Invaded by Britain's Royal Navy in 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession, Minorca temporarily became a British possession. Great Britain took possession in 1713, under the terms of [[:s:Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between Spain and Great Britain#ARTICLE XI|Article XI]] of the Treaty of Utrecht. Under the governorship of General Richard Kane, this period saw the island's capital moved to Port Mahon and a naval base established in that town's harbour. In 1756, during the Seven Years' War, France captured the island after the Siege of Fort St Philip and a failed British relief attempt.
GeorgianGeorgian periodGeorgian England
Anglican Evangelicalism thus, as historian Lisa Wood has argued in her book Modes of Discipline: Women, Conservatism, and the Novel After the French Revolution, functioned as a tool of ruling-class social control, buffering the discontent that in France had inaugurated a revolution; yet it contained within itself the seeds for challenge to gender and class hierarchies. The Georgian period saw continual warfare, including the Seven Years' War, known in America as the French and Indian War (1756–63), the American Revolutionary War (1775–83), the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802), the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–15).
French & Indian WarFrench and IndianSeven Years' War
It also led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies; some historians make a connection between the French and Indian War and the Seven Years' War overseas, but most residents of the United States consider them as two separate conflicts—only one of which involved the American colonies, and American historians generally use the traditional name. Less frequently used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name.
George IIIKing George IIIGeorge III of Great Britain
The French Revolution of 1789, in which the French monarchy had been overthrown, worried many British landowners. France declared war on Great Britain in 1793; in the war attempt, George allowed Pitt to increase taxes, raise armies, and suspend the right of habeas corpus. The First Coalition to oppose revolutionary France, which included Austria, Prussia, and Spain, broke up in 1795 when Prussia and Spain made separate peace with France. The Second Coalition, which included Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire, was defeated in 1800. Only Great Britain was left fighting Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul of the French Republic.
U.S. military historyAmerican military historymilitary history
Beginning in 1689, the colonies became involved in a series of wars between Great Britain and France for control of North America, the most important of which were Queen Anne's War, in which the British conquered French colony Acadia, and the final French and Indian War (1754–63) when Britain was victorious over all the French colonies in North America. This final war was to give thousands of colonists, including Virginia colonel George Washington, military experience which they put to use during the American Revolutionary War.
John AdamsminiseriesUnnecessary War
In Episode 3, Adams travels to Europe with his young son John Quincy during the Revolutionary War seeking alliances with foreign nations, during which the ship transporting them battles a British frigate. It first shows Adams' embassy with Benjamin Franklin in the court of Louis XVI of France. The old French nobility, who are in the last decade before being consumed by the French Revolution, are portrayed as effete and decadent. They meet cheerfully with Franklin, seeing him as a romantic figure, little noting the democratic infection he brings with him.
military garrisongarrisonImperial military garrison
The Bermuda Garrison was the military establishment maintained on the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda by the regular British Army, and its local militia and voluntary reserves from 1701 to 1957. The garrison evolved from an independent company, to a company of Royal Garrison Battalion during the American War of Independence, and a steadily growing and diversifying force of artillery and infantry with various supporting corps from the French Revolution onwards. During the American War of Independence, the garrison in Bermuda fell under the military Commander-in-Chief of North America.
Latin American wars of independenceSouth American wars of independenceindependence
The American Revolution was the first in the Americas, and the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) was a surprising victory against a great power. The French Revolution in Europe followed, and collectively these events had profound effects on the British, Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies in the Americas. A revolutionary wave followed, resulting in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. The Haitian Revolution lasted from 1791 to 1804 and resulted in the independence of the French slave colony.
up to 100,000. 1755–1763: The Great Upheaval forces transfer of the French Acadian population from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 1756–1763: The Seven Years' War is fought among European powers in various theaters around the world. 1756–1763: The Third Carnatic War is fought between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore in India. 1760: George III becomes King of Britain. 1761: Maratha Empire defeated at Battle of Panipat. 1762–1796: Reign of Catherine the Great of Russia. 1763: The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years' War and Third Carnatic War. 1765: The Stamp Act is introduced into the American colonies by the British Parliament. 1766: Christian VII becomes king of Denmark.
YorktownBattle of Yorktownsurrender at Yorktown
List of American Revolutionary War battles. List of George Washington articles. USS Yorktown, for a list of U.S. Navy ships named after the battle. Yorktown Battlefield (National Park Service). 1931 Army War College history of the siege republished by the United States Army Center of Military History. Siege of Yorktown at Xenophon Group Military History Database. Articles of Capitulation at Yorktown. The French Army in the American Revolution at the John Carter Brown Library. Animated History of The Siege of Yorktown. The Role of the Spanish and Cubans in the Siege of Yorktown. The Yorktown Campaign (George Washington's Mount Vernon).
List of last living war veteranslast living British officer to have served at the battlelast living British officer to have served at the Battle of Waterloo
John Owen (1741–1843) – Great Britain. Also fought in American Revolutionary War. Buried in Warren, Pennsylvania. David Thompson (1736–1836) – Great Britain. Last pensioner. Lost an arm at Fort William Henry. Later served in the American Revolution. Michel-Eustache-Gaspard-Alain Chartier de Lotbinière (1748–1822) – France. Died in Montreal, Quebec, British Empire. Johann Heinrich Behrens (1735–1844) – Prussia. Died in Wolfenbüttel. Ezekiel Blackmarr (1742–1841) – Great Britain. Born in the American colonies. Enlisted in British forces and was their last survivor of the Battle of Havana (1762). Paul François de Quelen de la Vauguyon (1746–1828) – France. Died in Paris.
