List of costly or deadly hailstorms

2017 Minneapolis hailstormcostliest hailstorms
This is a list of the costliest or deadliest hailstorms on record.

Home and Away

Home & AwayHome &home and abroad
The show has also featured many natural disaster storylines, including a cyclone, storm, flood, landslide, earthquake, and bushfires. There have also been several storylines involving car, bus, plane and boating accidents. Furthermore, in addition to the show featuring scenes of moderate to strong violence in past episodes, the special episode, Home and Away: All or Nothing, which became available for online streaming in January 2017, is intended for "adult-only" viewing as it is described as the most violent episode of the entire series, as it contains scenes of strong violence.

Geology of the Capitol Reef area

Capitol Reef National Parkexposed in Capitol Reef National Park area
Flash floods, mass wasting of hillsides, frost wedging, and landslides all contributed to a significantly faster rate of erosion. Glaciers plucked 20- to 30-million-year-old black basaltic boulders from atop Boulder and Thousand Lake Mountains that were subsequently deposited over the park area by meltwater streams from the glaciers, rockslides and floods. White Rim Sandstone, (resistant caprock). Organ Rock Shale (locally missing). Cedar Mesa Sandstone, and the. Elephant Canyon (locally buried). Black Dragon Member. Sinbad Limestone Member. Torrey Member, and.

Fred B. Walters

Walters also directed local news coverage of several major breaking news stories over the years, including the 1972 Pennsylvania floods, the bombing of the U. S. Marine barracks in Beirut in 1983, Vietnam protest demonstrations, Watergate hearings, the 1969 Moon Landing, auto industry labor negotiations, the explosion of the Shuttle Challenger in 1986, and many natural disasters such as snowstorms, floods, fires, (including California brush fires), and earthquakes. In addition to his journalism credentials, Walters is a member of the Society of Professional Journalists and as president of the Philadelphia chapter chaired the organization’s national convention in 1976.

Geography of California

CaliforniageographySierra Nevada
California hurricanes occur less frequently than their counterparts on the Atlantic Ocean. Higher elevations experience snowstorms in the winter months. Floods are occasionally caused by heavy rain, storms, and snowmelt. Steep slopes and unstable soil make certain locations vulnerable to landslides in wet weather or during earthquakes. 1906 San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8–8.2). 1971 San Fernando earthquake (magnitude 6.6). 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9–7.1). 1994 Northridge earthquake (magnitude 6.7). Deserts of California. Ecology of California. List of California fourteeners. List of California state parks. List of forts in California. List of lakes in California.

2010–11 Queensland floods

2010–2011 Queensland floodsJanuary 2011 Brisbane floodsQueensland floods
On 17 January 2011, Queensland premier Anna Bligh announced a Commission of Inquiry into the 2010–11 Queensland floods. The Commission's Terms of reference cover a wide array of related aspects and stipulate a final report would be due in one year. On 1 August 2011 the Commission handed an interim report to Ms Bligh, and the final report containing 177 recommendations on 16 February 2012. In return for Senator Nick Xenophon's support of the Queensland Flood Levy, the Government will modify the Natural Disaster Relief and Recovery Arrangements and force the states to take up disaster insurance.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
Flooding occurs when a watercourse is unable to convey the quantity of runoff flowing downstream. The frequency with which this occurs is described by a return period. Flooding is a natural process, which maintains ecosystem composition and processes, but it can also be altered by land use changes such as river engineering. Floods can be both beneficial to societies or cause damage. Agriculture along the Nile floodplain took advantage of the seasonal flooding that deposited nutrients beneficial for crops. However, as the number and susceptibility of settlements increase, flooding increasingly becomes a natural hazard.


mudslidemudslidesmud flow
Facts about Mudflows/Landslides. Information Regarding Saidmarrah Landslide. Visual Graphics Regarding Saidmarrah Landslide.


cloud burstcloud burstingheavy downpours
On August 17, 1998, a massive landslide following heavy rain and a cloudburst at Malpa village killed 250 people, including 60 Kailash Mansarovar pilgrims in Kali valley of the Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand. Among the dead was Odissi dancer Protima Bedi. On July 16, 2003, about 40 people were killed in flash floods caused by a cloudburst at Shilagarh in Gursa area of Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh. On July 6, 2004, at least 17 people were killed and 28 injured when three vehicles were swept into the Alaknanda River by heavy landslides triggered by a cloudburst that left nearly 5,000 pilgrims stranded near Badrinath shrine area in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand.

Chumash people

ChumashChumash-VenturañoChumash Indians
Satwiwa – ancient Chumash village and now museum in Newbury Park, CA. Southwest Museum in Highland Park. Shalawa Meadow - a former Chumash burial ground. Ventura County Museum of History and Art in Ventura – exhibits on Chumash history with guided tours available. Burro Flats Painted Cave. Chumash Painted Cave State Historic Park, California. Chumash traditional narratives. Polynesian navigation. Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. Shalawa Meadow, California. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Population of the California Indians, 1769–1970.

Southern California

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, and into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California. * Southern California is divided into: Each year, southern California has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt.


