However the migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing New England Planters settlement. The Loyalist influx also pushed Nova Scotia's Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. As part of the Loyalist migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, near Shelburne. However, unfair treatment and harsh conditions caused about one-third of the Black Loyalists to resettle in Sierra Leone in 1792, where they founded Freetown and became known in Africa as the Nova Scotian Settlers.
NSProvince of Nova ScotiaNova Scotia, Canada
NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope restored"). The number of immigrants reached almost 14,000 by 1784. Perhaps 10% of the refugees to New Brunswick returned to the States as did an unknown number from Nova Scotia. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly. The election of 1786 was bitterly contested and pitted two concepts of loyalty to the Empire against one another: loyalty to the King and his appointed governors, and loyalty to the King with local affairs handled by the locals.
New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776.
ShelburneTownship of ShelburneTown of Shelburne
These settlers were Loyalists (referred to later in Canada as United Empire Loyalists), British-American colonists who had opposed the Revolution and remained loyal to Britain. The Crown offered them free land, tools, and provisions as compensation to lure them to settle in this relatively undeveloped area. Four hundred families associated to form a town at Port Roseway, which Governor Parr renamed Shelburne later that year, after Lord Shelburne, the British prime minister. This group was led by the Port Roseway Associates, who had formed while still in New York and petitioned Governor Parr for the land.
Loyalists were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence, such as burning houses and tarring and feathering. Loyalists wanted to take a centrist position and resisted the Patriots' demand to declare their opposition to the Crown. Many Loyalists, especially merchants in the port cities, had maintained strong and long-standing relations with Britain (often with business and family links to other parts of the British Empire). Many Loyalists realized that independence was bound to come eventually, but they were fearful that revolution might lead to anarchy, tyranny or mob rule.
Loyalist (American Revolution). Canadian honorifics. Daughters of the American Revolution. Expulsion of the Loyalists. Society of the Cincinnati. Sons of the American Revolution. Sons of the Revolution. Acheson, T.W. "A Study in the Historical Demography of a Loyalist County", Social History, 1 (April 1968), pp. 53–65. Compeau, Timothy J. "Dishonoured Americans: Loyalist Manhood and Political Death in Revolutionary America." (PhD Diss. The University of Western Ontario, 2015); online. Jasanoff, Maya. Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World. (Knopf, 2011) Ranlet (2014) [below] argues her estimate of the number of Loyalists is too high. Jodon, Michael.
John WentworthSir John WentworthGovernor John Wentworth
During the previous decade hostility between the Planters and the newly arrived Loyalists nearly crippled the government. As well, the cost of settling the Loyalists had plunged the colony into debt. As a Loyalist himself, Wentworth favored them for higher offices, while being more even-handed with the distribution of lower offices. This began a Loyalist ascendancy that continued well into the 19th century. He stabilized the colony's finances by introducing an excise duty on all imports; by the end of 1793 even some of the principal of the debt had been paid off. In April, 1793, news arrived that war had broken out between Britain and revolutionary France.
Fort Cumberlandattempt to capture Fort CumberlandAmerican Revolutionary
Raddall, "His Majesty's Yankees" Doubleday & Company Inc. 1942 (historical fiction by NovaScotia's most famous writer). * Royal Fencible Americans at the On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies [[Military history of Nova Scotia#American Revolution|]]. List of American Revolutionary War battles. This book also contains Eddy's report of January 1777 as well as additional documents and reports. This book contains Colonel Goreham's reports on the action, as well as orders issued by others with respect to this event. D. C. Harvey, "Machias and the invasion of Nova Scotia", CHA Report, 1932: 17–28. On line. Acadia in the Revolution 1882.
*Thomas Henry Barclay *Military history of Nova Scotia The Loyal American Regiment. Index to Loyal American Regiment History - The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies.
raided Nova Scotia communities
There are many Loyalists buried in the Old Burying Ground (Halifax, Nova Scotia), including a number of Black Loyalists who have unmarked graves. *Military history of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia on the road to the Revolution. ( book).
southern New EnglandNew EnglanderNew England region
New England is a geographical region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts.
QuebecQuébecQuebec City, Quebec
Quebec City (pronounced or ; Québec ; Ville de Québec, Abenaki language: Kephek ), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016 (an increase of 3.0% from 2011), and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016 (an increase of 4.3% from 2011), making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, and the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country.
