Emergency management

disaster reliefdisaster managementdisaster preparedness
A respirator that is approved by the CDC/NIOSH is the N95 respirator and can be a good personal protective equipment to protect from dust and mold in the air from the associated natural disaster. Mold exposures: Exposure to mold is commonly seen after a natural disaster such as flooding, hurricane, tornado or tsunami. Mold growth can occur on both the exterior and interior of residential or commercial buildings. Warm and humid condition encourages mold growth; therefore, standing water and excess moisture after a natural disaster would provide an ideal environment for mold growth especially in tropical regions.

Flash flood guidance system

Flash flood. Hydrology. Hydrologic Research Center. Meteorology. Flash flood watch. Flash flood warning. Haiti Dominican Republic Flash Flood Guidance System. Central America Flash Flood Guidance System.


A huaico (from the Quechua wayqu, meaning "depth, valley") is an Andean term that refers to the mudslide and flash flood caused by torrential rains occurring high in the mountains, especially during the weather phenomenon known as El Niño. National forests such as the San Matías–San Carlos Protection Forest were created in Peru to protect vegetation, which reduces runoff, and prevent huaicos. The indigenous Mapuche residents of Lo Barnechea, in present-day Santiago Province, Chile, were called Huaicoches in their Mapudungun language: Huaico (flash flood) and che (people).

Pacific Time Zone

Pacific (PST)PSTPacific
Baja California. Colima – Clarion Island. California. Washington. Idaho – Idaho Panhandle. Nevada – all, except for West Wendover and Jackpot, Mountain City, Owyhee, and Jarbidge. Oregon – all, except for the majority of Malheur County. The Official NIST US Time. Official times across Canada. World time zone map. U.S. time zone map. History of U.S. time zones and UTC conversion. Canada time zone map. Time zones for major world cities.

Santa Barbara, California

Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara, CACity of Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara Views, ca. 1875, The Bancroft Library.


AZArizona, U.S.State of Arizona
These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona. Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F to the state's northern parts.

Santa Barbara County, California

Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara CountySanta Barbara Counties
Santa Barbara County, California, officially the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern region of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895. The county seat is Santa Barbara, and the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises the Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the county's economy include engineering, resource extraction (particularly petroleum extraction and diatomaceous earth mining), winemaking, agriculture, and education.


deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue. Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transpire precipitation. Instead of trapping precipitation, which then percolates to groundwater systems, deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff, which moves much faster than subsurface flows. Forests return most of the water that falls as precipitation to the atmosphere by transpiration. In contrast, when an area is deforested, almost all precipitation is lost as run-off. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover.

Death Valley National Park

Death ValleyDeath Valley, CaliforniaDeath Valley National Monument
During the winter season—November through April—rangers offer interpretive tours and a wide variety of walks, talks, and slide presentations about Death Valley cultural and natural history. The visitor center has displays dealing with the park's geology, climate, wildlife and natural history. There are also specific sections dealing with the human history and pioneer experience. The Death Valley Natural History Association maintains a bookstore specifically geared to the natural and cultural history of the park. The northeast corner of Saline Valley has several developed hot spring pools.

Music Academy of the West

The Music Academy of the West is a summer music conservatory located in Montecito, California, United States, near Santa Barbara. Participation is merit-based and tuition free. The academy hosts an annual eight-week summer music festival for the community, highlighted by concerts and workshops directed by famous composers, conductors, and artists. The festival hosts 140 pre-professional musicians who receive merit-based full scholarships. Programs of study include Vocal Piano, Voice, Collaborative Piano, Solo Piano, and Instrumental.

Montecito Inn

Montecito Inn is a boutique hotel in the southwestern part of Montecito, California. It is considered a Santa Barbara landmark. Located on Coast Village Road in Montecito, adjacent to U.S. Route 101, the inn is 2.5 blocks from Butterfly Beach. Pleistocene gravel deposits are evident nearby. The hotel was built by Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin and friends in 1928 as an escape from show business. The inn has a complete library of Chaplin's films; his image is seen in etched glass doors and in the hallways which are lined with movie posters. The 1936 Rodgers and Hart song, There's a Small Hotel, drew inspiration from the Montecito Inn.

