Clean Air Act (United States)

Clean Air ActClean Air Act of 1970U.S. Clean Air Act
The Volkswagen emissions scandal (2015), etc. Caterpillar and five other manufacturers violated diesel engine emission standards (consent decree, July 1999). Alleged violations by Hyundai and Kia which resulted in a total $100 million in civil penalties paid to the United States and to the California Air Resources Board. Clean Air Act (disambiguation). Air quality law. United States environmental law. Alan Carlin, controversy over the [[Clean Air Act (United States)#Proposed endangerment finding related to the Clean Air Act 202(a)|EPA carbon dioxide endangerment finding]]. Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management. Emission standard. Emissions trading.


CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 8.8 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County.

San Joaquin Valley

San Joaquinanother nearby valleyCalifornia valley
Population growth has caused the San Joaquin Valley to rank with Los Angeles and Houston in most measures of air pollution. Only the Inland Empire region east of Los Angeles has worse overall air quality, and the San Joaquin Valley led the nation in 2004 in the number of days with quantities of ozone considered unhealthy by the Environmental Protection Agency. The San Joaquin Valley has been deemed an "extreme non-attainment zone" by the Environmental Protection Agency, meaning residents are exposed to air quality that is confirmed to be hazardous to human health. Although industrial activity, as well as driving, occurs year-round, the air pollution is worse in the winter.

Emission standard

emissions standardsemission standardsemissions
In the United States, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under federal law, the state of California is allowed to promulgate more stringent vehicle emissions standards (subject to EPA approval), and other states may choose to follow either the national or California standards. California had produced air quality standards prior to EPA, with severe air quality problems in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. LA is the country's second-largest city, and relies much more heavily on automobiles and has less favorable meteorological conditions than the largest and third-largest cities (New York and Chicago).

United States

The most prominent is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970. The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be 327,167,434 as of July 1, 2018, and to be adding 1 person (net gain) every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day. The U.S. population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from 76.2 million in 1900 to 281.4 million in 2000.

Environment of California

California Environmental Quality Act. California Proposition 23. California Proposition 50 (2002). California Proposition 65 (1986). Electronic Waste Recycling Act. Electronic Waste Recycling Fee. California Air Resources Board. California Coastal Commission. California Coastal Conservancy. California Department of Pesticide Regulation. California Department of Toxic Substances Control. California Environmental Protection Agency. California State Lands Commission. Water Education Foundation. Pollution in California. Ecology of California. Environment of the United States. Environmental issues in the United States. List of Superfund sites in California.

Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

Ventura County APCD
NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards). NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants). Pollution in California. Public Smog. South Coast Air Quality Management District. Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health regulation. US Emission standard. Official Ventura County Air Pollution Control District—VCAPCD website. California Local Air District Directory.

Volatile organic compound

volatile organic compoundsVOCVOCs
The definitions of VOCs used for control of precursors of photochemical smog used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies in the US with independent outdoor air pollution regulations include exemptions for VOCs that are determined to be non-reactive, or of low-reactivity in the smog formation process. In the US, regulatory requirements for VOCs vary among the states. Most prominent is the VOC regulation issued by the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California and by the California Air Resources Board (ARB).

1966 New York City smog

1966, November 24smog eventsmog hangs over New York City during Thanksgiving 1966
The air "over much of the eastern half of the country [was] chronically polluted," and the cities with the most intense air pollution were New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, St. Louis, and Philadelphia. New York City's air pollution was reportedly the worst of any American city. Although the "persistently glaring" photochemical smog of Los Angeles was more visible, more "infamous," and received a greater degree of public attention, New York City had more total emissions and many more emissions proportional to its area.

Inland Empire

Inland Empire, CaliforniaRiverside–San BernardinoSan Bernardino-Riverside Metropolitan Area
In 2007, the Rialto City council petitioned the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for Superfund status to clean up the origin site. The sites comprising March Air Reserve Base, Norton Air Force Base and the Stringfellow Acid Pits have already been classified as EPA Superfund toxic waste sites. Traffic congestion problems on the roadways, as with elsewhere in Southern California, is the result of the demand for driving exceeding the available capacity, especially on area freeways.


pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.

Exhaust gas

Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health say preliminary results of their statistical study of children listed in the California Cancer Registry born between 1998 and 2007 found that traffic pollution may be associated with a 5% to 15% increase in the likelihood of some cancers. A World Health Organization study found that diesel fumes cause an increase in lung cancer. The California Air Resources Board (C.A.R.B.) found in studies that 50% or more of the air pollution (smog) in Southern California is due to car emissions.

History of Los Angeles

Los AngelesLos Angeles, Californiacity of Los Angeles
Rivers in the Desert: William Mulholland and the Inventing of Los Angeles. (1993). 303 pp. Davis, Mike. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. (1990). 462 pp. Desfor, Gene, and Roger Keil. Nature And The City: Making Environmental Policy In Toronto And Los Angeles (2004) 290pp. Deverell, William, and Greg Hise. Land of Sunshine: An Environmental History of Metropolitan Los Angeles (2006) 350 pages excerpt and text search. Dewey, Scott Hamilton. Don't Breathe the Air: Air Pollution and U.S. Environmental Politics, 1945–1970. (2000). 321pp., focuses on LA smog. Hise, Greg. Magnetic Los Angeles: Planning the Twentieth-Century Metropolis. (1997). 294 pp.

