ground waterunderground waterground
First, flood mitigation schemes, intended to protect infrastructure built on floodplains, have had the unintended consequence of reducing aquifer recharge associated with natural flooding. Second, prolonged depletion of groundwater in extensive aquifers can result in land subsidence, with associated infrastructure damage – as well as, third, saline intrusion. Fourth, draining acid sulphate soils, often found in low-lying coastal plains, can result in acidification and pollution of formerly freshwater and estuarine streams.


forest fireforest fireswildfires
Although some ecosystems rely on naturally occurring fires to regulate growth, some ecosystems suffer from too much fire, such as the chaparral in southern California and lower-elevation deserts in the American Southwest. The increased fire frequency in these ordinarily fire-dependent areas has upset natural cycles, damaged native plant communities, and encouraged the growth of non-native weeds. Invasive species, such as Lygodium microphyllum and Bromus tectorum, can grow rapidly in areas that were damaged by fires.

Storm surge

storm tidetidal surgestorm surges
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashore; between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States. The highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899 Cyclone Mahina, estimated at almost 44 ft (13 metres) at Bathurst Bay, Australia, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this likely was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography.


Hazards are routinely divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunami, resulting in coastal flooding. A natural disaster is a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.

Pineapple Express

rains of 2005
Many Pineapple Express events follow or occur simultaneously with major arctic troughs in the northwestern United States, often leading to major snow-melt flooding with warm, tropical rains falling on frozen, snow laden ground. Examples of this are the Christmas flood of 1964, Willamette Valley Flood of 1996, New Year's Day Flood of 1997, January 2006 Flood in Northern California, Great Coastal Gale of 2007, January 2009 Flood in Washington, and the January 2012 Flood in Oregon. Early in 1862, extreme storms riding the Pineapple Express battered the west coast for 45 days.


Many places are subject to earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, sinkholes, blizzards, floods, droughts, wildfires, and other calamities and disasters. Many localized areas are subject to human-made pollution of the air and water, acid rain and toxic substances, loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, species extinction, soil degradation, soil depletion and erosion. There is a scientific consensus linking human activities to global warming due to industrial carbon dioxide emissions.

List of environmental issues

environmental issuesconservation issuesenvironmental problems
Hydrology — Environmental impacts of reservoirs • Tile drainage • Hydrology (agriculture) • FloodingLandslide •. Intensive farming — Agricultural subsidy • Environmental effects of meat production • Intensive animal farming • Intensive crop farming • Irrigation • Monoculture • Nutrient pollution • Overgrazing • Pesticide drift • Plasticulture • Slash and burn • Tile drainage. Land use — Built environment • Desertification • Habitat fragmentation • Habitat destruction • Land degradation — Land pollution • Lawn-environmental concerns • Trail ethics • Urban heat island • Urban sprawl. Nanotechnology — Impact of nanotechnology. Natural disasters.

Disaster recovery plan

disaster planningHADR
Disasters can be natural or man-made. Man-made disasters could be intentional (for example, sabotage or an act of terrorism) or unintentional (that is, accidental, such as the breakage of a man-made dam). Disasters may encompass more than weather. They may involve Internet threats or take on other man-made manifestations such as theft. A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from the earth's natural hazards. Examples of natural disasters are floods, tsunamis, tornadoes, hurricanes/cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, heat waves, and landslides. Other types of disasters include the more cosmic scenario of an asteroid hitting the Earth.

A Planet for the President

In the face of all sorts of natural disasters of an unprecedented scope, an ever-increasing percentage of the U.S. population demands leadership from their President. So far, however, Fletcher has turned a blind eye to ecological concerns, repeatedly dismissing warnings from scientists and environmentalist groups alike as the rantings of "eco-nuts".

Fire ecology

firefire cyclefire ecologist
More generally, fire is now regarded as a 'natural disturbance', similar to flooding, wind-storms, and landslides, that has driven the evolution of species and controls the characteristics of ecosystems. Fire suppression, in combination with other human-caused environmental changes, may have resulted in unforeseen consequences for natural ecosystems. Some large wildfires in the United States have been blamed on years of fire suppression and the continuing expansion of people into fire-adapted ecosystems, but climate change is more likely responsible.