Santa Ana River

Santa Ana
Notwithstanding the increased prosperity in the 1860s, this decade was also the scene of a series of natural disasters. In the Great Flood of 1862, heavy rains dropped by a series of winter storms caused the Santa Ana to burst its banks, flooding thousands of acres of land and killing 20 to 40 people in the greatest flood it had experienced in recorded history. The levees along the river burst in many places, flooding part of the Inland Empire into a continuous body of water several miles wide stretching from the mouth of Santa Ana Canyon to where the river cuts through the Santa Ana Mountains.

Eel River (California)

Eel RiverEelEel River Valley
The flooding was also deleterious to rail service through the Eel River canyon. After the 1964 floods, much of the topography in the Eel River drainage has been permanently damaged, and landslides occur much more often, frequently damaging local road and rail infrastructure. In 1998, after another large flood in the winter of 1996–1997 washed out sections of the line, the Northwestern Pacific became the first railroad to be shut down by the federal government for safety reasons. Although the portion south of Willits was reopened in 2006, the section between Willits and Samoa, which includes the entire Eel River portion of the tracks, are unlikely to ever be returned to service.


flood plainfloodplainsflood plains
Historically, many towns have been built on floodplains, where they are highly susceptible to flooding, for a number of reasons: Excluding famines and epidemics, some of the worst natural disasters in history (measured by fatalities) have been river floods, particularly in the Yellow River in China – see list of deadliest floods. The worst of these, and the worst natural disaster (excluding famine and epidemics) were the 1931 China floods, estimated to have killed millions. This had been preceded by the 1887 Yellow River flood, which killed around one million people, and is the second-worst natural disaster in history.


storm waterstormwater managementcontrols
Stormwater is a major cause of urban flooding. Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built-up environment caused by stormwater overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems, such as storm sewers. Although triggered by single events such as flash flooding or snow melt, urban flooding is a condition, characterized by its repetitive, costly and systemic impacts on communities. In areas susceptible to urban flooding, backwater valves and other infrastructure may be installed to mitigate losses. Where properties are built with basements, urban flooding is the primary cause of basement and sewer backups.

Ring of Fire

Pacific Ring of Firecircum-Pacific orogenic beltPacific Rim
The Public Safety Geo-science Program at the Natural Resources Canada undertakes research to support risk reduction from the effects of space weather, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. British Columbia and Yukon are home to a vast region of volcanoes and volcanic activity in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Several mountains in populated areas of British Columbia are dormant volcanoes. Most of these were active during the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Although none of Canada's volcanoes are currently erupting, several volcanoes, volcanic fields, and volcanic centers are considered potentially active.

Colorado River

ColoradoGrand RiverLower Colorado River
In early 1905, heavy floods destroyed the headworks of the canal, and water began to flow uncontrolled down the canal towards the Salton Sink. On August 9, the entire flow of the Colorado swerved into the canal and began to flood the bottom of the Imperial Valley. In a desperate gamble to close the breach, crews of the Southern Pacific Railroad, whose tracks ran through the valley, attempted to dam the Colorado above the canal, only to see their work demolished by a flash flood.

Limnic eruption

limnic eruptionsoverturning eventdegassing
Natural disaster. Mazuku. Cold-water geyser. Page of the team degassing Lake Nyos. Lake's silent killer to be disarmed. Lake Nyos (1986). Degassing Lake Nyos. Cracking the Killer Lakes of Cameroon. Lake Monoun. BBC Cameroons "killer lake" degassed. Using Science to Solve Problems: The Killer Lakes of Cameroon.