High-occupancy vehicle lane

high-occupancy vehicleHOVHOV lanes
Also during the early 1970s, ridesharing was recommended for the first time as a tool to mitigate air quality problems. The 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments established the National Ambient Air Quality Standards and gave the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) substantial authority to regulate air quality attainment. A final control plan for the Los Angeles Basin was issued in 1973, and one of its main provisions was a two-phase conversion of 184 mi of freeway and arterial roadway lanes to bus/carpool lanes and the development of a regional computerized carpool matching system.

Environmental Defense Fund

Environmental DefenseThe Environmental Defense FundClimate Corps
The goal is to help reduce methane emissions by 45% by 2025. Funding for the project comes from The Audacious Project, an initiative of the worldwide TED conference group. While MethaneSAT will offer a big-picture view, a complementary satellite by the California Air Resources Board will help identify point-source greenhouse gas emissions. The CARB satellite project was announced in September 2018 at the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco by California Governor Jerry Brown: “With science still under attack and the climate threat growing, we’re launching our own damn satellite".

Aliso Canyon gas leak

2015 leakgas leak from the underground Aliso Canyon gas storagemethane gas eruption
On January 14, 2016, Time magazine compared the 1.6 million lbs of methane released each day to the emissions of 6 coal fired powerplants, 2.2 million cows per day, or 4.5 million cars. As of January 2016, the latest methane measurement per the California Air Resources Board (Carb) was from December 22, 2015 and had decreased from a peak of 58,000±12,000 kg/h to 30,300 kg/h, the equivalent of "more than 1,411,851 cars" by a different calculation using EPA estimates. The Aliso gas leak carbon footprint is referred to as "larger than the Deepwater Horizon leak in the Gulf of Mexico".

Emissions trading

cap and tradecap-and-tradeemissions trading scheme
The tentative ruling, issued on 24 January 2011, argued that the California Air Resources Board violated state environmental law by failing to consider such alternatives. If the decision is made final, the state would not be allowed to implement its proposed cap-and-trade system until the California Air Resources Board fully complies with the California Environmental Quality Act. California's cap-and-trade program ranks only second to the ETS (European Trading System) carbon market in the world. In 2012, under the auction, the reserve price, which is the price per ton of CO2 permit is $10.

Orange County, California

Orange CountyOrangeOrange County, CA
The National Football League football left the county when the Los Angeles Rams relocated to St. Louis in 1995. The Los Angeles Clippers played some home games at The Arrowhead Pond, now known as the Honda Center, from 1994 to 1999, before moving to Staples Center, which they share with the Los Angeles Lakers.

San Bernardino County, California

San Bernardino CountySan BernardinoSan Bernardino Counties
San Bernardino County, officially the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California, and is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, and the 12th-most populous in the United States. The county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area (also known as the Inland Empire), as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area.

Riverside County, California

Riverside CountyRiversideRiverside Counties
When the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850 the area today known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853 the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County. Between 1891 and 1893 several proposals, and legislative attempts, were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for a Pomona County and one for a San Jacinto County. None of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11, 1893. The new county was created from parts of San Bernardino County and San Diego County.


ozonationO 3 ozone generator
The study revealed that people living in cities with high ozone levels, such as Houston or Los Angeles, had an over 30% increased risk of dying from lung disease. Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union are based on detailed studies designed to identify the levels that can cause measurable ill health effects. According to scientists with the US EPA, susceptible people can be adversely affected by ozone levels as low as 40 nmol/mol. In the EU, the current target value for ozone concentrations is 120 µg/m 3 which is about 60 nmol/mol.


particulate matterparticulateaerosol
China has set limits for particulates in the air: The European Union has established the European emission standards, which include limits for particulates in the air: Hong Kong has set limits for particulates in the air: Japan has set limits for particulates in the air: South Korea has set limits for particulates in the air: Taiwan has set limits for particulates in the air: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set standards for PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations.


forest fireforest fireswildfires
People are exposed directly to smoke via the respiratory tract though inhalation of air pollutants. Indirectly, communities are exposed to wildfire debris that can contaminate soil and water supplies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Air Quality Index (AQI), a public resource that provides national air quality standard concentrations for common air pollutants. The public can use this index as a tool to determine their exposure to hazardous air pollutants based on visibility range. After a wildfire, hazards remain. Residents returning to their homes may be at risk from falling fire-weakened trees. Humans and pets may also be harmed by falling into ash pits.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

National Ambient Air Quality Standards—NAAQSair quality standardsAmbient Air Quality Standards
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced \'naks\) are standards for harmful pollutants. Established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), NAAQS is applied for outdoor air throughout the country. The standards are listed in. Primary standards are designed to protect human health, with an adequate margin of safety, including sensitive populations such as children, the elderly, and individuals suffering from respiratory diseases.

Los Angeles Basin

a large basingreater Los AngelesL.A. Basin
The Los Angeles Basin is a sedimentary basin located in southern California, in a region known as the Peninsular Ranges. The basin is also connected to an anomalous group of east-west trending chains of mountains collectively known as the California Transverse Ranges. The present basin is a coastal lowland area, whose floor is marked by elongate low ridges and groups of hills that is located on the edge of the Pacific plate. The Los Angeles Basin, along with the Santa Barbara Channel, the Ventura Basin, the San Fernando Valley, and the San Gabriel Basin, lies within the greater southern California region.