isopodisopodsisopod crustacean
Members of the families Ligiidae and Tylidae, commonly known as rock lice or sea slaters, are the least specialised of the woodlice for life on land. They inhabit the splash zone on rocky shores, jetties and pilings, may hide under debris washed up on the shore and can swim if immersed in water. * Asellota – The suborder containing the majority of freshwater isopod species, found in both surface and subterranean waters, along with some deepwater marine species. Calabozoida – A small suborder consisting of two marine species in the family Calabozoidae and one freshwater species in the family Brasileirinidae which is found in subterranean locations.


Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 m. They have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs.


They are sometimes grouped with the hexapods. 4) Crustaceans are primarily aquatic (a notable exception being woodlice) and are characterised by having biramous appendages. They include lobsters, crabs, barnacles, crayfish, shrimp and many others. 5) Hexapods comprise insects and three small orders of insect-like animals with six thoracic legs. They are sometimes grouped with the myriapods, in a group called Uniramia, though genetic evidence tends to support a closer relationship between hexapods and crustaceans. Invertebrate paleontology. Dorsal lobe.


Others, such as woodlice, lay their eggs on land, albeit in damp conditions. In most decapods, the females retain the eggs until they hatch into free-swimming larvae. The majority of crustaceans are aquatic, living in either marine or freshwater environments, but a few groups have adapted to life on land, such as terrestrial crabs, terrestrial hermit crabs, and woodlice. Marine crustaceans are as ubiquitous in the oceans as insects are on land.


malacostracancaridoid faciescrabs and lobsters
Its members, the malacostracans, display a great diversity of body forms and include crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, amphipods, mantis shrimp and many other, less familiar animals. They are abundant in all marine environments and have colonised freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are segmented animals, united by a common body plan comprising 20 body segments (rarely 21), and divided into a head, thorax, and abdomen. The name Malacostraca was coined by a French zoologist Pierre André Latreille in 1802. He was curator of the arthropod collection at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris.

Ligia oceanica

sea slaterL. oceanicasea slaters
*List of woodlice of the British Isles *


Woodlice need moisture because they rapidly lose water by excretion and through their cuticle, and so are usually found in damp, dark places, such as under rocks and logs, although one species, the desert dwelling Hemilepistus reaumuri, inhabits "the driest habitat conquered by any species of crustacean". They are usually nocturnal and are detritivores, feeding mostly on dead plant matter. A few woodlice have returned to water. Evolutionary ancient species are amphibious, such as the marine-intertidal sea slater (Ligia oceanica), which belongs to family Ligiidae.

Ligia baudiniana

Ligia baudiniana is a woodlouse in the family Ligiidae. It has a coarsely granular surface and large eyes that are very close together. L. baudiniana has been found from Bermuda to the Yucatán Peninsula and south to Panama. They venture out in great numbers in the intertidal zone at low tide, then they retreat as the water returns, but they need the water to keep their gills warm and have never found more than 70 ft from shore. They cannot live in seawater for extended periods, as can L. oceanica, for example. They survive best in moist environments, but cannot survive in fresh water, most likely due losing their vital salts via dilution.

Ligia cajennensis

Ligia cajennensis is a woodlouse in the family Ligiidae. It has a relatively narrow body with a rough, grainy texture. It's a dark yellow/rust color, with lighter antennae and legs. Its eyes are brownish black. L. cajennensis is known from the coast of French Guyana. Only one specimen has been found for this species, in 1847, and since then, other authors have considered it too insufficiently described to comment further on it. *

Ligia cursor

Ligia cursor is a woodlouse in the family Ligiidae. The antennae are as long as the cephalothorax, which is the head and body of the animal. Its flagellum contains 21 segments, 14 larger and 7 smaller, and each joint shows setae (small bristles). L. cursor was found on the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842 under the command of Charles Wilkes, on the coast near Valparaíso, Chile. *

Ligia cinerascens

Ligia cinerascens is a woodlouse in the family Ligiidae. L. cinerascens is very similar to L. occidentalis with more antenna segments but shorter overall antenna length. It can be distinguished from L. exotica by its shorter antennae and uropods, as well as its uniformly gray color and granular texture. The species name cinerascens comes from the Latin for "ashy," referring to the gray color of this species. In the wild, ''L. cinerascens'' usually lives about 1 year (overwintering once) but occasionally lives up to 2.5 years (overwintering twice). Females breed in their first year for five months, then die before the second winter, typically producing one brood - two at the most.

