 1938 – April 1941. Julio Pardo Dávila, May 1941 – August 1942. Carlos Sánz de Santamaría, August 1942 – March 1944. Jorge Soto del Corral, March 1944 – November 1944. Gabriel Paredes, November 1944 – January 1945. Juan Pablo Llinás, January 1945 – June 1945. Ramón Muñoz Toledo, June 1945 – September 1946. Juan Salgar Martín, October 1946 – March 1947. Francisco José Arévalo, April 1947 – March 1948. Manuel de Vengoechea Mier, March 1948 – April 1948.

Colombian Conservative Party

Conservative PartyConservativeConservatives
In 1946, after sixteen years of liberal governments, the conservative candidate Mariano Ospina Pérez won the presidency due to a division of the Liberal Party between Gabriel Turbay and Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. Political violence reappeared during Ospina's term, finally taking Gaitán as a victim. He was murdered in Bogotá on April 9, 1948. After his assassination began the period known as "La Violencia" in which some members of the Liberal Party formed armed guerrillas, that were then targeted by conservative paramilitary forces. The Liberal Party boycotted the presidential election of 1950, which were won by the radical conservative Laureano Gómez.

United Fruit Company

United FruitUnited Fruit Co.International Railways of Central America
Congressman Jorge Eliécer Gaitán claimed that the army had acted under instructions from the United Fruit Company. The ensuing scandal contributed to President Miguel Abadía Méndez's Conservative Party being voted out of office in 1930, putting an end to 44 years of Conservative rule in Colombia. The first novel of Álvaro Cepeda Samudio, La Casa Grande, focuses on this event, and the author himself grew up in close proximity to the incident. The climax of García Márquez's novel One Hundred Years of Solitude is based on the events in Ciénaga.

Banana Massacre

Santa Marta MassacreBanana massacre in ColombiaColombia
Guerrero added that Jorge Eliécer Gaitán had exaggerated the number of deaths. The press has reported different numbers of deaths and different opinions about the events that took place that night. The conclusion is that there is no agreed-on story, but rather diverse variations depending on the source they come from. The American press provided biased information on the strike. The Colombian press was also biased depending on the political alignment of the publication. For example, the Bogotá-based newspaper El Tiempo stated that the workers were within their rights in wanting to improve their conditions.

Gabriel García Márquez

Gabriel Garcia MarquezGarcía MárquezGabriel García Marquez
After the so-called "Bogotazo" in 1948, some bloody disturbances that happened 9 April caused by the assassination of popular leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, the university closed indefinitely and his boarding house was burned. García Márquez transferred to the Universidad de Cartagena and began working as a reporter of El Universal. In 1950, he ended his legal studies to focus on journalism and moved again to Barranquilla to work as a columnist and reporter in the newspaper El Heraldo. Though García Márquez never finished his higher studies, some universities, including Columbia University, New York, have given him an honorary doctorate in writing.

Fidel Castro

CastroFidelFidel Castro Ruz
There, the assassination of popular leftist leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala led to widespread rioting and clashes between the governing Conservatives – backed by the army – and leftist Liberals. Castro joined the Liberal cause by stealing guns from a police station, but subsequent police investigations concluded that he had not been involved in any killings. Returning to Cuba, Castro became a prominent figure in protests against government attempts to raise bus fares. That year, he married Mirta Díaz Balart, a student from a wealthy family, through whom he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite.

Organization of American States

OASPan American UnionOrganisation of American States
The transition from the Pan American Union to OAS would have been smooth if it had not been for the assassination of Colombian leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. The Director General of the former, Alberto Lleras Camargo, became the Organization's first Secretary General. The current Secretary General is former Uruguayan minister of foreign affairs Luis Almagro.

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

FARCFARC-EPRevolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
In 1948, in the aftermath of the assassination of the populist politician Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, there occurred a decade of large-scale political violence throughout Colombia, which was a Conservative – Liberal civil war that killed more than 200,000 people. In Colombian history and culture, the killings are known as La Violencia (The Violence, 1948–58); most of the people killed were peasants and laborers in rural Colombia. In 1957–1958, the political leadership of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party agreed to establish a bipartisan political system known as the National Front (Frente Nacional, 1958–74).

History of FARC

FARCHistory of the FARC-EPHistory of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
Following the murder of populist politician Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, in 1948, large-scale violence broke out in what became known as La Violencia ("The Violence"), which lasted until about 1958. More than 300,000 people were killed in the violence, the large majority of whom were peasants and wage laborers living in rural areas. In 1958, Liberal and Conservative party elites, together with Church and business leaders negotiated an agreement that created an exclusively bipartisan political alternation system, known as the National Front. The two parties agreed to hold elections, but to alternate power between the two parties, regardless of the election results.

Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Museum

The Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Museum (aka Casa Museo Jorge Eliecer Gaitan) is a museum in Bogota, Colombia, dedicated to the life of assassinated politician Jorge Eliecer Gaitan. The house Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala lived in from the beginning of the 1930s until the day of his murder on April 9, 1948, is located on Calle 42 No. 15 (42nd Street # 15), 52 of the Santa Teresita neighborhood in Bogotá. It was also part of the design planned in 1928 for this area by the “Davila Holguin & Lievano” firm. It was declared as a National Monument by Decree 1265 in 1948, and has been managed by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia since the year 2005 This two-story museum has an area of 218 square meters.

Manta, Cundinamarca

Manta is also historically known as one of the possible places of birth of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. The territory that makes up the town of Manta is located in the eastern side of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. It is a steep mountainous terrain irregularities with a single plateau where is located the urban area. These irregularities cause abrupt elevation varies from 1500 m to 3400 m of altitude. The maximum altitude is 3400 m that corresponds to the hill of La Laguna also named hill of La Petaca. Manta is located in a depression formed by the river basin of the Aguacia River that divides the territory into two parts.


A caudillo (, ;, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") or caudex "tree trunk" is a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power. There is no precise definition of caudillo, which is often used interchangeably with "dictator" and "strongman". The term is historically associated with Spain, and with Spanish America after virtually all of that region won independence in the early nineteenth century.

Marco Fidel Suárez

Marco Fidel Suarez
Marco Fidel Suárez (April 23, 1855 – April 3, 1927) was a Colombian political figure. He served as president of Colombia from 1918 to 1921. He was born on April 23, 1855, in the town of Hatoviejo, Antioquia. His parents were Rosalía Suárez and José María Barrientos.