The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have ruled Nepal after the Kirat monarchical dynasty. The context that "Suryavansi Kshetriyas had established a new regime by defeating the Kirats" can be found in some genealogies and Puranas. It is not clear yet when the Lichhavi dynasty was established in Nepal. According to the opinion of Baburam Acharya, the prominent historian of Nepal, Lichhavies established their independent rule by abolishing the Kirati state that prevailed in Nepal around 250 CE. The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late 8th century, and was followed by a Newar or Thakuri era.
Federal Democratic Republic of NepalNepaleseNepali
Bhrikuti DeviPrincess BhrikutiPrincess Bhrikuti of Nepal
The Licchavi Princess Bhrikuti Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza' Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun ('Nepali consort') or, simply, Khri bTsun ("Royal Lady"), is traditionally considered to have been the first wife of the earliest emperor of Tibet, Songtsen Gampo (605? - 650 CE), and an incarnation of Tara. She was also known as "Besa", and was a princess of the Licchavi kingdom of Nepal. Even though the historicity of Bhrikuti Devi is not certain, and no reference to her has been found among the documents discovered at Dunhuang, "there are increasing indications supporting this hypothesis."
Tibet is a region in Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa, and Lhoba peoples and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 5000 m. The highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.
Varmā, Verma, Varman, or Burman are surnames found in India and South-East Asia.
Lichhavis were the first Nepalese dynasty of Indian plain origin who began their rule in the 4th or 5th century. Historian Baburam Acharya in an interview asserts that Amshuverma and the Lichhavi rulers were all Rajputs and Kshatriyas. Lichchavi inscription self describes them as Rajputras (princes). Rajputras who were ranked Kshatriyas, had special role in politics during the Lichchavi period. The Lichchavi inscription of Sikubahi (Shankhamul) mentions about Rajputra Vajraratha, Rajputra Babharuvarma, and Rajputra Deshavarma. Rajputra Babharuvarma and Rajputra Deshavarma were Dutakas (diplomats) in the reign of King Gangadeva and Amshuvarma respectively.
Gar Tongtsen YülsungGar TongtsenGar Songtsen
According to Clear Mirror on Royal Genealogy, Tongtsen was dispatched as envoys to Licchavi Kingdom (in modern Nepal) together with Thonmi Sambhota by the emperor Songtsen Gampo. Amshuverma, who was the ruler of Licchavi, married Princess Bhrikuti to Songtsen Gampo. But the historicity of the princess is not certain because no reference to her has been found among the documents discovered at Dunhuang. Tongtsen was dispatched to Tang China together with Dri Seru Gungton and Thonmi Sambhota in 640, requesting a marriage between the Tibetan emperor and a Tang princess. Taizong, the Tang emperor, agreed and married Princess Wencheng to Songtsen Gampo.
Kathmandu, NepalKathmandu Metropolitan CityKatmandu
For example, the famous 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang described Kailaskut Bhawan, the palace of the Licchavi king Amshuverma. The trade route also led to cultural exchange as well. The artistry of the Newar people—the indigenous inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley—became highly sought after during this era, both within the Valley and throughout the greater Himalayas. Newar artists travelled extensively throughout Asia, creating religious art for their neighbours. For example, Araniko led a group of his compatriot artists through Tibet and China. Bhrikuti, the princess of Nepal who married Tibetan monarch Songtsän Gampo, was instrumental in introducing Buddhism to Tibet.
Bungamati is a Newar town on a spur of land overlooking the Bagmati River The first stele of the Licchavi king Amshuverma was found in Bungamati and dated to 605. It contains the earliest mention of the Kailashkut Bhawan palace. During the Licchavi Kingdom, the town was called Bugayumigrama. The word 'Bugayumi' is a Kiratian dialect so it is the proof that the settlement had come into existence since Kirati period before the Christian Era. During the Malla period, it was called Bungapattan. Bungamati is also called Amarapur or Amaravatipur.
The references in the Licchavi inscriptions to the Mahayana and Vajrayana will be mentioned below in connection with Buddhist art and notable Buddhist figures of the Licchavi period. A Licchavi king, Amshuverma, married his daughter Bhrikuti to the ruler of Tibet, King Songtsen Gampo. According to legend, she received the begging bowl of the Buddha as part of her wedding dowry. It is believed that she introduced Buddhism into Tibet. she is also believed as a reincarnation of the Green Tara of Tibetan Buddhism, who is seen in many Buddhist Thangkas. Lichhavi period is known as the golden time for Buddhism.
The Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī documents that the Boudhanath was founded by the Nepalese Licchavi king Śivadeva (c. 590–604 AD); though other Nepalese chronicles date it to the reign of King Mānadeva (464–505 AD). Tibetan sources claim a mound on the site was excavated in the late 15th or early 16th century and the bones of king Amshuverma 605–621 were discovered there while other Nepali sources claim it was constructed by a prince to seek forgiveness for unwittingly killing his own father.
List of Nepal-related topicsIndex of Nepal-related articlesColleges in Nepal
Amshuverma. Arimalla. Bhrikuti. Chabahil. Congress Mukti Sena. Darjeeling. Five-year plans of Nepal. Toni Hagen. Garhwal. Jana Aandolan. Jang Bahadur. Jayasthitimalla. Kot massacre. Kumaon. Licchavi. Mustang (kingdom). Nepal during World War I. Nepalese Civil War. Nepalese mohar. Rana autocracy. Rana dynasty. Sonam Lhundrup. Sugauli Treaty. Sikkim. Treaty of Titalia. Unification of Nepal. Sino-Nepalese War. Anglo-Nepalese War, aka Gurkha War (1814–1816). Nepalese–Tibetan War. Nepal in World War II. 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship. 1990 People's Movement. April 1992 general strike in Nepal. 2004 in Nepal. 2006 democracy movement in Nepal. Nepalese Civil War.
