Commonwealth of DominicaDominicanDMA
In 1761, during the Seven Years' War in Europe, a British expedition against Dominica led by Andrew Rollo conquered the island, along with several other Caribbean islands. In 1763, France had lost the war and ceded the island to Great Britain under the Treaty of Paris. The same year, the British established a legislative assembly, with only European colonists represented. French remained the official language, but Antillean Creole, which had developed from it, was spoken by most of the population. In 1778 the French, with the active co-operation of the population, began the re-capture of Dominica. This was ended by the Treaty of Paris (1783), which returned the island to British control.

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
Kingdom of Great Britain. List of United Kingdom Whig and allied party leaders (1801–1859). Patriot Whigs. Whig government. Whig party (United States). Elofson, Warren M. The Rockingham Connection and the Second Founding of the Whig Party 1768–1773 1996. Feiling, Keith; A History of the Tory Party, 1640–1714, 1924 online edition. Feiling, Keith; The Second Tory Party, 1714–1832, 1938 online edition. Holmes, Geoffrey. "British Politics in the Age of Anne" (2nd ed. 1987). Jones; J. R. The First Whigs: The Politics of the Exclusion Crisis, 1678–1683, 1961 online edition. McCallum; Ronald Buchanan. The Liberal Party from Earl Grey to Asquith (1963). Marshall, Dorothy.


EuropeanEUEuropean continent
Discontent with the aristocracy and clergy's monopoly on political power in France resulted in the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic as a result of which the monarchy and many of the nobility perished during the initial reign of terror. Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power in the aftermath of the French Revolution and established the First French Empire that, during the Napoleonic Wars, grew to encompass large parts of Europe before collapsing in 1815 with the Battle of Waterloo.


CreekCreek IndiansMuscogee Creek
With the end of the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War) in 1763, France lost its North American empire, and British-American settlers moved inland. Indian discontent led to raids against back-country settlers, and the perception that the royal government favored the Indians and the deerskin trade led many back-country white settlers to join the Sons of Liberty. Fears of land-hungry settlers and need for European manufactured goods led the Muscogee to side with the British, but like many tribes, they were divided by factionalism, and, in general, avoided sustained fighting, preferring to protect their sovereignty through cautious participation.

Colony of Virginia

VirginiaVirginia Colonycolonial Virginia
After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776. The name "Virginia" is the oldest designation for English claims in North America.

Upper Canada

UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper Canadian
During the American Revolutionary War most of the First Nations supported the British. After the Americans launched a campaign that burned the villages of the Iroquois in New York State in 1779 the refugees fled to Fort Niagara and other British posts, and remained permanently in Canada.Land was granted to these allied Six Nations who had served on the British side during the American Revolution by the Haldimand Proclamation (1784). Haldimand had purchased a tract of land from the Mississaugas. The nature of the grant has been under dispute.


abolitionistabolition of slaveryabolitionists
During the French Revolutionary Wars, French slave-owners massively joined the counter-revolution and, through the Whitehall Accord, they threatened to move the French Caribbean colonies under British control, as Great Britain still allowed slavery. Fearing secession from these islands, successfully lobbied by planters and concerned about revenues from the West Indies, and influenced by the slaveholder family of his wife, Napoleon Bonaparte decided to re-establish slavery after becoming First Consul. He promulgated the law of 20 May 1802 and sent military governors and troops to the colonies to impose it.

French colonial empire

FrenchFrench EmpireFrance
In the middle of the 18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France and Britain, which ultimately resulted in the destruction of most of the first French colonial empire and the near-complete expulsion of France from the Americas. These wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the American Revolution (1765–1783), the French Revolutionary Wars (1793–1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars. This cyclic conflict is sometimes known as the Second Hundred Years' War.

French Directory

of Bonaparte at the battle of Arcole; the romantic landscapes of Hubert Robert; Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, whose work combined Neoclassicism and Romanticism; and a major neoclassical sculptor from the earlier generation, Jean-Antoine Houdon, famous for his busts of George Washington and Voltaire.