Tropical Storm Lingling (2014)

LinglingTropical Depression AgatonTropical Depression Agaton (Lingling)
Lingling was the first major natural disaster in the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan in 2013, as it caused widespread landslide incidents and floods in Mindanao, resulting in 70 deaths and damage amounting to over 566 million pesos on the island. The predecessor of Lingling formed as a tropical depression southeast of Mindanao on January 10, yet it weakened into a low-pressure area on January 12. After crossing the island on January 13, the system redeveloped into a tropical depression off the northeast coast of Mindanao on January 15. After drifting generally westward and consolidating slowly, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Lingling on January 18.

2018 Japan floods

disastrous floodings in western Japan2018 West Japan rain disasterextraordinarily heavy rainfall in Western Japan
The torrential rain triggered landslides and flash flooding, with water levels reaching 5 m in the worst hit areas. Motoyama, Kōchi, saw 584 mm of rain between 6 and 7 July. One town in Kōchi measured 263 mm of rain in two hours. Mount Ontake observed its greatest three-day rainfall on record at 655.5 mm. Although the Yura River remained within its banks in northern Kyoto Prefecture, an embankment built after Typhoon Tokage in 2004 prevented runoff from flowing into the river. This inadvertently led to flooding in Maizuru after the flood gate was closed.


1970 birthsOctober 1970
October 30 – In Vietnam, the worst monsoon to hit the area in six years causes large floods, kills 293, leaves 200,000 homeless and virtually halts the Vietnam War. November 1. Club Cinq-Sept fire in Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, France, kills 146. Three Pakistanis and a Polish Deputy Foreign Minister, Zygfryd Wolniak, are killed at Karachi airport, Pakistan. November 3. Democrats sweep the U.S. Congressional midterm elections; Ronald Reagan is reelected governor of California; Jimmy Carter is elected governor of Georgia. Salvador Allende takes office as president of Chile. November 4.


It was originally developed for wildland fire emergencies, but can be also used for other emergency incidents (natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes). It was developed with two primary missions: Official announcements include evacuations, road closures, news releases, maps, photographs, and basic info and current situation about the incident.

Emergency management in American universities

In addition to the devastating economic toll, natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, coastal flooding, inland flooding, and tornadoes, damage colleges and universities around the United States and also disrupt campus academics and student life. Natural Disasters occur all over the world and are a result of the earth's natural hazards. Several of these disasters have happened on or very close to American colleges and universities and have caused panic and severe destruction. Depending on the severity of the disaster, some universities recover quickly while others are forced to shut down operations for an extended period of time.

Tropical Storm Talas (2011)

TalasTropical Storm TalasTyphoon Talas
Heavy rains triggered flash flooding, which killed one person, and injured 17 leaving three more missing soon after the landfall. Some 3,200 people were evacuated in 16 prefectures after the typhoon slammed the island nation with extremely heavy rains. The Central Japan Railway Company had to suspend its bullet train services on the Tokaido Shinkansen Line between Gifu-Hashima and Maibara railway stations because of the storm. More than 300 houses were flooded while several landslides were reported since the storm's landfall in southern Japan. Also, since the storm was moving unusually slow, it worsened the condition.

International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction

IDNDR secretariatUnited Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
The United Nations General Assembly designated the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Its basic objective was to decrease the loss of life, property destruction and social and economic disruption caused by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, landslides, volcanic eruptions, droughts, locust infestations, and other disasters of natural origin. An International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, beginning on 1 January 1990, was launched by the United Nations, following the adoption of Resolution 44/236 (22 December 1989).

Road debris

debrisdebris on the roadroad hazard
Road debris can be caused by various factors, including objects falling off vehicles or natural disasters and weather, specifically wind, storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, etc. Examples of road debris include: Road debris is a hazard that can cause loss of vehicle control with damages ranging from a flat tire, vehicular rollover, penetration of the passenger compartment by the debris, or collision, with accompanying injuries or deaths. In the year 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Traffic Safety Facts found that more than 800 persons were killed across America by "non-fixed objects" (a term that includes roadway debris).