Annapolis, Nova ScotiaTown of AnnapolisAnnapolis
.< After the American Revolution, a flood of United Empire Loyalists arrived at Annapolis Royal. The Loyalist migration severely taxed the resources of the town for a time before many moved to found Loyalist settlements such as nearby Digby and Clementsport, while others stayed. Some, such as Anglican minister Jacob Bailey, remained in Annapolis Royal and became members of the town's elite. Many escaped slaves who fought for the British known as Black Loyalists were also part of the Loyalist migration, including Thomas Peters, a member of the Black Pioneers regiment and an important Black Loyalist leader who first arrived in Annapolis Royal before taking land near Digby.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire in North America, not including the Caribbean. The term was first used informally in 1783, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. These territories today form modern-day Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
HalifaxHalifax Regional MunicipalityHalifax, NS
Halifax, also known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The municipality had a population of 403,131 in 2016, with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour. The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and Halifax County.
Cape BretonCape Breton, Nova ScotiaC'''ape Breton Island
A number of United Empire Loyalists emigrated to the Canadian colonies, including Cape Breton. David Mathews, the former Mayor of New York City during the American Revolution, emigrated with his family to Cape Breton in 1783. He succeeded Macarmick as head of the colony and served from 1795 to 1798. From 1799 to 1807, the military commandant was John Despard, brother of Edward. An order forbidding the granting of land in Cape Breton, issued in 1763, was removed in 1784. The mineral rights to the island were given over to the Duke of York by an order-in-council.
PEPEISt. John's Island
During and after the American Revolutionary War, from 1776 to 1783, the colony's efforts to attract exiled Loyalist refugees from the rebellious American colonies met with some success. Walter Patterson's brother, John Patterson, one of the original grantees of land on the island, was a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led efforts to persuade others to come. The 1787 dismissal of Governor Patterson and his recall to London in 1789 dampened his brother's efforts, leading John to focus on his interests in the United States (one of John's sons, Commodore Daniel Patterson, became a noted United States Navy hero, and Daniel's son Rear Admiral Thomas H. Patterson also had a distinguished career).
The most significant impact from this war was the settling of large numbers of Loyalist refugees in the region (34,000 to the 17,000 settlers already there), especially in Shelburne and Parrtown (Saint John). Following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Loyalist settlers in what would become New Brunswick persuaded British administrators to split the Colony of Nova Scotia to create the new colony of New Brunswick in 1784. At the same time, another part of the Colony of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, was split off to become the Colony of Cape Breton Island. The Colony of St. John's Island was renamed to Prince Edward Island on November 29, 1798.
MEState of MaineM'''ain'''E
Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York, Maryland and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty that was to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
Black Nova ScotianAfrican Nova ScotianBlack
The community was the largest settlement of Black Loyalists and was the largest free settlement of Africans in North America in the 18th century. The community was named after British Brigadier General Samuel Birch, an official who assisted in the evacuation of Black Loyalists from New York. (Also named after the general was a much smaller settlement of Black Loyalists in Guysborough County, Nova Scotia called Birchtown. ) The two other significant Black Loyalist communities established in Nova Scotia were Brindley town (present-day Jordantown) and Tracadie. Birchtown was located near the larger town of Shelburne, with a majority white population.
. * Military history of Nova Scotia * Index to Royal Fencible Americans History Parks Canada "The History of Fort Beausejour" 1995. Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, Halifax, N.S. Exhibit: The History of H.M.S. Vulture. This book also contains Eddy's report of January 1777 as well as additional documents and reports. Clarke, Ernest; The Siege of Fort Cumberland, 1776; McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal & Kingston, 1995. ISBN: 0-7735-1867-3. History of Penobscot, Maine.
AmherstTownship of AmherstTown of Amherst
These settlers were joined by United Empire Loyalists (Loyalists who fled the American colonies during the American Revolution). A mill was built on the current townsite, and the residents moved there to be closer to work. During the 19th century, Amherst became an important regional centre for shipbuilding and other services to outlying communities. An indication of the town's importance in Canadian history is seen with its four Fathers of Confederation: Edward B. Chandler, Robert B. Dickey, Jonathan McCully, and Sir Charles Tupper.