ORState of OregonOregon, U.S.
About 15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette Valley is largely a result of those floods. Plentiful salmon made parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity for thousands of years. Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rain forest in the Coast Range to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical definition of a frontier. Oregon's geographical center is further west than any of the other 48 contiguous states (although the westernmost point of the lower 48 states is in Washington).


Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows. The rates at which such processes act control how fast a surface is eroded.


avalanchesavalanchingavalanche research
In mountainous terrain, avalanches are among the most serious objective natural hazards to life and property, with their destructive capability resulting from their potential to carry enormous masses of snow at high speeds. There is no universally accepted classification system for different forms of avalanches. Avalanches can be described by their size, their destructive potential, their initiation mechanism, their composition and their dynamics. Most avalanches occur spontaneously during storms under increased load due to snowfall. The second largest cause of natural avalanches is metamorphic changes in the snowpack such as melting due to solar radiation.


dirtsoilssoil moisture
In areas of extreme rainfall and high temperatures, the clay and humus may be washed out, further reducing the buffering capacity of the soil. In low rainfall areas, unleached calcium pushes pH to 8.5 and with the addition of exchangeable sodium, soils may reach pH 10. Beyond a pH of 9, plant growth is reduced. High pH results in low micro-nutrient mobility, but water-soluble chelates of those nutrients can correct the deficit. Sodium can be reduced by the addition of gypsum (calcium sulphate) as calcium adheres to clay more tightly than does sodium causing sodium to be pushed into the soil water solution where it can be washed out by an abundance of water.

Ice jam

ice damice jamsice
Ice jams occur on rivers when floating ice accumulates at a natural or man-made feature that impedes its progress downstream. Ice jams can significantly reduce the flow of a river and cause upstream flooding—sometimes called ice dams. Ice jam flooding can also occur downstream when the jam releases in an outburst flood. In either case, flooding can cause damage to structures on shore. An ice blockage on a river is usually called an ice jam, but sometimes an ice dam. An ice jam is an obstruction on a river formed by blocks of ice.


laharsmudflowsvolcanic mudflows
A flood caused by a glacier, lake breakout, or heavy rainfalls can generate lahars, also called glacier run or jökulhlaup. Water from a crater lake, combined with volcanic elements in an eruption. Heavy rainfall on unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits. Volcanic landslides with water. Snow and glaciers can melt during periods of mild to hot weather. Earthquakes underneath or close to the volcano can shake material loose and cause it to collapse, triggering a lahar avalanche. Rainfall can cause the still-hanging slabs of solidified mud to come rushing down the slopes at a speed of more than 30 km/h, causing devastating results. Jökulhlaup. Mudflow. Pyroclastic flow. Pyroclastic surge. Lava.


desertsaridhigh desert
Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind. This picks up particles of sand and dust and wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms. Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, and the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits. The grains end up as level sheets of sand or are piled high in billowing sand dunes.


TXTexanState of Texas
This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. In 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall in Rockport as a Category 4 Hurricane, causing significant damage there. The storm stalled over land for a very long time, allowing it to drop unprecedented amounts of rain over the Greater Houston area and surrounding counties. The result was widespread and catastrophic flooding that inundated hundreds of thousands of homes. Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $198.6 billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina.

United States Census Bureau

U.S. Census BureauUS Census BureauCensus Bureau
Division 9: Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Decide the location of new housing and public facilities. Examine the demographic characteristics of communities, states, and the US. Plan transportation systems and roadways. Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, and. Create localized areas for elections, schools, utilities, etc. Gathers population information every 10 years. American Community Survey. American Housing Survey. Consumer Expenditure Survey. Census of Governments. Current Population Survey. Economic Census. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). National Health Interview Survey.


National Weather Service (NWS) increased its efforts to train storm spotters so they could spot key features of storms that indicate severe hail, damaging winds, and tornadoes, as well as storm damage and flash flooding. The program was called Skywarn, and the spotters were local sheriff's deputies, state troopers, firefighters, ambulance drivers, amateur radio operators, civil defense (now emergency management) spotters, storm chasers, and ordinary citizens. When severe weather is anticipated, local weather service offices request these spotters to look out for severe weather and report any tornadoes immediately, so that the office can warn of the hazard.

2010 United States Census

2010 census20102010 U.S. Census
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census.

U.S. state

Filburn, the Court expanded federal power to regulate the economy by holding that federal authority under the commerce clause extends to activities which may appear to be local in nature but in reality effect the entire national economy and are therefore of national concern. For example, Congress can regulate railway traffic across state lines, but it may also regulate rail traffic solely within a state, based on the reality that intrastate traffic still affects interstate commerce. Through such decisions, argues law professor David F.

National Weather Service

Weather BureauNWSUnited States Weather Bureau
The Weather Prediction Center in College Park, Maryland provides guidance for future precipitation amounts and areas where excessive rainfall is likely, while local NWS offices are responsible for issuing Flood Watches, Flash Flood Watches, Flood Warnings, Flash Flood Warnings, and Flood Advisories for their local County Warning Area, as well as the official rainfall forecast for areas within their warning area of responsibility.