Typhoon Bopha

Typhoon Bopha (Pablo, 2012)BophaPablo
Typhoon Bopha packed winds of up to 175 mph when it struck the island nation, bringing torrential rains that flattened entire villages, leaving thousands homeless, as well as washing out roads and bridges needed by rescue personnel trying to reach stricken regions. The death toll from Bopha rose to 82 as rescuers battled to reach areas cut off in flash floods and mudslides. There were 49 fatalities in a mudslide in the mountainous town of New Bataan alone, and another 33 died in rural settlements elsewhere in Mindanao. Joe Curry, the Philippines head of Catholic Relief Services, said, "Authorities seem more prepared to deal with this storm.

Yauza River

Raised water levels in the downtown portion of the Yauza basin led to long-term flooding and death of trees deep inside Losiny Ostrov. Within the city of Moscow the Yauza is spanned by 21 road bridges, five railroad bridges, one dedicated tram bridge, two Moscow Metro bridges, numerous pedestrian bridges and the historical Rostokino Aqueduct. Spring floods due to low clearance under old bridges were common, with four in the 1950s alone (1951, 1952, 1955 and 1957); they were practically eliminated when these bridges were rebuilt to modern standards. The most recent flash flood on the Yauza occurred August 14, 2003, following a record-setting rainfall.

Places of interest in the Death Valley area

Panamint Charcoal Kilnsalso protectsArtist's Palette
Periodic flash floods carry rocky debris (sediment) eroded from Mosaic Canyon and the surrounding hillsides toward the valley below. At the canyon mouth water spreads out and deposits its sediment load, gradually building up a large wedge-shaped alluvial fan that extends down toward Stovepipe Wells. This canyon was formed through a process of cut and fill which included periodic erosive floods followed by long periods of deposition and uplift. But due to the uplift when the next flood hit the area it would deeply cut the streambed which forms stairstep-shaped banks. Mosaic Canyon's polished marble walls are carved from the Noonday Dolomite and other Precambrian carbonate rocks.

Holmfirth floods

Holmfirth FloodBilberry reservoirfailure of the Holmfirth reservoir
The Holmfirth floods refers to a number of instances when severe flooding had occurred in the Holme Valley, West Yorkshire, England affecting Holmfirth and other settlements in the valley. The earliest record dates from 1738 and the latest from 1944. The most severe flood occurred early on the morning of 5 February 1852, when the embankment of the Bilberry reservoir collapsed causing the deaths of 81 people. It is recorded as the 23rd most serious, worldwide, in terms of loss of life from floods and landslides in human history. Rainstorms caused the River Holme to burst its banks and flood the valley. Though there was damage to farmland there was no loss of life.

Iranian Space Agency

ISAaerospaceAerospace Industries Organization
Environment 1, a joint research satellite of Iran, China and Thailand was launched on a Chinese Long March 2C carrier rocket on 6 September 2008, aimed at boosting cooperation on natural disasters such as flooding, drought, typhoon, landslide and earthquake. The twin Earth observation satellites of eight planned were launched from Taiyuan SLC. The satellites will work as a constellation with six other satellites yet to be launched. Its observational footprint is 720 km. With a lifespan of more than three years, they have state-of-the-art imaging systems and infrared cameras and provide a global scan every two days.

Water security

securefreshwater securityWater
An example of periodic water scarcity in the United States is droughts in California. Another category of threats to water security is environmental threats. These include contaminates such as biohazards (biological substances that can harm humans), climate change and natural disasters. Contaminants can enter a water source naturally through flooding. Contaminants can also be a problem if a population switches their water supply from surface water to groundwater. Natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and wildfires can damage man-made structures such as dams and fill waterways with debris. Other threats to water security include terrorism and radiation due to a nuclear accident.

List of deadly earthquakes since 1900

deadly earthquakeList of all known deadly earthquakes since 1900
Many of the events listed with no numerical value are aftershocks where additional fatalities are aggregated with the main shock. * Most fatalities attributed to tsunami For death tolls of other natural disasters or significant historical earthquakes that predate 1900, see: List of natural disasters by death toll. List of earthquakes. Earthquake magnitude scales. Online PDE earthquake search. Global Centroid Moment Tensor search. National Geophysical Data Center Significant Earthquake Database. EM-DAT International Disaster Database. Online Utsu catalogue search. Visualization of most powerful and deadliest earthquakes since 1900 Treemap by “The Hive Group”.