Bardonia railroad stationRamapo Manufacturing CompanyRockland County
Two important battles took place in Rockland County during the American Revolutionary War – the capture by the British of Fort Clinton at Bear Mountain in October 1777 and the victorious attack by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne’s army on the British fort at Stony Point in July 1779. Rockland was also the site of the first formal recognition of the new nation by the British. On May 5, 1783, General George Washington received the British Commander, Sir Guy Carleton, at the 1700 DeWint House to discuss the terms of the peace treaty. On May 7, 1783, Sir Guy Carleton received General George Washington aboard his vessel Perseverance.
Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France. The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year later and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted (except for the Hundred Days in 1815) until the French Revolution of 1848. During the later years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks.
two-power standardnavyRoyal Navy
Years' War. 1778–1783 American War of Independence. 1793–1802 French Revolutionary Wars. 1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars. 1812–1814 War of 1812. 1821 First paddle steamer for auxiliary use. 1827 Battle of Navarino is the last fleet action between wooden sailing ships. 1839–1842 Opium War. 1840 First screw-driven warship. 1853–1856 Crimean War. 1856–1860 Second Opium War. 1860 First iron-hulled armoured battleship. 1902 First British submarine. 1905 First steam turbine-powered "all big-gun" battleship. 1914–1918 First World War. 1918 First true aircraft carrier. 1918–1920 Russian Civil War. 1931 Invergordon Mutiny. 1939–1945 Battle of the Atlantic. 1940 Norwegian Campaign. 1940 Dunkirk evacuation.
Anglo-Spanish relationsSpain-United Kingdom relationsAnglo-Spanish conflict
Anglo-Spanish War of 1761–1763 was part of the Seven Years' War. Anglo-Spanish War of 1779–1783 was part of the American Revolutionary War.
Western historyWestern civilizationhistory and formation of Western society
George Washington led the new Continental Army against the British forces, who had many successes early in this American Revolution. After years of fighting, the colonists formed an alliance with France and defeated the British at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781. The treaty ending the war granted independence to the colonies, which became The United States of America. The other major Western revolution at the turn of the 19th century was the French Revolution. In 1789 France faced an economical crisis.
List of historical drama filmshistorical drama filmhistorical drama
The historical period drama is a film genre in which stories are based upon historical events and famous people. Some historical dramas are docudramas, which attempt an accurate portrayal of a historical event or biography, to the degree that the available historical research will allow. Other historical dramas are fictionalized tales that are based on an actual person and their deeds, such as Braveheart, which is loosely based on the 13th-century knight William Wallace's fight for Scotland's independence.
alliance with FranceAmerican allyan American ally
France in the Seven Years War. Franco-Indian alliance. French weapons in the American Civil War. List of French units in the American Revolutionary War.
Gustavus VassaEquianoEquiano, Olaudah
At this time, due to having lost the British colonies after long warfare and especially the violent excesses of the French Revolution, British society was tense because of fears of open revolution. Reformers were considered more suspect than in other periods. Equiano aged 51 had been an active member of the London Corresponding Society, which campaigned to extend the vote to working men. Equiano's will provided for projects he considered important.
Treaty of Paris1783 Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris of 1783
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War. The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire in North America and the United States of America, on lines "exceedingly generous" to the latter. Details included fishing rights and restoration of property and prisoners of war. This treaty and the separate peace treaties between Great Britain and the nations that supported the American cause—France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic—are known collectively as the Peace of Paris.
Ratonhnhaké:tonEdward KenwayHaytham Kenway
Queen Victoria (1819–1901), born Alexandrina Victoria of Kent, was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1837, and Empress of India from 1876, until her death. Her reign of sixty-three years became known as the Victorian era; marked by the Industrial Revolution and Pax Britannica, it was a period of great expansion for the British Empire, and was consequently a period of significant cultural, political, scientific, and military change across the globe. Duleep Singh (1838–1893), also known as Dalip Singh or the Black Prince of Perthshire, was the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire and the youngest son of Ranjit Singh, ruling from 1843 to 1846.
Reconstruction begins of old American Revolutionary War fortifications at Fort Whetstone at end of southern peninsula between Basin (modern Inner Harbor) and Northwest Branch of Patapsco River on its north side to Middle and Ferry (now Southern) Branches on its south side. Star-shaped Fort McHenry, renamed for James McHenry, third Secretary of War under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.
Despite this, Gallatin insisted that historians would still count George Washington as the first president. In the novel Tunnel Through the Deeps by Harry Harrison, in which the United States lost the American Revolution, Washington was executed for treason. America remained under control of the British Empire well into the 20th century. Washington's descendant, a gifted engineer still living in the ancestral Mount Vernon, undertakes the stupendous project of a tunnel under the Atlantic which would bind America closer than ever to Britain.
European colonizationcolonizationcolonial era
After the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763, Britain had emerged as the world's dominant power, but found itself mired in debt and struggling to finance the Navy and Army necessary to maintain a global empire. The British Parliament's attempt to raise taxes from North American colonists raised fears among the Americans that their rights as "Englishmen", and particularly their rights of self-government, were in danger. From 1765, a series of disputes with Parliament over taxation led to the American Revolution, first to informal committees of correspondence among the colonies, then to coordinated protest and resistance, with an important event in 1770, the Boston Massacre.
Washington is elected the first President of the United States; he serves until 1797. 1789: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. 1789: Great Britain and Spain dispute the Nootka Sound during the Nootka Crisis. 1789–1799: French Revolution. 1789: The Liège Revolution. 1789: The Brabant Revolution. 1790: The United States of Belgium is proclaimed following the Brabant Revolution. 1790: Suppression of the United States of Belgium and re-establishment of Austrian control. 1790: Establishment of the Polish-Prussian Pact. 1791: The Constitutional Act (or Canada Act) creates the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada in British North America. 1791: Suppression of the Liège Revolution