Illinois campaign

campaignapproaching Fort SackvilleBattle of Vincennes
"Index to the George Rogers Clark Papers - The Illinois Regiment", from the Sons of the Revolution in the State of Illinois. The Recreated Illinois Regiment - Virginia State Forces (NWTA) organization, American Revolutionary War reenactors. The Uniform of George Rogers Clark's Illinois Regiment of Virginia State Forces, From October 1778 through February 1779 (The period of the attack on Fort Sackville, Vincennes).

French language

The evolution of Latin in Gaul was shaped by its coexistence for over half a millennium beside the native Celtic Gaulish language, which did not go extinct until the late 6th century, long after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. The population remained 90% indigenous in origin, and instead of Roman settlers, the Romanizing class was the local native elite, whose children learned Latin in Roman schools; at the time of the collapse of the Empire, this local elite had been slowly abandoning Gaulish entirely, but the rural and lower class populations remained Gaulish speakers who could sometimes also speak Latin or Greek.

George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney

George RodneyRodneySir George Rodney
George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, KB (bap. 13 February 1718 – 24 May 1792), was a British naval officer. He is best known for his commands in the American War of Independence, particularly his victory over the French at the Battle of the Saintes in 1782. It is often claimed that he was the commander to have pioneered the tactic of "[[Naval tactics in the Age of Sail#Developments during the American war of independence|breaking the line]]". Rodney came from a distinguished but poor background, and went to sea at the age of fourteen. His first major action was the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747.

Germans in the American Revolution

GermanGerman AuxiliariesBrunswick
King George III came from an ethnic German family and was the first of the British royal House of Hanover to speak English as his first language. Great Britain formed strong German alliances during the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 and during the Seven Years' War had combined forces with Frederick the Great of Prussia to form a coalition that functioned as one Army. When the British colonies in America rebelled a decade later, several German-speaking states contracted soldiers to the British Army.

George Mason

George Mason IVaddressedMason
Mason devoted much effort during the American Revolutionary War to safeguarding Fairfax County and the rivers of Virginia, since the British several times raided areas along the Potomac. Control of the rivers and of Chesapeake Bay was urgent as Virginians tried to obtain hard currency by trading tobacco to the French and other European nations. The export of tobacco, generally via the West Indies, allowed Mason and others to obtain, via France and Holland, British-made items such as cloth, clothing patterns, medicines, and hardware.

Charles O'Hara

O'HaraO’HaraBrig. Gen. Charles O'Hara
General Charles O'Hara (1740 – 25 February 1802) was a British military officer who served in the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence, and French Revolutionary War, and later served as Governor of Gibraltar. During his career O'Hara personally surrendered to both George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte. Charles O'Hara was born in Lisbon, Portugal, the illegitimate son of The 2nd Baron Tyrawley (who was eventually promoted Field Marshal in 1763) and his Portuguese mistress. Charles was sent to Westminster School. On 23 December 1752, at the age of twelve—a young but not uncommon age for a subaltern of the era—he became a cornet in the 3rd Dragoons.

Bernardo de Gálvez, 1st Viscount of Galveston

Bernardo de GálvezBernardo de GalvezBernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez
On December 16, 2014, the United States Congress conferred honorary citizenship on Gálvez, citing him as a "hero of the Revolutionary War who risked his life for the freedom of the United States people and provided supplies, intelligence, and strong military support to the war effort." * PBS dramatization of Bernardo de Galvez's role in the American Revolution (2012) Bernardo de Gálvez, the 1976 equestrian statue in Washington, D.C. Gálveztown (brig sloop) – captured British ship renamed and participated in the capture of Mobile (1780); replica built in Spain more than 200 years later. Spain and the American Revolutionary War. Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo, Bernardo's father.

Anglo-French War (1778–1783)

Anglo-French WarAnglo-French War (1778–83)Antilles War
Ever since the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763, France's Foreign Ministers, beginning with Choiseul (in office: 1761-1766), had followed the general idea that the independence of Britain's North American colonies would be good for France and bad for Britain, and furthermore that French attempts to recover parts of New France would be detrimental to that cause. When the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, the Comte de Vergennes, then the French Foreign Minister, outlined a series of proposals that led to secret French and also Spanish support of the rebel movement, and preparations for war, including expansion of their navies.

