Common Lisp

QuicklispANSI Common LispArmed Bear Common Lisp
These names were coined in a 1988 paper by Richard P. Gabriel and Kent Pitman, which extensively compares the two approaches. Common Lisp supports the concept of multiple values, where any expression always has a single primary value, but it might also have any number of secondary values, which might be received and inspected by interested callers. This concept is distinct from returning a list value, as the secondary values are fully optional, and passed via a dedicated side channel.

Jamie Zawinski

Zawinski's law of software envelopmentJamie W. ZawinskiZawinski's Law
Zawinski's early career included stints with Scott Fahlman's Lisp research group at Carnegie Mellon University, Expert Technologies, Inc. and Robert Wilensky and Peter Norvig's group at Berkeley. In the early 1990s, he was hired by Richard P. Gabriel's Lucid Inc. where he was eventually put to work on Lucid's Energize C++ IDE. Lucid decided to use GNU Emacs as the text editor for their IDE due to its free license, popularity, and extensibility. Zawinski and the other programmers made fundamental changes to GNU Emacs to add new functionality. Tensions over how to merge these patches into the main tree eventually led to the fork of the project into GNU Emacs and XEmacs.

AI winter

KEEKEE functionalitymarginally successful
Patterns of Software- a collection of essays by Richard P. Gabriel, including several autobiographical essays. Review of ``Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey'' by John McCarthy. Other Freddy II Robot Resources Includes a link to the 90 minute 1973 "Controversy" debate from the Royal Academy of Lighthill vs. Michie, McCarthy and Gregory in response to Lighthill's report to the British government.

Artificial intelligence

AIA.I.artificially intelligent
Leading AI researcher Rodney Brooks writes, "I think it is a mistake to be worrying about us developing malevolent AI anytime in the next few hundred years. I think the worry stems from a fundamental error in not distinguishing the difference between the very real recent advances in a particular aspect of AI, and the enormity and complexity of building sentient volitional intelligence." If an AI system replicates all key aspects of human intelligence, will that system also be sentient—will it have a mind which has conscious experiences?

Patrick Winston

machine learningPatrick Henry Winston
Winston was succeeded as director by Rodney Brooks. Winston received his undergraduate degree from MIT in 1965, where he was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity, and went on to complete his Masters and PhD there as well, finalizing his PhD in 1970. Winston's thesis work with Marvin Minsky concerned the difficulty of learning; he concluded it was only possible to learn something one nearly already knows. His research interests included machine learning and human intelligence. Winston was known within the MIT community for his excellent teaching and strong commitment to supporting MIT undergraduate culture.

Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence

American Association for Artificial IntelligenceAAAIACM - AAAI Allen Newell Award
Richard P. Gabriel (2004). David Haussler and Judea Pearl (2003). Peter Chen (2002). Ruzena Bajcsy (2001). Lotfi A. Zadeh (2000). Nancy Leveson (1999). Saul Amarel (1998). Carver Mead (1997). Joshua Lederberg (1995). Fred Brooks (1994). Ashok Goel (2019). Todd W. Neller (2018). Sebastian Thrun (2017). Peter Norvig and Stuart J. Russell (2016).

List of computer scientists

Computer scientists
Scott Fahlman. Edward Feigenbaum – intelligence. Edward Felten – computer security. Tim Finin. Raphael Finkel. Donald Firesmith. Gary William Flake. Tommy Flowers – Colossus computer. Robert Floyd – NP-completeness. Sally Floyd – Internet congestion control. Lawrence J. Fogel – Evolutionary programming. James D. Foley. Ken Forbus. L. R. Ford, Jr. Lance Fortnow. Martin Fowler. Herbert W. Franke. Edward Fredkin. Yoav Freund. Daniel P. Friedman. Ping Fu. D. R. Fulkerson. Richard Gabriel. Zvi Galil. Bernard Galler – MAD (programming language). Hector Garcia-Molina. Michael Garey – NP-completeness. Hugo de Garis. Bill Gates – co-founder of Microsoft. David Gelernter.


Lucid Emacs
In the late 1980s, Richard P. Gabriel's Lucid Inc. faced a requirement to ship Emacs to support the Energize C++ IDE. So Lucid recruited a team to improve and extend the code, with the intention that their new version, released in 1991, would form the basis of GNU Emacs version 19. However, they did not have time to wait for their changes to be accepted by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). Lucid continued developing and maintaining their version of Emacs, while the FSF released version 19 of GNU Emacs a year later, while merging some of the code and adapting some other parts. When Lucid went out of business in 1994, other developers picked up the code.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITM.I.T.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university, with an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The Institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Bates Center, and the Haystack Observatory, as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad and Whitehead Institutes.

Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Institute of TechnologyCarnegie MellonCarnegie-Mellon University
Fahlman, creator of the emoticon; Chris Messina, creator of the hashtag; and astronauts Edgar Mitchell (of Apollo 14) and Judith Resnik, who perished in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

Lisp machine

Lisp machinesXerox DoradoCADR
Their high profit margin hardware business eliminated, most Lisp machine makers had gone out of business by the early 90s, leaving only software based firms like Lucid Inc. or hardware makers who had switched to software and services to avoid the crash., besides Xerox, Symbolics is the only Lisp machine firm still operating, selling the Open Genera Lisp machine software environment and the Macsyma computer algebra system. Several attempts to write open-source emulators for various Lisp Machines have been made: CADR Emulation, Symbolics L Lisp Machine Emulation, the E3 Project (TI Explorer II Emulation), Meroko (TI Explorer I), and Nevermore (TI Explorer I).

