Lemuria (continent)

Some Tamil writers such as Devaneya Pavanar have associated Lemuria with Kumari Kandam, a legendary sunken landmass mentioned in the Tamil literature, claiming that it was the cradle of civilization. Since the 1880s, the hypothesis of Lemuria has inspired many novels, television shows, films, and music. * Atlantis. Doggerland. Evolution of lemurs, primate from Madagascar. Lost city. Legends of Mount Shasta. Mauritia (microcontinent). Mu (lost continent). Phantom island. Ramtha. Jane Roberts. Thule. Ramaswamy, Sumathi. (1999). "Catastrophic Cartographies: Mapping the Lost Continent of Lemuria". Representations. 67: 92-129. Ramaswamy, Sumathi. (2000).

Sangam literature

Sangamancient Tamil literatureclassical Tamil literature
He lists six anthologies of Tamil poems (later a part of Ettuttokai): These claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers. Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of 'Sangam literature' to describe this corpus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead. According to Shulman, "there is not the slightest shred of evidence that any such [Sangam] literary academies ever existed", though there are many Pandya inscriptions that mention an academy of scholars.

Tamil language

Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas. Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Furthermore, Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a 3,500-year history. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.

Cradle of civilization

first civilizationcradles of civilizationcradle of civilisation
A cradle of civilization is a location where civilization is understood to have emerged. Current thinking is that there was no single "cradle", but several civilizations that developed independently, with the Fertile Crescent (Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia), Ancient India, and Ancient China understood to be the earliest. The extent to which there was significant influence between the early civilizations of the Near East and those of East Asia (Far East) is disputed. Scholars accept that the civilizations of Mesoamerica, mainly in modern Mexico, and Norte Chico, in the north-central coastal region of Peru, emerged independently from those in Eurasia.


Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests (purohit, pandit, or pujari), teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
Tamil Nadu, is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.

University of Madras

Madras UniversityMadrasMadras University Campus
University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu, India. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest universities in India after University of Calcutta. The university was incorporated by an Act of the Legislative Council of India.

Annamalai University

AnnamalaiAnna Malai UniversityFaculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu
Annamalai University is a state university located in Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. The university is spread across 950 acre in Chidambaram and offers courses of higher education in Arts, Science, Engineering, Medical, Management (MBA), Humanities, Agriculture, and Physical Education. The university was founded in 1929 by the entrepreneur Annamalai Chettiyar in the aftermath of the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. In the early 1920s, to serve the downtrodden and to promote Tamil Literature, Rajah Sir S. R. M. Annamalai Chettiar founded Sri Minakshi College, Sri Minakshi Tamil College and Sri Minakshi Sanskrit College in a rural setup at Chidambaram.

Pandya dynasty

The Pandya Dynasty, also known as the Pandyas of Madurai, was a dynasty of south India, one of the three ethnically Tamil lineages, the other two being the Chola and the Chera. The rulers of the three dynasties were referred to as "the three crowned rulers (the mu-ventar) of the Tamil country". The Pandyas ruled extensive territories, at times including the large portions of present-day south India and Sri Lanka (through collateral branches subject to Madurai).


Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், lit. "ancient book") is the most ancient Tamil grammar text and the oldest surviving work of Tamil literature. The surviving manuscripts of the Tolkappiyam consists of three books (atikaram), each with nine chapters (iyal), with a cumulative total of 1,612 sutras in the nūṛpā meter. It is a comprehesive text on grammar, and includes sutras on orthography, phonology, etymology, morphology, semantics, prosody, sentence structure and the significance of context in language.


MaduraMadurai, IndiaMadhurai
Madurai (, also ) is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the cultural capital of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Madurai District, the third largest city in Tamil Nadu and 44th most populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia.

Maraimalai Adigal

Maraimalai Adigal (15 July 1876 – 15 September 1950) was a Tamil orator and writer and father of Pure Tamil movement, who fervently followed Saivam. He wrote more than 100 books, including works on original poems tand dramas, but most famous are his books on his research into Tamil literature. Most of his literary works were on Saivism. He founded a Saivite institution called Podhunilaik Kazhagam. He was an exponent of the Pure Tamil movement and hence considered to be the father of Tamil linguistic purism. He advocated the use of Tamil devoid of Sanskrit words and hence changed his birth name Vedhachalam to Maraimalai.

Tamil literature

TamilTamil poetryliterature
Tamil legends hold that these were composed in three successive poetic assemblies (Sangam) that were held in ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India. A significant amount of literature could have preceded Tolkappiyam as grammar books are usually written after the existence of literature over long periods. Tamil tradition holds the earliest Sangam poetry to be over twelve millennia old. Modern linguistic scholarship places the poems between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. Sangam age is considered by the Tamil people as the golden era of Tamil language.

Tamil Renaissance

Tamil revivalists
Devaneya Pavanar. L. D. Swamikannu Pillai. C. V. Raman. Srinivasa Ramanujan. K. S. Krishnan. S. R. Ranganathan. GopalswamyASOKAMITRAM Doraiswamy Naidu. V. V. S. Aiyar. Asokamitran. C. S. Chellappa. V. Kalyanasundaram Mudaliar. C. N. Annadurai. M. Karunanidhi. Kalki Krishnamurthy. Kalki Sadasivam. G. A. Natesan. Puthumaipithan. Samuel Vedanayagam Pillai. Subrahmanya Bharathy.

