And in 1784, they were joined by many Loyalist settlers. From then on, Gaspé became an important commercial fishing centre, especially of cod. In 1804, its post office opened. In 1833 in Gaspé County there were only ten farmers, all in the Gaspé Bay area (of whom seven were also involved in the fishery), four whalers in Gaspé Bay, five shipbuilders (one a Jersey firm), one blacksmith, two lumber merchants, five shipowners (all of which were Jerseymen), eighteen fish merchants (of whom all but five were Jerseymen) and thirty-two major fishing establishments (of which sixteen were Jersey owned). Gaspé was incorporated as a village municipality in 1855.
GaspéGaspeTown of Gaspé
Their first uniforms arrived in early 1777, green coats faced white, with white smallclothes, in common with most other Loyalist corps of the American command at that time. In keeping with their name, the regiment was issued with red coats faced orange from 1780 to their disbandment. As Rangers, their coats were most likely unlaced. Military history of Nova Scotia. 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants). On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies. Various period papers and other records of the King's Orange Rangers. John Leefe. King's Orange Rangers. Re-enactment Regiment. Cairn to the King's Orange Rangers in Liverpool, Nova Scotia.
Royal N.S. VolunteersLoyal Nova Scotia Volunteers
Timothy Hierlihy of the Regiment settled in Antigonish (Captain Island and Captain Pond are named after the son. ) *American Revolution - Nova Scotia theatre Gilfred Studholme. Timothy William Hierlihy. Timothy Hierlihy. Hibbert Newton Binney. On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies Various period papers and other records of the Nova Scotia Volunteers. Barry Cahill. Royal NS Volunteer Regiment. 1988.
A monument was later erected to his memory by his great grand-daughter, Eliza Bayard West. * namesake of Ruggles Road, Wilmont, Nova Scotia *Military history of Nova Scotia * [http://dalspace.library.dal.ca/handle/10222/15458?show=full Catherine Cottreau-Robins. Timothy Ruggles - A Loyalist Plantation in Nova Scotia, 1784-1800. Doctorate Thesis.
a combined land and sea assaultaction against the Penobscot ExpeditionAmerican expedition
It draws attention to the presence there of a junior British officer named John Moore, later a famous general. * Military history of Nova Scotia Thesis - Penobscot Expedition. Jonathan Mitchell's Regiment - Begaduce Expedition. Maine Historical Society. British journal of the attack. Paul Revere's account of the attack. A historical novel depicting the Penobscot Expedition, with a non-fiction "Historical Note" (pp. 451–468) on sources and key details. Revolutionary War-Era Swivel Gun reveals its secrets (about a gun raised from Penobscot Bay). "The Ancient Penobscot, or Panawanskek."
Fort GeorgeFort Castine
Military history of Nova Scotia. History of Maine. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hancock County, Maine. Fort George (Castine) at FortWiki.com. Forts of Castine at NorthAmericanForts.com.
UpperUpper CanadianCanada West
After an initial group of about 7,000 United Empire Loyalists were thinly settled across the province in the mid-1780s, a far larger number of "late-Loyalists" arrived in the late 1790s and were required to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown to obtain land if they came from the US. Their fundamental political allegiances were always considered dubious. By 1812, this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. Following the War of 1812, the colonial government under Lt. Governor Gore took active steps to prevent Americans from swearing allegiance, thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants.
Daniel DulanyDaniel Dulaney
Daniel Dulany the Younger (June 28, 1722 – March 17, 1797) was a Maryland Loyalist politician, Mayor of Annapolis, and an influential American lawyer in the period immediately before the American Revolution. His pamphlet Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies. which argued against taxation without representation, has been described as "the ablest effort of this kind produced in America". Daniel Dulany was born on June 28, 1722 in Annapolis, Maryland, into a family steeped in law and politics. His father was the wealthy lawyer and public official Daniel Dulany the Elder (1685–1753). His brother Walter Dulany would also go on to be Mayor of Annapolis.
decisively defeateddefeated at Moore's Creek Bridge
Revolutionary militia and Continental units mobilized to prevent the junction, blockading several routes until the poorly armed Loyalists were forced to confront them at Moore's Creek Bridge, about 18 mi north of Wilmington. In a brief early-morning engagement, a charge across the bridge by sword-wielding Loyalist Scotsmen was met by a barrage of musket fire. One Loyalist leader was killed, another captured, and the whole force was scattered. In the following days, many Loyalists were arrested, putting a damper on further recruiting efforts.
driven out of the colonymajor Patriot expedition
Loyalist recruiting had been more successful: Williamson had learned that Captain Patrick Cuningham and Major Joseph Robinson were leading a large Loyalist force (estimated to number about 1,900) toward Ninety Six. In a war council that day, the Patriot leaders decided against marching out to face the Loyalists. The Loyalists arrived the next day, and surrounded the Patriot camp. The leaders of the two factions were in the midst of negotiating an end to the standoff when two Patriot militiamen were seized by Loyalists outside the stockade. This set off a gunfight that lasted for about two hours, with modest casualties on both sides.
Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society. The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture. Collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsch).
Long Island, New YorkLong Island, NYL. I.
After the British victory on Long Island, many Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalists behind. The island remained a British stronghold until the end of the war in 1783. General Washington based his espionage activities on Long Island, due to the western part of the island's proximity to the British military headquarters in New York City. The Culper Spy Ring included agents operating between Setauket and Manhattan. This ring alerted Washington to valuable British secrets, including the treason of Benedict Arnold and a plan to use counterfeiting to induce economic sabotage. Long Island's colonists served both Loyalist and Patriot causes, with many prominent families divided among both sides.
the first race riots
The Shelburne riots were a series of mob attacks in July 1784 by landless British Loyalist veterans of the American Revolution against Black Loyalists and government officials in the town of Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada and the nearby village of Birchtown. They are considered the first race riots in Canada and one of the first recorded race riots in North America. The town of Shelburne was created in 1783 as a settlement for United Empire Loyalists, British soldiers, supporters and families who fought for the British in the American Revolution.
Some Loyalists, according to Labaree, were "procrastinators" who believed that independence was bound to come some day, but wanted to "postpone the moment", while the Patriots wanted to "seize the moment". Loyalists were cautious and afraid of anarchy or tyranny that might come from mob rule; Patriots made a systematic effort to take a stand against the British. Finally, Labaree argues that Loyalists were pessimists who lacked the Patriots' confidence that independence lay ahead. The Patriots rejected taxes imposed by legislatures in which the taxpayer was not represented.