Israel Putnam

General Israel PutnamPutnamGen. Putnam
George Washington was chosen as Commander-in-Chief, with Putnam and three others appointed as major generals under Washington. Of the votes, only Washington and Putnam were unanimous. After Bunker Hill, Washington arrived and Putnam served under him in the Siege of Boston. Due largely to the ingenious efforts of Henry Knox and Putnam's cousin Rufus Putnam, the British were forced to abandon Boston. Putnam subsequently served as temporary commander of the American forces in New York while waiting for Washington's arrival there on April 13, 1776. Putnam's fortunes declined at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776, where he was forced to effect a hasty retreat from the British.

Cherokee–American wars

Cherokee-American warsSecond Cherokee WarChickamauga
During the Revolutionary War, they also fought alongside British troops, Loyalist militia, and the King's Carolina Rangers. Open warfare broke out in the summer of 1776 along the frontier of the Watauga, Holston, Nolichucky, and Doe rivers in East Tennessee, as well as the colonies (later states) of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. It later spread to those along the Cumberland River in Middle Tennessee and in Kentucky. The wars can be divided into two phases. The first phase one place from 1776 to 1783, in which the Cherokee fought as allies of the Kingdom of Great Britain against the American colonies.

Battle of Carillon

Battle of TiconderogaCarillonBattle of Bernetz Brook
The Battle of Carillon, also known as the 1758 Battle of Ticonderoga, was fought on July 8, 1758, during the French and Indian War (which was part of the global Seven Years' War). It was fought near Fort Carillon (now known as Fort Ticonderoga) on the shore of Lake Champlain in the frontier area between the British colony of New York and the French colony of New France.


HuguenotFrench HuguenotHugenot
Paul Revere was descended from Huguenot refugees, as was Henry Laurens, who signed the Articles of Confederation for South Carolina; Jack Jouett, who made the ride from Cuckoo Tavern to warn Thomas Jefferson and others that Tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king; Reverend John Gano was a Revolutionary War chaplain and spiritual advisor to George Washington; Francis Marion, and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution and later statesmen. The last active Huguenot congregation in North America worships in Charleston, South Carolina, at a church that dates to 1844.

Louis Antoine de Bougainville

BougainvilleLouis-Antoine de BougainvilleLouis de Bougainville
He spent the remaining years of the Seven Years' War (1761 to 1763) as a diplomat, helping to negotiate the Treaty of Paris. Under this France ceded most of New France east of the Mississippi River to the British Empire. After the peace, the French decided to colonise the "Isles Malouines" (Falkland Islands). These islands were at that time almost unknown. At his own expense, Bougainville undertook the task of resettling Acadians who had been deported to France by the British because of their refusal to sign loyalty oaths.

Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson

Horatio NelsonLord NelsonNelson
He developed a reputation in the service through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was particularly active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of at the Battle of Cape St Vincent.


TobagonianTobago IslandIsland of Tobago
From about 1672, during the temporary British rule of 1672-1674, Tobago had a period of stability during which plantation culture began. Sugar, cotton and indigo factories sprang up and Africans were imported by the British to work as slaves. The economy flourished. France had abandoned the island to Britain in 1763, and by 1777 Tobago was exporting great quantities of cotton, indigo, rum and sugar. But in 1781, the French re-invaded Tobago, and destroyed the plantations, and forced the British governor to surrender. The island's buoyant economy fell into decline. In 1814, when the island again came under British control, another phase of successful sugar-production began.

British people

BritishUnited KingdomBritons
The Thirteen Colonies of British America began an armed rebellion against British rule in 1775 when they rejected the right of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them without representation; they proclaimed their independence in 1776, and constituted the first thirteen states of the United States of America, which became a sovereign state in 1781 with the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. The 1783 Treaty of Paris represented Great Britain's formal acknowledgement of the United States' sovereignty at the end of the American Revolutionary War.