Ligia dilatata

Ligia diletata is a woodlouse in the family Ligiidae. It has a finely granular surface and a body that is slightly convex, as well as eye that are large and convex. It has relatively small uropods. It can be differentiated from L. glabrata, with which it shares some range, by its antennae. The antennae of ''L. diletata'' are longer, reaching the end of its thorax. L. diletata feeds extensively on dislodged Ecklonia maxima and Laminaria pallida that wash up on shore. They gather in large numbers on these kelp. The species lives about 2 years. Females start reproducing at 12 months but, unlike males, probably do not survive to breed twice. The brood period is 5 to 6 weeks.

Ligia exotica

L. exotica
Ligia exotica, also called sea roach or wharf roach, is a woodlouse-like isopod, a sea slater in the family Ligiidae. It is found in various parts of the world living on rocky coasts and harbour walls just above high water mark. Ligia exotica can grow to 4 cm in length, with the males being rather bigger than the females. The general colour is dark grey, sometimes with brown flecks, and the appendages are pale brown. The head has a pair of long antennae which exceed the length of the body, and two unstalked, bulging eyes. The body is flattened dorsally and has seven thoracic segments, each with a pair of legs, and six abdominal segments.

Ligia natalensis

Ligia natalensis is a woodlouse-like isopod in the family Ligiidae. The type specimen for this species is held in the KwaZulu-Natal Museum in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. L. natalensis is silver-grey with darker grey markings. Its moderately convex body is twice as long as it is wide, 16 - 17 mm, with some bumps on the outer "shell"...neither as smooth as L. glabrata nor as granulated as L. diletada. Its eyes are large and convex, and its long, thin antennae have five sections. The first three sections are short, and the last two are long. In females, the antennae are as long as the body, while the male's antennae are longer. The species' elongated uropods are slightly curved inward.

Family (biology)

Family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".

Rocky shore

rocky shoresrocky beachesrocky coasts
A rocky shore is an intertidal area of seacoasts where solid rock predominates. Rocky shores are biologically rich environments, and are a useful "natural laboratory" for studying intertidal ecology and other biological processes. Due to their high accessibility, they have been well studied for a long time and their species are well known.

Ligia occidentalis

L. occidentalis
Ligia occidentalis is a species of rock slater in the family Ligiidae. It is found in North America and Mexico.

Ligia pallasii

Ligia pallasii, the rock louse, is a species of rock slater in the family Ligiidae. It is found in North America. *


Ligidium is a genus of woodlice. It contains approximately 46 species, six of which are probably taxonomic synonyms of Ligidium hypnorum or Ligidium germanicum. Of the remainder, eight species are found in North America, six in Japan, two in Taiwan, four in China, twelve in Turkey, the Caucasus and Central Asia, and six in Greece. Ligidium acutitelson Wang & Kwon, 1993. Ligidium anatolicum Frankenberger, 1950. Ligidium assimile Strouhal, 1971. Ligidium beieri Strouhal, 1928. Ligidium birsteini Borutzky, 1950. Ligidium blueridgensis Schultz, 1964. Ligidium bosniense Verhoeff, 1901. Ligidium bosporanum Verhoeff, 1941. Ligidium burmanicum Verhoeff, 1946. Ligidium cavaticum Borutzky, 1950.

Ligidium japonicum

Ligidium japonicum is a species of woodlouse found in moist forests in Japan. Individuals may live for up to two years and reach a length of 8 mm.

Intertidal zone

intertidalforeshoretidal zone
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore or seashore, is the area that is above water level at low tide and underwater at high tide (in other words, the area within the tidal range). This area can include several types of habitats with various species of life, such as seastars, sea urchins, and many species of coral. Sometimes it is referred to as the littoral zone, although that can be defined as a wider region.


Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and eats another organism, its prey. It is one of a family of common feeding behaviours that includes parasitism and micropredation (which usually do not kill the host) and parasitoidism (which always does, eventually). It is distinct from scavenging on dead prey, though many predators also scavenge; it overlaps with herbivory, as a seed predator is both a predator and a herbivore.

Wind wave

waveswaveocean wave
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are water surface waves that occur on the free surface of the oceans and other bodies (like lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds). They result from the wind blowing over an area of fluid surface. Waves in the oceans can travel thousands of miles before reaching land. Wind waves on Earth range in size from small ripples, to waves over 100 ft high.


Desiccation (from Latin de- "thorougly" + siccare "to dry") is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. A desiccant is a hygroscopic (attracts and holds water) substance that induces or sustains such a state in its local vicinity in a moderately sealed container.