Lemuria in popular culture

Lemuriaincorporated into pop cultureThe Last Lemurian
Some Tamil writers such as Devaneya Pavanar have associated Lemuria with Kumari Kandam, a legendary sunken landmass mentioned in the Tamil literature, claiming that it was the cradle of civilization. George Firth Scott is best known for his novel The Last Lemurian: A Westralian Romance (1898). Richard Sharpe Shaver's "I Remember Lemuria" was published in the science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, in the March 1945 issue; related stories were prominently featured over the next four years. H. P. Lovecraft mentioned Lemuria as a previous resting place for the Shining Trapezohedron in the Cthulhu Mythos story "The Haunter of the Dark". In the Kull stories of Robert E.

Dravidian Nationalism

Subsequently the Nationalist ideologies lead to the argument by Dravidian leaders that, at minimal, that Dravidians must have self-determination or, at maximum, secession from India Dravidian nationalism has given rise to various doctrines of national mysticism and fanciful anachronism, such as Thaevanaeyap Paavaanar's Kumari Kandam, a continent spanning the Indian Ocean, submerged in 16,000 BC, or an "original Veda" composed by Mamuni Mayan some 10,000 years ago, Devaneya Pavanar's Homo Dravida of 200,000 BC, his Kumari Kandam civilization of 50,000 BC, his "Second Tamil Sangam" under a Pandyan king in 6097 BC, etc.

Devi Kanya Kumari

Devi KanyakumariBhagavathyDevi Kumari
The worship of Devi Kanya Kumari here dates back to the Kumari Kandam. Kanya Kumari is a hindu goddess. Since Lord siva didn't keep his promise to marry her on one particular day, she was very upset and angry, and her anger was diverted to kill the demons, followed by continuous penance. Devi Kanya Kumari has been mentioned in Ramayana, Mahabharata, and the Sangam works Manimekalai, Puranaanooru and Nārāyaṇa (Mahānārāyaṇa) Upanishad, a Vaishnava upanishad in the Taittiriya Samhita of Krishna Yajur Veda.


In Tamil literature, Pahruli (Tamil:பஃறுளி, Pahruli) is a mythical ancient river located in the sunken landmass of Kumari Kandam. The Silappadhikaram, one of the Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature written in the first few centuries CE, states that the 'cruel sea took the Pandiyan land that lay between the rivers Pahruli and the mountainous banks of the Kumari, to replace which the Pandiyan king conquered lands belonging to the Chola and Chera kings (Maturaikkandam, verses 17-22).

South India

Southern IndiaSouth IndianPeninsular India
The region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several Tamil dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.C. to 14th century A.D. The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A.D. was the last Indian dynasty that ruled over the region.


Devaneya Pavanar (writer). Nandha Kumar IAS (Ex Vellore district collector) Sathirakondan.


TamilTamil peopleTamilian
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilians, Tamilar, Thamizhar (, or ), or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak the Tamil language as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to Southern India and north-eastern Sri Lanka. Tamils constitute 5.9% of the population in India (concentrated mainly in Tamil Nadu), 15% in Sri Lanka, 6% in Mauritius, 7% in Malaysia and 5% in Singapore.

List of lost lands

lost continentLost landslost land
The name of hypothetical vanished continent Mu originated from the first attempted translation of the Madrid Codex, one of only four remaining Maya codices. Zealandia, a scientifically accepted continent that is now 94% submerged under the Pacific Ocean, surrounding the areas of New Zealand and New Caledonia. A land connecting India and South Africa was believed by some to exist at various times. Lemuria and Kumari Kandam. Dvārakā, mythical city of Krishna, claimed by some to be found in marine archeology in the Gulf of Khambhat. Sundaland, the now submerged Sunda Shelf. Kerguelen Plateau, a submerged micro-continent which is now 1–2 km below sea level.

Tanittamil Iyakkam

Pure Tamil MovementPure TamilTamil
Devaneya Pavanar. Tamil language. The Primary Classical Language of the World. Sumathi Ramaswamy, Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891-1970, Studies on the History of Society and Culture, No 29, University of California Press (1997), ISBN: 978-0-520-20805-6. Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-Cultural Communication Since 1500 : With Special Reference to Caste, Conversion, and Colonialism, Studies in the History of Christian Missions, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (2003), ISBN: 978-0-8028-3956-5, p. 381.

Tamil Sangams

Tamil SangamSangamsangams
In contemporary versions of the legend, the cities where the first two Sangams were held are said to have been located on Kumari Kandam, a fabled lost continent, that lay to the South of mainland India, and which was described as the cradle of Tamil culture. Kumari Kandam supposedly lay south of present-day Kanyakumari District and, according to these legends, was seized by the sea in a series of catastrophic floods. According to P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar who made research on this topic mentions in his book "History of Tamils" Chapter XVI on topic "Criticism of the legend", as the years mentioned for the Three Tamil Sangams are too vast.