Richard Stallman

Richard M. StallmanStallmanRichard Matthew Stallman
In 1992, developers at Lucid Inc. doing their own work on Emacs clashed with Stallman and ultimately forked the software into what would become XEmacs. The technology journalist Andrew Leonard has characterized what he sees as Stallman's uncompromising stubbornness as common among elite computer programmers: "There's something comforting about Stallman's intransigence. Win or lose, Stallman will never give up. He'll be the stubbornest mule on the farm until the day he dies. Call it fixity of purpose, or just plain cussedness, his single-minded commitment and brutal honesty are refreshing in a world of spin-meisters and multimillion-dollar marketing campaigns."


GNU EmacsEmacs pinkyEmacsWiki
Lucid Emacs, based on an early alpha version of GNU Emacs 19, was developed beginning in 1991 by Jamie Zawinski and others at Lucid Inc. One of the best-known early forks in free software development occurred when the codebases of the two Emacs versions diverged and the separate development teams ceased efforts to merge them back into a single program. Lucid Emacs has since been renamed XEmacs. Its development has slowed, with the most recent stable version 21.4.22 released in January 2009 (while a beta was released in 2013), while GNU Emacs has implemented many formerly XEmacs-only features.

Worse is better

New Jersey style
Worse is Better, Richard P. Gabriel. Is Worse Really Better, Richard P. Gabriel. The Rise of "Worse is Better", Richard P. Gabriel. Worse is Worse (counter argument), Jim Waldo (Sun Microsystems engineer).

Stanford University

StanfordLeland Stanford Junior UniversityUniversity of Stanford
Leland Stanford Junior University (Stanford University or Stanford) is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic achievements, wealth, close proximity to Silicon Valley, and selectivity; it ranks as one of the world's top universities.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Lawrence Livermore LaboratoryLLNLLawrence Livermore
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. Originally a branch of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore laboratory became autonomous in 1971 and was designated a national laboratory in 1981.

Reduced instruction set computer

RISCreduced instruction set computingreduced instruction set
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC, is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).

Sun Microsystems

SunSun Microsystems, Inc.Sun workstation
Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC. Sun contributed significantly to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, and virtualized computing. Sun was founded on February 24, 1982. At its height, the Sun headquarters were in Santa Clara, California (part of Silicon Valley), on the former west campus of the Agnews Developmental Center.

Integrated development environment

IDEIDEsdevelopment environment
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of at least a source code editor, build automation tools, and a debugger. Some IDEs, such as NetBeans and Eclipse, contain the necessary compiler, interpreter, or both; others, such as SharpDevelop and Lazarus, do not.

Association for Computing Machinery

ACMAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)ACM Press
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, and is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society. The ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, claiming nearly 100,000 student and professional members. Its headquarters are in New York City.

Computer science

computer scientistcomputer sciencescomputer scientists
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of computation and practical techniques for their application.


C++ programming languageC++98C with Classes
C++ is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or "C with Classes". The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C++ has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation. It is almost always implemented as a compiled language, and many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Microsoft, Intel, Oracle, and IBM, so it is available on many platforms.

GNU Emacs

EmacsEdiffEmacs Lisp Package Archive
Lucid Emacs, based on an early version of GNU Emacs 19, was developed beginning in 1991 by Jamie Zawinski and others at Lucid Inc. One of the best-known forks in free software development occurred when the codebases of the two Emacs versions diverged and the separate development teams ceased efforts to merge them back into a single program. After Lucid filed for bankruptcy, Lucid Emacs was renamed XEmacs and remains the second most popular variety of Emacs, after GNU Emacs. XEmacs development has slowed, with the most recent stable version 21.4.22 released in January 2009, while GNU Emacs has implemented many formerly XEmacs-only features. This has led some users to proclaim XEmacs' death.

David A. Moon

Steele Jr. and Richard P. Gabriel (1993) name him as a leader of the Common Lisp movement and describe him as "a seductively powerful thinker, quiet and often insulting, whose arguments are almost impossible to refute". Maclisp, a variant of Lisp developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Richard Greenblatt in the late 1960s, originally ran on the PDP-6 and PDP-10 computers made by Digital Equipment Corporation. In the early 1970s, Moon headed a project at MIT that reimplemented Maclisp on a different kind of computer, the Honeywell 6180 running the Multics operating system.

List of Stanford University people

awards givenMembers of Stanford University's Economics DepartmentNotable Stanford alumni
Richard P. Gabriel (Ph.D.), computer scientist. Héctor García-Molina (Ph.D. and professor in CS), SIGMOD Edgar F. Codd Innovations Award. Craig Gentry (Ph.D), computer scientist, 2010 Grace Murray Hopper awardee, noted for solving "fully homomorphic encryption", a breakthrough in public-key encryption. Edward Ginzton (Ph.D. and prof), pioneer of microwave electronics, winner of IEEE medal of honor. Ian Goodfellow (B.S. and M.S.), developer of generative adversarial networks. Susan L. Graham (Ph.D. in CS), IEEE John Von Neumann prize winner. William Webster Hansen (Ph.D. and Prof), pioneer of microwave electronics. Stephen E. Harris (M.S. & Ph.D. EE), noted for "slow" light research.