Christmas DayDecember 25Nativity
Christmas Day (inclusive of its vigil, Christmas Eve), is a Festival in the Lutheran Churches, a holy day of obligation in the Roman Catholic Church, and a Principal Feast of the Anglican Communion. Other Christian denominations do not rank their feast days but nevertheless place importance on Christmas Eve/Christmas Day, as with other Christian feasts like Easter, Ascension Day, and Pentecost. As such, for Christians, attending a Christmas Eve or Christmas Day church service plays an important part in the recognition of the Christmas season. Christmas, along with Easter, is the period of highest annual church attendance.


ChristJesus ChristJesus of Nazareth
He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood" (Luke 22:19–20). The Christian sacrament or ordinance of the Eucharist is based on these events. Although the Gospel of John does not include a description of the bread-and-wine ritual during the Last Supper, most scholars agree that John 6:22–59 (the Bread of Life Discourse) has a eucharistic character and resonates with the institution narratives in the Synoptic Gospels and in the Pauline writings on the Last Supper. In all four gospels, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the rooster crows the next morning.

Christmas dinner

Christmas family mealEnglish Christmas dinnerBritish Christmas dinner
In general, people make an effort to have plenty of food that night, typical dishes for the occasion vary from lechona, Ajiaco, Tamal, Bandeja paisa, Sudado de pollo, Empanadas (In Spanish) among others; in modern times kids often ask for Pizza, Lasagna, Hot Dogs or similar fast food for Christmas Eve; drinks for the dinner are usually fruit juices from all the variety that can be found in Colombia, the reunion can last from 10:00 pm to 4:00 am and sometimes it extends throughout the night until morning when people cook asado. * List of dining events eo:Kristnaska vespermanĝo


Christmas EveChristmas Eve supper
Christmas breakfast often consists of scrambled eggs, cold-cuts served with horseradish sauce, smoked or fried salmon, marinated salads, and cakes, especially, pierniki Toruńskie (a gingerbread), cake, and decorated biscuits. * List of dining events pl:Wigilia Bożego Narodzenia The 12 Dishes of Polish Christmas on Wigilia article from the Polish American Center. Wigilia article from Pope John Paul II Polish Center. Wigilia article from the Polish Museum of America.

New Year's Eve

December 31New YearNew Year's Day
In many countries, New Year's Eve is celebrated at evening social gatherings, where many people dance, eat, drink alcoholic beverages, and watch or light fireworks to mark the new year. Some Christians attend a watchnight service. The celebrations generally go on past midnight into New Year's Day, 1 January. Samoa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island), part of Kiribati, are examples of the first places to welcome the New Year while American Samoa and Baker Island in the United States of America are among the last. In Algeria, New Year's Eve (Réveillon; Ra’s al-‘Ām) is usually celebrated with family and friends.

Christmas traditions

ChristmasChristmas holidaysother European traditions
It is quite common to attend midnight mass on Christmas Eve and practice the custom not to eat any meat. The dinner traditionally consists of seafood, with the Feast of the Seven Fishes, followed by typical Italian Christmas sweets, such as pandoro, panettone, torrone, panforte, struffoli, caggionetti, Monte Bianco or others, depending on the regional cuisine. Christmas on the 25th is celebrated with a family lunch, consisting of different types of meat dishes, cheese and local sweets. The ancient Christmas festival called Ndocciata is celebrated on December 8 and Christmas Eve in Agnone, Molise, with a parade of torches leading up to the "Bonfire of Brotherhood".


France, officially the French Republic (République française, ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans.


oystersoyster bedoyster beds
Oysters can be eaten on the half shell, raw, smoked, boiled, baked, fried, roasted, stewed, canned, pickled, steamed, or broiled, or used in a variety of drinks. Eating can be as simple as opening the shell and eating the contents, including juice. Butter and salt are often added. In the case of Oysters Rockefeller, preparation can be very elaborate. They are sometimes served on edible seaweed, such as brown algae. Care should be taken when consuming oysters. Purists insist on eating them raw, with no dressing save perhaps lemon juice, vinegar (most commonly shallot vinegar), or cocktail sauce.


There are several rare marriage charms: On Christmas Eve a greater attention was given to animals. This was to assure their health, fertility and breeding success: * List of dining events Arūnas Vaicekauskas, Ancient Lithuanian calendar festivals, 2014, Vytautas Magnus University, Versus Aureus. ISBN: 978-609-467-018-3,ISBN: 978-609-467-017-6 A stem of hay is pulled from under the tablecloth. It cannot be picked; the first one the fingers encounter must be drawn. The person with the longest of the drawn straws will live the longest life, while the person with the fattest straw will have the most fulfilling life.

Italian Americans

Many still celebrate the Christmas season with a Feast of the Seven Fishes. The Feast of the Assumption is celebrated in Cleveland's Little Italy on August 15. On this feast day, people will pin money on a Blessed Virgin Mary statue as a symbol of prosperity. The statue is then paraded through Little Italy to Holy Rosary Church. For almost 25 years, Cleveland Bishop Anthony Pilla participated in the parade and Mass to celebrate his Italian heritage. Bishop Pilla retired in April 2006, but continues to participate. While most Italian-American families have a Catholic background, there are converts to Protestantism as well.

Foie gras

pâté de foie grasgoose liverDuck foie gras of the South-west
In France, it is mainly consumed on special occasions, such as Christmas or New Year's Eve réveillon dinners, though the recent increased availability of foie gras has made it a less exceptional dish. In some areas of France foie gras is eaten year-round. Duck foie gras is the slightly cheaper and, since a change of production methods in the 1950s to battery, by far the most common kind, particularly in the US. The taste of duck foie gras is often referred to as musky with a subtle bitterness. Goose foie gras is noted for being less gamey and smoother, with a more delicate flavor.

