Bit rate

bitratedata ratedata transfer rate
bitrate available through the open-source Opus codec. 8 kbit/s telephone quality using speech codecs. 32–500 kbit/s lossy audio as used in Ogg Vorbis. 256 kbit/s Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) MP2 bit rate required to achieve a high quality signal. 400 kbit/s–1,411 kbit/s lossless audio as used in formats such as Free Lossless Audio Codec, WavPack, or Monkey's Audio to compress CD audio. 1,411.2 kbit/s Linear PCM sound format of CD-DA. 5,644.8 kbit/s DSD, which is a trademarked implementation of PDM sound format used on Super Audio CD. 6.144 Mbit/s E-AC-3 (Dolby Digital Plus), an enhanced coding system based on the AC-3 codec. 9.6 Mbit/s DVD-Audio, a digital format for delivering high-fidelity

MP3 player

digital audio playerMP3 playersmusic player
An MP3 player or Digital Audio Player is an electronic device that can play digital audio files. It is a type of Portable Media Player. The term 'MP3 player' is a misnomer, as most players play more than the MP3 file format. Since the MP3 format is widely used, almost all players can play that format. In addition, there are many other digital audio formats. Some formats are proprietary, such as Windows Media Audio (WMA), and Advanced Audio Coding (AAC). Some of these formats also may incorporate digital rights management (DRM), such as WMA DRM, which are often part of paid download sites.

Pulse-code modulation

It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, compact discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. Linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) is a specific type of PCM where the quantization levels are linearly uniform. This is in contrast to PCM encodings where quantization levels vary as a function of amplitude (as with the A-law algorithm or the μ-law algorithm). Though PCM is a more general term, it is often used to describe data encoded as LPCM.

Audio bit depth

24-bitbit depthresolution
In MP3, Ogg and other compressed file format, bit rate is used to encode the number of bits to be transmitted into the particular audio aspect. It is usually measured in kbp/s. Audio system measurements. Color depth—corresponding concept for digital images. Effective number of bits.


MOV.movMOV (QuickTime)
This is especially true on hardware devices, such as the Sony PSP and various DVD players; on the software side, most DirectShow / Video for Windows codec packs include a MP4 parser, but not one for MOV. In QuickTime Pro's MPEG-4 Export dialog, an option called "Passthrough" allows a clean export to MP4 without affecting the audio or video streams. QuickTime 7 now supports multi-channel AAC-LC and HE-AAC audio (used, for example, in the high-definition trailers on Apple's site ), for both .MOV and .MP4 containers. Apple released the first version of QuickTime on December 2, 1991 as a multimedia add-on for System 6 and later.

Digital rights management

DRMDRM-freedigital rights management (DRM)
One simple method to bypass DRM on audio files is to burn the content to an audio CD and then rip it into DRM-free files. Some software products simplify and automate this burn-rip process by allowing the user to burn music to a CD-RW disc or to a Virtual CD-R drive, then automatically rip and encode the music, and automatically repeat this process until all selected music has been converted, rather than forcing the user to do this one CD (72–80 minutes worth of music) at a time. Many software programs have been developed that intercept the data stream as it is decrypted out of the DRM-restricted file, and then use this data to construct a DRM-free file.


Bento BrowserWinamp 5.58Winamp3
Playback formats: Winamp supports music playback using MP3, MIDI, MOD, MPEG-1 audio layers 1 and 2, AAC, M4A, FLAC, WAV, and WMA. Winamp was one of the first widely used music players on Windows to support playback of Ogg Vorbis by default. It supports gapless playback for MP3 and AAC and ReplayGain for volume leveling across tracks. CD support includes playing and importing music from audio CDs, optionally with CD-Text, and burning music to CDs. The standard version limits maximum burn speed and datarate; the "Pro" version removes these limitations. Winamp supports playback of Windows Media Video and Nullsoft Streaming Video.


iTunes IndiaApple iTunesGenius playlist
The software supports importing digital audio tracks that can then be transferred to iOS devices, as well as supporting ripping content from CDs. iTunes supports WAV, AIFF, Apple Lossless, AAC, and MP3 audio formats. It uses the Gracenote music database to provide track name listings for audio CDs. When users rip content from a CD, iTunes attempts to match songs to the Gracenote service. For self-published CDs, or those from obscure record labels, iTunes will normally only list tracks as numbered entries ("Track 1", "Track 2") on an unnamed album by an unknown artist, requiring manual input of data.

