Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States as part of a peace treaty that was to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
MEState of MaineMaine, United States
MiramichiMiddle IslandMiramichi, NB
Following the American Revolution some loyalist families moved to Miramichi. Davidson's original grant was revoked, and competition for the best lands escalated tensions between the early Scottish and new loyalist settlers. In 1825, a large forest fire, among the worst in recorded history of North America, devastated a number of communities in northern New Brunswick. The Irish began arriving in Miramichi in numbers after 1815 at the end of the Napoleonic War and with a few exceptions ceased coming to the area before the great Irish famine of 1847. They came to the area voluntarily to better their lives.
Black Nova ScotianAfrican Nova ScotianBlack
The community was the largest settlement of Black Loyalists and was the largest free settlement of Africans in North America in the 18th century. The community was named after British Brigadier General Samuel Birch, an official who assisted in the evacuation of Black Loyalists from New York. (Also named after the general was a much smaller settlement of Black Loyalists in Guysborough County, Nova Scotia called Birchtown. ) The two other significant Black Loyalist communities established in Nova Scotia were Brindley town (present-day Jordantown) and Tracadie. Birchtown was located near the larger town of Shelburne, with a majority white population.
The Thirteen Colonies became increasingly divided between Patriots opposed to British rule and Loyalists who supported it. In response, the colonies formed bodies of elected representatives known as Provincial Congresses, and Colonists began to boycott imported British merchandise. Later in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. During the Second Continental Congress, the remaining colony of Georgia sent delegates, as well.
AmherstTownship of AmherstAmherst, NS
These settlers were joined by United Empire Loyalists (Loyalists who fled the American colonies during the American Revolution). A mill was built on the current townsite, and the residents moved there to be closer to work. During the 19th century, Amherst became an important regional centre for shipbuilding and other services to outlying communities. An indication of the town's importance in Canadian history is seen with its four Fathers of Confederation: Edward B. Chandler, Robert B. Dickey, Jonathan McCully, and Sir Charles Tupper.
A group of Loyalists from the state of New York (which included David Mathews, the former Mayor of New York City under the British), fleeing the aftermath of the American Revolution, were added to the immigrants upon their arrival in the neighbouring colony of Nova Scotia. DesBarres arrived at Sydney on 7 January 1785. He held the first meeting of his executive council on 21 February 1785, where he was proclaimed lieutenant-governor in a formal manner and the first minutes of the new colony were taken. The site DesBarres chose for the new settlement was along the Southwest Arm of Sydney Harbour, a drowned valley of the Sydney River, which forms part of Spanish Bay.
. * Military history of Nova Scotia * History of Penobscot, Maine * Index to Royal Fencible Americans History Parks Canada "The History of Fort Beausejour" 1995. Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, Halifax, N.S. Exhibit: The History of H.M.S. Vulture. This book also contains Eddy's report of January 1777 as well as additional documents and reports. Clarke, Ernest; The Siege of Fort Cumberland, 1776; McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal & Kingston, 1995. ISBN: 0-7735-1867-3. History of Penobscot, Maine.
And in 1784, they were joined by many Loyalist settlers. From then on, Gaspé became an important commercial fishing centre, especially of cod. In 1804, its post office opened. In 1833 in Gaspé County there were only ten farmers, all in the Gaspé Bay area (of whom seven were also involved in the fishery), four whalers in Gaspé Bay, five shipbuilders (one a Jersey firm), one blacksmith, two lumber merchants, five shipowners (all of which were Jerseymen), eighteen fish merchants (of whom all but five were Jerseymen) and thirty-two major fishing establishments (of which sixteen were Jersey owned). Gaspé was incorporated as a village municipality in 1855.
RawdonRawdon TownshipRawdon Hills
"Community and Cohesion in the Rawdon Loyalist Settlement," Nova Scotia Historical Review 12 (June 1992): 40-66.
He became a Loyalist, originally from Assonet in Freetown, Massachusetts, he settled a community that was eventually named after him, Gilberts Cove, Nova Scotia. During King George's War, he fought in the Siege of Louisbourg (1745). During the French and Indian War, he also fought at the Battle of Lake George as Lieutenant-Colonel under Brigadier-General Timothy Ruggles afterwards of Wilmot, Nova Scotia (Upper Granville, Nova Scotia), at Crown Point in 1755. Gilbert became commander of the forces under Colonel Ephraim Williams when the latter was killed in the same year at Lake George. During the American Revolution, Gilbert and his three sons fought for the British in Massachusetts.
Rawdon and Douglas : two loyalists townships in Nova Scotia. 1989.
Sir William PepperrellWilliam PepperellSir William Pepperell
On the eve of the American Revolution, he fled to England as a Loyalist. En route to England, his wife Elizabeth died of smallpox in Halifax, Nova Scotia and is buried in the Old Burying Ground. He continued to reside in London, where he helped to found the British and Foreign Bible Society. He died at his residence at Portman Square in London in 1816. * Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Sir William Pepperell," (1833) * * Pepperrell's house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The town of Pepperell, Massachusetts is named for him.
Their first uniforms arrived in early 1777, green coats faced white, with white smallclothes, in common with most other Loyalist corps of the American command at that time. In keeping with their name, the regiment was issued with red coats faced orange from 1780 to their disbandment. As Rangers, their coats were most likely unlaced. Military history of Nova Scotia. 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants). On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies. Various period papers and other records of the King's Orange Rangers. John Leefe. King's Orange Rangers. Re-enactment Regiment. Cairn to the King's Orange Rangers in Liverpool, Nova Scotia.