Los Angeles flood of 1938

19381938 flood1938 floods
The flood of 1938 is considered a 50-year flood. It caused $78 million of damage ($ in dollars), making it one of the costliest natural disasters in Los Angeles' history. In response to the floods, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies began to channelize local streams in concrete, and built many new flood control dams and debris basins. These works have been instrumental in protecting Southern California from subsequent flooding events, such as in 1969 and 2005, which both had a larger volume than the 1938 flood.


Ganna Walska Lotusland
Ganna Walska Lotusland, also known as Lotusland, is a non-profit botanical garden located in Montecito, near Santa Barbara, California, United States. The (15 ha / 37 acres) garden is the historic estate of Madame Ganna Walska. The County of Santa Barbara restricts visitation via a conditional use permit: Lotusland botanic garden is open to the public by advance reservation only, with walking tours 1½ to 2 hours long. Ralph Kinton Stevens purchased the land in 1882; he and his wife, Caroline Lucy Tallant, named the property "Tanglewood". They established a lemon and palm nursery and eventually added other tropical plants to the collection and were among the early plantsmen of Santa Barbara.


These flash floods often catch travelers by surprise. An intermittent stream can also be called an arroyo in Latin America, a winterbourne in Britain, or a wadi in the Arabic-speaking world. In Italy, an intermittent stream is termed a torrent . In full flood the stream may or may not be "torrential" in the dramatic sense of the word, but there will be one or more seasons in which the flow is reduced to a trickle or less. Typically torrents have Apennine rather than Alpine sources, and in the summer they are fed by little precipitation and no melting snow. In this case the maximum discharge will be during the spring and autumn.


southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoon
Often houses and streets are waterlogged and slums are flooded despite drainage systems. A lack of city infrastructure coupled with changing climate patterns causes severe economic loss including damage to property and loss of lives, as evidenced in the 2005 flooding in Mumbai that brought the city to a standstill. Bangladesh and certain regions of India like Assam and West Bengal, also frequently experience heavy floods during this season. Recently, areas in India that used to receive scanty rainfall throughout the year, like the Thar Desert, have surprisingly ended up receiving floods due to the prolonged monsoon season.

Return period

recurrence interval1-in-100 year event1 in 100 year
Recurrence interval = For floods, the event may be measured in terms of m³/s or height; for storm surges, in terms of the height of the surge, and similarly for other events. The theoretical return period is the inverse of the probability that the event will be exceeded in any one year (or more accurately the inverse of the expected number of occurrences in a year). For example, a 10-year flood has a 1/10 = 0.1 or 10% chance of being exceeded in any one year and a 50-year flood has a 0.02 or 2% chance of being exceeded in any one year. This does not mean that a 100-year flood will happen regularly every 100 years, or only once in 100 years.

Bertram Goodhue

Bertram Grosvenor GoodhueBertram G. GoodhueGoodhue
The Panama-California Exposition's style was seen by many and widely published, becoming extremely influential in California and the Southern and Southwestern United States. It led to California's assimilation of Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture as its dominant historical regional style, which continues to this day. The singular style for the rebuilding of Santa Barbara after its 1925 destruction by a major earthquake was drawn from the local Mission Revival and Goodhue's Panama-California Exposition Spanish Colonial Revival style trends. Examples of influential private Californian commissions, both extant registered landmarks now, are his 1906 J.

1931 China floods

1931 Yellow River flood1931 flood1931 Yellow River floods
The project was restarted in the 1980s, and the hydroelectric Three Gorges Dam began full operation in 2012, becoming the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity at the time. 1887 Yellow River flood. 1938 Yellow River flood. 1998 China floods. List of deadliest floods. List of deadliest natural disasters. Natural disasters in China. "The 1931 Central China Flood" DisasterHistory.Org (English and Chinese Versions). "An Analysis of Flood and Social Risks Based on the 1931 Changjiang & Huai River Flood During the Republic of China". ILIB.cn. "Extremely heavy meiyu over the Yangtze and Huaihe vaneies in 1931" 1931年江淮异常梅雨 (in Chinese). CQVIP.com.