Audio Lossless Coding

Streaming. Error correction mechanisms. Optional storage in MP4 file format. Can be multiplexed with video data using MP4 file format. An MPEG-4 Audio profile "ALS Simple Profile". Lossless Predictive Audio Compression (predecessor). Lossless Transform Audio Compression (pre-predecessor). MPEG-4 SLS (MPEG-4 Scalable Lossless Coding). MPEG-4. MPEG-4 ALS homepage - Technical University Berlin. MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding (ALS) - MultimediaWiki. MPEG-4 ALS: Performance, Applications, and Related Standardization Activities - NTT (2007). Technical papers describing design of residual coding and quantization algorithms in MPEG-4 ALS codec. Announcement on ACN Newswire.


iPodsApple iPodiPod Touch
The iPod line can play several audio file formats including MP3, AAC/M4A, Protected AAC, AIFF, WAV, Audible audiobook, and Apple Lossless. The iPod Photo introduced the ability to display JPEG, BMP, GIF, TIFF, and PNG image file formats. Fifth- and sixth-generation iPod Classics, as well as third-generation iPod Nanos, can additionally play MPEG-4 (H.264/MPEG-4 AVC) and QuickTime video formats, with restrictions on video dimensions, encoding techniques and data rates. Originally, iPod software only worked with Classic Mac OS and macOS; iPod software for Microsoft Windows was launched with the second-generation model.

Video coding format

video compression formatvideo compression standardvideo compression
Video content encoded using a particular video coding format is normally bundled with an audio stream (encoded using an audio coding format) inside a multimedia container format such as AVI, MP4, FLV, RealMedia, or Matroska. As such, the user normally doesn't have a H.264 file, but instead has a .mp4 video file, which is an MP4 container containing H.264-encoded video, normally alongside AAC-encoded audio. Multimedia container formats can contain any one of a number of different video coding formats; for example the MP4 container format can contain video in either the MPEG-2 Part 2 or the H.264 video coding format, among others.

Windows Media Player

Windows Media Player MobileMedia PlayerWindows Media Player Mobile 10
Windows Media Player 12 adds native support for H.264 and MPEG-4 Part 2 video formats, ALAC, AAC audio and 3GP, MP4 and MOV container formats. Windows Media Player 12 is also able to play AVCHD formats (.M2TS and .mts). As of Windows 10, Windows Media Player 12 can play FLAC, HEVC, ASS and SubRip subtitle, and Matroska container formats. Windows Media Player Mobile 10 on Windows Mobile 6.5 supports MP3, ASF, WMA and WMV using WMV or MPEG-4 codecs. Windows Media Player features integrated Audio CD-burning support since version 7 as well as data CD burning support since Windows Media Player 9 Series on Windows XP and later. Data CDs can have any of the media formats supported by the player.

ISO base media file format

ISO BMFFbase media formatISO-based
The first MP4 file format specification was created on the basis of the QuickTime format specification published in 2001. The MP4 file format known as "version 1" was published in 2001 as ISO/IEC 14496-1:2001, as revision of the MPEG-4 Part 1: Systems. In 2003, the first version of MP4 file format was revised and replaced by MPEG-4 Part 14: MP4 file format (ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003), commonly known as MPEG-4 file format "version 2". The MP4 file format was generalized into the ISO Base Media File format (ISO/IEC 14496-12:2004 or ISO/IEC 15444-12:2004), which defines a general structure for time-based media files.

HTTP Live Streaming

HLSApple HLSHLS (HTTP Live Streaming)
Encoder: codify video files in H.264 format and audio in AAC, MP3, AC-3 or EC-3. This is encapsulated by MPEG-2 Transport Stream to carry it. Segmenter: divides the MPEG-2 TS file into fragments of equal length, kept as .ts files. It also creates an index file that contains references of the fragmented files, saved as .m3u8. Distributor. Formed by a standard web server, accepts requests from clients and delivers all the resources (.m3u8 playlist file and .ts segment files) needed for streaming. Client. Request and download all the files and resources, assembling them so that they can be presented to the user as a continuous flow video.


RealOne PlayerFormats supported by optional plug-insReal
Streaming: RealTime Streaming Protocol (rtsp://), Progressive Networks Streaming Protocols (pna://, pnm://), Microsoft Windows Media Streaming Protocol (mms://), Real Scalable Multicast (*.sdp), Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (*.smil, *.smi). Audio: MP3 (*.mp3, *.mp2, *.mp2, *.m3u), CD Audio (*.cda), WAV (*.wav), AAC/aacPlus v1 (*.aac, *.m4a, *.m4b, *.mp4, *.acp, *.m4p), Apple Lossless, AIFF (*.aif, *.aiff), AU Audio Files (*.au), Panasonic AAC (*.acp). Video: DVD (*.vob), Video CD (*.dat), MPEG Video (*.mpg, *.mpeg, *.m2v, *.mpe etc.), AVI (*.avi, *.divx), MJPEG video playback from .avi files, Windows Media (*.wma, *.wmv etc.)