Christmas and holiday season

holiday seasonChristmas seasonholiday shopping season
In the UK and Ireland, Christmas food generally appears on supermarket shelves as early as September or even August, while the Christmas shopping season itself starts from mid-November when the high street Christmas lights are switched on. Secular icons and symbols, such as Santa Claus and Frosty the Snowman, are on display in addition to overtly Christian displays of the nativity. Public holiday celebrations similarly range from midnight mass to Christmas tree lighting ceremonies and participation in the Little Drummer Boy Challenge.

Italian-American cuisine

Italian-AmericanItalian restaurantItalian
Baccalà – salt cod fish, traditionally served during Lent or for Christmas Eve. Can have it fried, baccala salad, etc. Alici or Acciughe – another integral dish served during Christmas Eve's Feast of the Seven Fishes. This dish's full name is Spaghetti con aglio, olio e acciughe (spaghetti with garlic, oil, and anchovies; alici is another word for anchovy). The anchovies and garlic are sliced very thin and dissolve in the oil. When served, the dish appears to be just pasta covered in hot oil. (Many variants exist in Italy: some don't have anchovies, some add capers or chili pepper). Cioppino – a fish stew characteristic of West Coast Italian American cookery, particularly San Francisco.

Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "γένεσις", meaning "Origin";, "Bərēšīṯ", "In [the] beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament. It can be divided into two parts, the Primeval history (chapters 1–11) and the Ancestral history (chapters 12–50). The primeval history sets out the author's (or authors') concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world which is good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God.

Catholic Church

CatholicRoman CatholicRoman Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within Rome, Italy.


lobstersclawed lobstersNephropidae
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

Domestic turkey

turkeyturkeysdomesticated turkey
If turkeys are to feed, drink, dust-bathe, etc., simultaneously, then to avoid causing frustration, resources and space must be available in large quantities. Lighting manipulations used to optimise production can compromise welfare. Long photoperiods combined with low light intensity can result in blindness from buphthalmia (distortions of the eye morphology) or retinal detachment. Feather pecking occurs frequently amongst commercially reared turkeys and can begin at 1 day of age. This behaviour is considered to be re-directed foraging behaviour, caused by providing poultry with an impoverished foraging environment. To reduce feather pecking, turkeys are often beak-trimmed.

Christ Child

infant Jesusbaby Jesuschild Jesus
It is sung in the Hebrides at Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve. In some apocryphal texts, the Infancy Gospels grew up with legendary accounts of the intervening period, and these are sometimes depicted. These stories were intended to show Jesus as having extraordinary gifts of power and knowledge, even from the youngest age. One common pious tale has the young Jesus animating sparrows out of clay belonging to his playmates. When admonished for doing so on the Sabbath, he causes the birds to fly away.


anchoviesanchovieAnchoviella commersonii
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae. Most species are found in marine waters, but several will enter brackish water and some in South America are restricted to fresh water.


blanc de blancsblanc de noirschampagne wine
The Muslim-majority nation Bahrain banned Champagne celebrations on F1 podiums in 2004, using a nonalcoholic pomegranate and rose water drink instead. In 2015, some Australian sports competitors began to celebrate by drinking champagne from their shoe, a practice known as shoey. There are several general factors influencing the price of Champagne: the limited land of the region, the prestige that Champagne has developed worldwide, and the high cost of the production process, among possible others. A list of major Champagne producers and their respective Cuvée de prestige NM: Négociant manipulant. These companies (including the majority of the larger brands) buy grapes and make the wine.

Crucifixion of Jesus

After arriving at Golgotha, Jesus was offered wine mixed with myrrh or gall to drink. Matthew's and Mark's Gospels record that he refused this. He was then crucified and hung between two convicted thieves. According to some translations of the original Greek, the thieves may have been bandits or Jewish rebels. According to Mark's Gospel, he endured the torment of crucifixion for some six hours from the third hour, at approximately 9 am, until his death at the ninth hour, corresponding to about 3 pm.


When absinthe was banned in France in 1915, the major absinthe producers (then Pernod Fils and Ricard, who have since merged as Pernod Ricard) reformulated their drink without the banned wormwood and with more aniseed flavour, coming from star anise, sugar and a lower alcohol content, creating pastis. It is usually drunk diluted with water, which it turns a cloudy color. It is especially popular in and around Marseille. Pétanque, a form of boules, is a popular sport played in towns and villages all over Provence. The origins of the game are said to be ancient, going back to the Egyptians, ancient Greeks, and Ancient Romans, who are said to have introduced it to Provence first.

Thirteen desserts

The food traditionally is set out Christmas Eve and remains on the table three days until December 27. The first four of these are known as the "four beggars" (les quatre mendiants), representing the four mendicant monastic orders: Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinian and Carmelites. Bayle St. John, writing in The Purple Tints of Paris (vol. 2) "The dishes are substantial; soup, boiled beef, veal, salad, cheese, apples, and what are called, for some mysterious reason, the four beggars — nuts, figs, almonds, and raisins, mixed together." * List of desserts * The 13 desserts of Provence - by (in English) Raisins (Dominicans). Walnuts or hazelnuts (Augustines).


gospelscanonical gospelsfour Gospels
This article is about books written about the life of Jesus. For the Good News of salvation through Jesus, The gospel. For other uses, see Gospel music, Gospel (disambiguation), or The Four Gospels (disambiguation).


Thanksgiving DayThanksgiving HolidayThanksgiving Eve
Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in Canada, the United States, some of the Caribbean islands, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Similarly named festival holidays occur in Germany and Japan. Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Canada and on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States, and around the same part of the year in other places. Although Thanksgiving has historical roots in religious and cultural traditions, it has long been celebrated as a secular holiday as well.