Royal N.S. VolunteersLoyal Nova Scotia Volunteers
Timothy Hierlihy of the Regiment settled in Antigonish (Captain Island and Captain Pond are named after the son. ) *American Revolution - Nova Scotia theatre Gilfred Studholme. Timothy William Hierlihy. Timothy Hierlihy. Hibbert Newton Binney. On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies Various period papers and other records of the Nova Scotia Volunteers. Barry Cahill. Royal NS Volunteer Regiment. 1988.
Fort GeorgeFort Castine
Military history of Nova Scotia. History of Maine. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hancock County, Maine. Fort George (Castine) at FortWiki.com. Forts of Castine at NorthAmericanForts.com.
Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
Fighting broke out on November 19 in South Carolina between Loyalist and Patriot militias, and the Loyalists were subsequently driven out of the colony. Loyalists were recruited in North Carolina to reassert colonial rule in the South, but they were decisively defeated and Loyalist sentiment was subdued. A troop of British regulars set out to reconquer South Carolina and launched an attack on Charleston on June 28, 1776, but it failed and effectively left the South in Patriot control until 1780. The shortage of gunpowder had led Congress to authorize an expedition against the Bahamas colony in the British West Indies in order to secure ordnance there.
UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper Canadian
After an initial group of about 7,000 United Empire Loyalists were thinly settled across the province in the mid-1780s, a far larger number of "late-Loyalists" arrived in the late 1790s and were required to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown to obtain land if they came from the US. Their fundamental political allegiances were always considered dubious. By 1812, this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. Following the War of 1812, the colonial government under Lt. Governor Gore took active steps to prevent Americans from swearing allegiance, thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants.
WilliamAssociated LoyalistsFranklin, William
In 1782 Franklin was implicated in the Loyalist officer Richard Lippincott's hanging of Joshua Huddy. During a raid, Loyalist troops under Franklin's general oversight captured Joshua Huddy, an officer of the New Jersey militia. The Loyalist soldiers hanged Huddy in revenge for similar killings of Loyalists, particularly Phillip White. Huddy was a member of the Association of Retaliation, a vigilante body with a history of attacking and killing Loyalists and Neutrals in New Jersey. At the time, some alleged that Franklin had sanctioned the killing of Huddy. This claim was theoretically substantiated by a note left on Huddy's body, which read, "Up goes Huddy for Philip White."
Daniel DulanyDaniel Dulaney the YoungerDaniel Dulaney
Daniel Dulany the Younger (June 28, 1722 – March 17, 1797) was a Maryland Loyalist politician, Mayor of Annapolis, and an influential American lawyer in the period immediately before the American Revolution. His pamphlet Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies. which argued against taxation without representation, has been described as "the ablest effort of this kind produced in America". Daniel Dulany was born on June 28, 1722 in Annapolis, Maryland, into a family steeped in law and politics. His father was the wealthy lawyer and public official Daniel Dulany the Elder (1685–1753). His brother Walter Dulany would also go on to be Mayor of Annapolis.
The term Tory or "Loyalist" was used in the American Revolution for those who remained loyal to the British Crown. Since early in the 18th century, Tory had described those upholding the right of the King over Parliament. During the war of independence, particularly after the Declaration of Independence in 1776, this use was extended to cover anyone who remained loyal to the British Crown. About 80% of the Loyalists remained in the United States after the war. The 60,000 or so Loyalists who settled in Nova Scotia, Quebec, the Bahamas, or returned to Great Britain after the American War of Independence are known as United Empire Loyalists.
and surrounded the Patriot campBattle of Ninety-SixBattle of Ninety-Six Court-House
Loyalist recruiting had been more successful: Williamson had learned that Captain Patrick Cuningham and Major Joseph Robinson were leading a large Loyalist force (estimated to number about 1,900) toward Ninety Six. In a war council that day, the Patriot leaders decided against marching out to face the Loyalists. The Loyalists arrived the next day, and surrounded the Patriot camp. The leaders of the two factions were in the midst of negotiating an end to the standoff when two Patriot militiamen were seized by Loyalists outside the stockade. This set off a gunfight that lasted for about two hours. The next morning the two sides resumed firing at each other at long range.
decisively defeateddefeated at Moore's Creek Bridge
Revolutionary militia and Continental units mobilized to prevent the junction, blockading several routes until the poorly armed Loyalists were forced to confront them at Moore's Creek Bridge, about 18 mi north of Wilmington. In a brief early-morning engagement, a charge across the bridge by sword-wielding Loyalist Scotsmen was met by a barrage of musket fire. One Loyalist leader was killed, another captured, and the whole force was scattered. In the following days, many Loyalists were arrested, putting a damper on further recruiting efforts.
driven out of the colonymajor Patriot expedition
Loyalist recruiting had been more successful: Williamson had learned that Captain Patrick Cuningham and Major Joseph Robinson were leading a large Loyalist force (estimated to number about 1,900) toward Ninety Six. In a war council that day, the Patriot leaders decided against marching out to face the Loyalists. The Loyalists arrived the next day, and surrounded the Patriot camp. The leaders of the two factions were in the midst of negotiating an end to the standoff when two Patriot militiamen were seized by Loyalists outside the stockade. This set off a gunfight that lasted for about two hours, with modest casualties on both sides.
Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
Benjamin and William Franklin: Father and Son, Patriot and Loyalist (1994) – Ben's son was a leading Loyalist. Sletcher, Michael. 'Domesticity: The Human Side of Benjamin Franklin', Magazine of History, XXI (2006). Waldstreicher, David. Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution. Hill and Wang, 2004. 315 pp. Walters, Kerry S. Benjamin Franklin and His Gods. (1999). 213 pp.
Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society. The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture. Collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsch).