The result was fierce guerrilla warfare between units of Patriots and Loyalists. Often the opportunity was seized to settle private grudges and feuds. A major American victory took place at King's Mountain along the North Carolina– South Carolina border. On October 7, 1780, a force of 1000 mountain men from western North Carolina (including what is today part of Tennessee) overwhelmed a force of some 1000 Loyalist and British troops led by Major Patrick Ferguson. The victory essentially ended British efforts to recruit more Loyalists. The road to the American victory at Yorktown led by North Carolina.
North CarolinaState of North Carolinahistory
James DeLanceyChief Justice De LanceyDelancey
His brother, Oliver De Lancey, became a senior Loyalist officer in the American War of Independence, joining General Howe on Staten Island in 1776, and raising and equipping De Lancey's Brigade, three battalions of 1,500 Loyalist volunteers from New York State. His sister Susannah Delancey became the wife of Admiral Sir Peter Warren, and another sister, Anne DeLancey, became the wife of John Watts, member of the New York General Assembly. James went to England for his schooling, and to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he was tutored by future Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Herring, before studying law at the Inner Temple, London.
Province of QuebecQuebecBritish Province of Quebec
Owing to an influx of Loyalist refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the demographics of Quebec came to shift and now included a substantial English-speaking Protestant element from the former Thirteen Colonies. These United Empire Loyalists settled mainly in the Eastern Townships, Montreal, and what was known then as the pays d'en haut west of the Ottawa River. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the colony in two at the Ottawa River, so that the western part (Upper Canada) could be under the English legal system, with English speakers in the majority. The eastern part was named Lower Canada.
Monck's CornerBattle of Moncks CornerMoncks Corner
The Loyalist British Legion, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, surprised an American force stationed at Monck's Corner, and drove them away. The action cut off an avenue of escape for Benjamin Lincoln's besieged army. Aside from the British Legion, and the 33rd Foot and 64th Foot led by Lt. Col. James Webster, the force included Loyalists, the American Volunteers, led by Maj. Patrick Ferguson. The majority of the British soldiers who took part in the Battle of Monck's Corner were Loyalist troops raised from the colony of South Carolina, although a detachment of the 17th Light Dragoons under Capt. William Henry Talbotwith also participated.
Fenimore CooperJames Fennimore CooperCooper
James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century. His historical romances draw a picture of frontier and Native American life in the early American days which created a unique form of American literature. He lived most of his life in Cooperstown, New York, which was founded by his father William on property that he owned. Cooper was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Church and contributed generously to it. He attended Yale University for three years, where he was a member of the Linonian Society.
John BaconBacon's RefugeesCaptain John Bacon
Bacon purportedly served at one point in the Patriot militia, but subsequently joined with the Loyalist side. He became a member of the "Board of Associated Loyalists" an organization of associators, which was chartered by King George III and overseen by William Franklin, British royal governor of the New Jersey Colony (and son of Benjamin Franklin). Franklin chose Bacon as the military leader of the "Pine Robbers" (which later became known as "The Refugees"), a guerrilla-style fighting unit which financed its operations through war-time plunder. The organization's purpose was to conduct raids and to seize supplies from the Patriots.
AbacoGreat Abaco IslandGreat Abaco
About 1500 Loyalists left New York and moved to Abaco in August 1783. The Loyalists settled on a small sandy harbor about 6 leagues north of Marsh Harbour near modern-day Treasure Cay. They planned and built the town of Carleton, named after Sir Guy Carleton. Disputes over food distribution and having been misled about the resources available, led some of these settlers to found a rival town near Marsh Harbour called Maxwell. Conflict between disgruntled settlers and the officials responsible for helping became a constant feature of life on the islands.
William AllenAllen, WilliamChief Justice Allen
A Loyalist, Allen went in 1774 to England, where he published The American Crisis: A Letter, Addressed by Permission of the Earl Gower, Lord President of the Council, on the present alarming Disturbances in the Colonies, which proposed a plan for restoring the American colonies to Crown rule. He stayed there throughout most of the American Revolution, not returning to Philadelphia until 1779, after the British Army had evacuated. He died at Mount Airy, his mansion outside Philadelphia, the following year, before the end of the war in 1781.
Saratogacampaigncampaign to the Hudson
He had about 300 regulars, supported by 650 Canadian and Loyalist militia, and they were joined by 1,000 Indians led by John Butler and the Iroquois war chiefs Joseph Brant, Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter. Leaving Oswego on July 25, they marched to Fort Stanwix on the Mohawk River, and began besieging it on August 2. About 800 members of the Tryon County militia and their Indian allies marched to relieve the siege, but some of St. Leger's British and Indians ambushed them on August 6 at the bloody Battle of Oriskany.
In October 1779 Billopp was one of 59 men branded by New York State as a Loyalist felon under the Confiscation Act, whereby he was subject to banishment and confiscation of all his property. As Staten Island was firmly under British control this carried no immediate weight; prudently Billopp in 1780 started selling off his land, often at only two-thirds of market prices. When the war ended he left the newly formed United States of America for New Brunswick in the British colony of Canada. Billopp along with his Loyalist father-in-law, Benjamin Seaman (who was also labeled a Loyalist felon) moved to Parrtown in New Brunswick in 1783.
Gilbert Charles StuartGilbert StewartStuart
A Loyalist, he departed for England in 1775 following the example set by John Singleton Copley. His painting style during this period began to develop beyond the relatively hard-edged and linear style he had learned from Alexander. He was unsuccessful at first in pursuit of his vocation, but in 1777 he became a protégé of Benjamin West with whom he studied for the next six years. The relationship was beneficial, with Stuart exhibiting for the first time at the Royal Academy in spring of 1777. By 1782, Stuart had met with success, largely due to acclaim for The Skater, a portrait of William Grant. It was Stuart's first full-length portrait and, according to art historian Margaret C. S.
Like many other wealthy elites in Pennsylvania, however, he resisted radical change, and became a Loyalist after the Declaration of Independence and the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776. Allen was born into a prominent Philadelphia family. His father, William Allen, was a successful merchant and lawyer, and would later be the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Andrew graduated from the City College of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania) in 1759, read law under Benjamin Chew, and then went to London to complete a legal education at the Inner Temple. He returned to Philadelphia in 1765, was admitted to the bar, and began to practice law.
incident at Kemp's LandingKemp's LandingSkirmish of Kempsville
Dunmore afterward withdrew from Norfolk, which was then burned on January 1, 1776, by a combination of Patriot and Loyalist action. He continued raiding operations against Virginia coastal communities until August 1776, when he departed for New York City. Kemp's Landing incorporated in 1778 as Kempsville, and became the county seat for Princess Anne County. Princess Anne County was merged into Virginia Beach in 1963; Kempsville is now an urban neighborhood of the city. * * – has correspondence of the time, including a letter recounting the incident * period news account
Sampson Salter Blowers (March 10, 1742 – October 25, 1842) was a noted North American lawyer, Loyalist and jurist from Nova Scotia who, along with Chief Justice Thomas Andrew Lumisden Strange, waged "judicial war" in his efforts to free Black Nova Scotian slaves from their owners, leading to the decline of slavery in Nova Scotia. After graduating with a Master of Arts from Harvard College in 1765, he studied law at Thomas Hutchinson's office. He because a barrister at the Massachusetts Superior Court in 1770.
. * Loyalists during the American Revolution were American colonists opposed to secede from the British Empire and who remained loyal to the British Crown. After the Revolution, many emigrated north to the remaining British territories in what is now modern Canada, calling themselves the United Empire Loyalists. * Johor Royalists Club is a non-governmental organization which was founded in the State of Johor, within the Federation of Malaysia, on 23 March 2015. Its mission is to restore the "Order", and its objectives are to support the monarchy of Johor; to create awareness of the heritage of the monarchy of Johor; and to close up racial relations through the monarchy of Johor.
John ButlerColonel John ButlerButler
John Butler returned to service, as a Loyalist, when the American Revolution turned to war in 1775. In May 1775, he left for Canada in the company of Daniel Claus, Walter Butler, Hon Yost Schuyler and Joseph Brant, a Mohawk leader. On July 7, they reached Fort Oswego and in August, Montreal. Butler participated in the defense of Montreal against an attack led by Ethan Allen. In November, Carleton sent him to Fort Niagara with instructions to keep the Indians neutral. His oldest son, Walter Butler served with him, but his wife and other children were detained by the American rebels.