BoudhaBoudhanath StupaBodhanath Chöten
The Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī says Boudhanath was founded by the Nepalese Licchavi king Śivadeva (c. 590–604 CE); though other Nepalese chronicles date it to the reign of King Mānadeva (464–505 CE). Tibetan sources claim a mound on the site was excavated in the late 15th or early 16th century and the bones of King Aṃshuvarmā 605–621 were discovered there. The earliest historical references to the Khaasti Chaitya are found in the Chronicles of the Newars. Firstly, Khaasti is mentioned as one of the four stupas found by the Licchavi king Vrisadeva (ca.AD 400) or Vikramjit.
Amshuvarma becomes king of the Licchavi in Nepal. He is credited for opening trade routes to Tibet. His ruling period is known as the "Golden Period". Chlodulf, bishop of Metz. Colmán, bishop of Lindisfarne (approximate date). Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad (approximate date). Yang You, puppet emperor of the Sui Dynasty (d. 619). Sisenand, king of the Visigoths (approximate date). Yang Tong, puppet emperor of the Sui Dynasty (d. 619). Alexander of Tralles, physician (approximate date). Brandub mac Echach, king of Uí Ceinnselaig (Ireland). Constantina, Byzantine empress (approximate date). Damian, Coptic Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria.
The Licchavis, whose earliest inscriptions date to 464, were the next rulers of the valley and had close ties with the Gupta Empire of India. The Mallas ruled the Kathmandu Valley and the surrounding area from the 12th until the 18th century CE, when the Shah dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom under Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley as he created present-day Nepal. His victory in the Battle of Kirtipur was the beginning of his conquest of the valley. The Newars are the indigenous inhabitants and the creators of the historic civilization of the valley. Their language is today known as Nepal Bhasa.
The Gupta emperor Chandragupta I married a Licchavi princess Kumaradevi and the legend Licchavayah is found along with a figure of goddess Lakshmi on the reverse of the Chandragupta I-Kumaradevi type gold coins of Samudragupta. In the Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta, he is described as the Licchavidauhitra (the grandson of the Licchavis from his mother's side). These probably suggest Licchavi occupation of Magadha immediately before the rise of the imperial Guptas, although there is no direct evidence to prove it. The Licchavi feud with Ajatashatru from 484 BCE to 468 BCE ended with the victory of the latter. The Licchavi kingdom of Nepal *
The palace was built by Lichhavi King Amshuverma immediately after he was throned in 598 CE. The palace was later devastated and does not physically exist in the current day. Many historical and literary works have proved the existence of the palace. The Chinese monk Xuanzang mentioned the mighty architecture of Kailashkut Bhawan in his travelogue. Kailashkut Bhawan was constructed in vedic tripura style having three courtyards. The three adjoined buildings were Indragriha, Managriha and Kailashkut. Xuanzang has mentioned that Kailashkut Bhawan could accommodate 1,000 people in the lobby of its top floor.
DevKing ManadevaKing Mānadeva
King Mānadeva (464–505 AD) was the first historical king of Licchavi in present-day Nepal. An inscription dated to 464 AD at the temple of Changu Narayan gives valuable information about his rule. He suppressed the feudal chiefs of the east and west and also conquered Mallapuri. He minted coins and constructed the palace of Managriha for himself.
Some examples of Samantas in South India are: In the Nepali realm of the Maharaja of Licchavi, samantas held feudal domains and played a major part at court. Samantas played a role in other Nepali kingdoms as well. Dr Regmi writes that in Nepal the Samanatas adopted high sounding titles such as Maharaja and Maharajadhiraja at a time when they were just Samantas (vassals). An example is an inscription in which a Samanta of Changu area, named Amsu-Varma, adopted the title of Maharajadhiraja. They were not seen giving up the title of Samanta even after adopting a higher sounding title. One such example is Mahasamanta Maharaja Sri Karmalilah.
Raghava Deva is said to have founded a ruling dynasty in 879 CE, when the Lichhavi rule came to an end. To commemorate this important event, Raghu Deva started the 'Nepal Era' which began on 20 October, 879 CE. After Amshuvarma, who ruled from 605 CE onward; the Thakuris had lost power and they could regain it only in 869 CE. After the death of King Raghava Dev, many Thakuri kings ruled Southern Nepal up to the middle of the 12th century CE. During that period, Gunakama Deva was one of the famous kings. He ruled from 949 to 994 CE.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes all or part of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Devanagari (देवनागरी, Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी), is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE and was in regular use by the 7th century CE. The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is one of the most adopted writing systems in the world, being used for over 120 languages. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters.
Here the Licchavis reverentially encased one of the eight portions of the Master's relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Licchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return. The Master created an illusion of a river in spate which compelled them to go back. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka later built a stupa. Kutagarasala Vihara is the monastery where Buddha most frequently stayed while visiting Vaiśālī.
MuzzafarpurMuzaffarpur Municipal CorporationMuzaffarpur, BR
Muzaffarpur is a city located in Muzaffarpur district in the Tirhut region of the Indian state of Bihar. It serves as the headquarters of Tirhut division, Muzaffarpur district and the Muzaffarpur Railway District. It is the fourth most populous city in Bihar.
Bajjika dialectVajjikaBajjika variety of Maithili
Bajjika is a language spoken in eastern India and Nepal, considered by some, including the Ethnologue, to be a dialect of the Maithili language. In Nepal, it has been accorded an independent language status with censuses recording it separately from Maithili and thus is one of its national languages through the constitution of Nepal 2015. It is spoken in the north-western districts of the Bihar state of India, and the adjacent areas in Nepal.