Benedict CalvertMr Calvert
Loyalist (American Revolution). Province of Maryland. Proprietary colony. Callcott, Margaret Law, p.390, Mistress of Riversdale: The Plantation Letters of Rosalie Stier Calvert Retrieved August 17, 2010. Hammond, John Martin, Colonial Mansions of Maryland and Delaware Retrieved September 2010. Nelker, Gladys P., The Clan Steuart, Genealogical Publishing (1970). Russell, George, p.8, The Ark and the Dove Adventurers Retrieved Jan 28 2010. Washington, George Sydney Horace Lee, p. 176, "The Royal Stuarts in America" New England Historical and Genealogical Register (July 1950).
Thomas BrownColonel Thomas Brown
Thomas "Burnfoot" Brown (27 May 1750 – 3 August 1825) was a British Loyalist during the American Revolution. Intending to become a quiet colonial landowner, he lived, instead, a turbulent and combative career. During the American Revolutionary War he played a key role for the Loyalist cause in the Province of Georgia. Following the overthrow of British rule and the Patriot victory in the Revolution, Brown was exiled first to British East Florida, and later to St. Vincent's Island in the Caribbean. Thomas Brown was born in Whitby, Yorkshire, England on 27 May 1750 into a prosperous merchant family; his father Jonas owned a successful shipping company.
Father Le Loutre’s Wara guerrilla warengaged in a campaign to consolidate
Military history of Nova Scotia. Military history of the Acadians. Military history of the Mi’kmaq People.
Walter ButlerWalterCaptain Butler
Walter Butler (1752 – October 30, 1781) was a British Loyalist officer during the American Revolution. He was born near Johnstown, New York, the son of John Butler, a wealthy Indian agent who worked for Sir William Johnson. Walter Butler studied law, and became a lawyer in Albany, New York. At the start of the American Revolution, the women of the Butler family were taken captive in Albany while Walter was commissioned as an Ensign in the 8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot, with which he served at the Battle of Oriskany. When his father, John, formed Butler's Rangers, Walter Butler transferred to that company and was commissioned as a Captain.
He commanded the Prince of Wales' American Regiment, a Loyalist regiment, in the American Revolutionary War. He served as lieutenant governor of West Florida from 1766 to 1769, acting as governor from 1767, and then as governor of the Bahamas from 1774 to 1780. Montfort Browne was from an Irish family. According to his own writings, he served in the 35th Regiment of Foot during the Seven Years' War, where he saw much action in the West Indies, and was twice wounded. In 1763 a complaint was lodged against him that resulted in an unfavourable court of inquiry against him.
However, there were numerous pockets of neutrals and Loyalists. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to, owned by the family that worked it. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. Ethnically, the Middle Colonies were more diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, leading to a more diverse populace.
James ChalmersLt. Col. James ChalmersPlain Truth (pamphlet)
One of his daughters, Arianna Chalmers, would later marry Captain John Saunders, and Chalmers would be described as a "wealthy and distinguished Loyalist who raised the Maryland Loyalists during the American Revolution." *New, M. Christopher, Maryland Loyalists in the American Revolution (Tidewater Publishers; Centreville, Maryland, 1996) *Essex County Record Office, E.R.O. T/P 196/6 (Essex, England, UK)
Cheney Clow's RebellionScene of Cheyney Clow's Rebellion
Cheney Clow (1734–1788) was a loyalist from Delaware Colony during the American Revolution who staged a rebellion against the colonial government that was advocating separation from Great Britain. Cheney Clow was born in 1734 in Delaware Colony, the third of nine children to Nathaniel Clow and his wife Susannah. They lived in Queen Anne's County, Province of Maryland, owned their own farm, of unknown acres but was said to have been considerable. Land recorded in 1744, 50 acre was named "Clow's Hope." In 1747 another 50 acre was recorded and it was called "Boon's Hope".
North American StationAmerica and West Indies StationNorth America and West Indies Squadron
Military history of Nova Scotia. Military history of Canada. Commander-in-Chief, North America.