SHOUTcast DNAS is cross-platform proprietary software for streaming media over the Internet. The software, developed by Nullsoft, is available free of charge. It allows digital audio content, primarily in MP3 or High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding format, to be broadcast to and from media player software, enabling the creation of Internet radio "stations". The most common use of SHOUTcast is for creating or listening to Internet audio broadcasts; however, video streams exist as well. Some traditional radio stations use SHOUTcast to extend their presence onto the Web. SHOUTcast Radio is a related website which provides a directory of SHOUTcast stations.

Kodi (software)

KodiKodi (formerly XBMC)XBMC
Audio formats: MIDI, AIFF, WAV/WAVE, MP2, MP3, AAC, AACplus (AAC+), Vorbis, AC3, DTS, ALAC, AMR, FLAC, Monkey's Audio (APE), RealAudio, SHN, WavPack, MPC/Musepack/Mpeg+, Shorten, Speex, WMA, IT, S3M, MOD (Amiga Module), XM, NSF (NES Sound Format), SPC (SNES), GYM (Genesis), SID (Commodore 64), Adlib, YM (Atari ST), ADPCM (Nintendo GameCube), and CD-DA. Digital picture/image formats: RAW image formats, BMP, JPEG, GIF, PNG, TIFF, MNG, ICO, PCX and Targa/TGA. Subtitle formats: AQTitle, ASS/SSA, CC, JACOsub, MicroDVD, MPL2, MPlayer, MPsub, OGM, PJS, RT, SMI, SRT, SUB, RealText, VOBsub, ubViewer, VPlayer.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer I

MP11MPEG-1/2 Layer-1
MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, commonly abbreviated to MP1, is one of three audio formats included in the MPEG-1 standard. It is a deliberately simplified version of MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, created for applications where lower compression efficiency could be tolerated in return for a less complex algorithm that could be executed with simpler hardware requirements. While supported by most media players, the codec is considered largely obsolete, and replaced by MP2 or MP3. For files only containing MP1 audio, the file extension .mp1 is used. MPEG-1 layer I was also used by the Digital Compact Cassette format, in the form of the PASC audio compression codec.

HTML5 video

HTML5HTML5 tagHTML5 video § Browser support
H.264 is usually used in the MP4 container format, together with Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) audio. AAC is also patented in itself, so users of MP4 will have to license both H.264 and AAC. In June 2009, the WHATWG concluded that no existing format was suitable as a specified requirement. Apple still only supports H.264, but Microsoft now supports VP9 and WebM, and has pledged support for AV1. On 30 October 2013, Cisco announced that it was making a binary H.264 module available for download. Cisco will pay the costs of patent licensing for those binary modules when downloaded by the using software while it is being installed, making H.264 free to use in that specific case.


audiobooksaudio bookaudio
Audiobooks are distributed on any audio format available, but primarily these are records, cassette tapes, CDs, MP3 CDs, downloadable digital formats (e.g., MP3 (.mp3), Windows Media Audio (.wma), Advanced Audio Coding (.aac)), and solid state preloaded digital devices in which the audio content is preloaded and sold together with a hardware device. In 1955, a German inventor introduced the Sound Book cassette system based on the Tefifon format where instead of a magnetic tape the sound was recorded on a continuous loop of grooved vinylite ribbon similar to the old 8-track tape.

Adobe Flash

FlashMacromedia FlashFlash-based
Flash Audio is most commonly encoded in MP3 or AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) however it can also use ADPCM, Nellymoser (Nellymoser Asao Codec) and Speex audio codecs. Flash allows sample rates of 11, 22 and 44.1 kHz. It cannot have 48 kHz audio sample rate, which is the standard TV and DVD sample rate. On August 20, 2007, Adobe announced on its blog that with Update 3 of Flash Player 9, Flash Video will also implement some parts of the MPEG-4 international standards.


raac: MPEG-4 LC-AAC (RealAudio 9). racp: MPEG-4 HE-AAC (RealAudio 10). ralf: RealAudio Lossless Format (RealAudio 10). Comparison of audio coding formats. Icecast – a free and open source streaming server for internet radio stations, supports formats AAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Theora, and NSV. SHOUTcast – a freeware server for internet radio stations, supports AAC, MP3, and NSV. Windows Media Audio – Microsoft's media formats. RealPlayer – Official media player for RealAudio. Helix Player is an open source media player for Linux, Solaris, and Symbian.

Logitech Media Server

Logitech Media Server (formerly SlimServer, SqueezeCenter and Squeezebox Server) is a streaming audio server supported by Logitech (formerly Slim Devices), developed in particular to support their Squeezebox range of digital audio receivers. The software is designed for streaming music over a network, allowing users to play their music collections from virtually anywhere there is an Internet connection. It supports audio formats including MP3, FLAC, WAV, Ogg, and AAC, as well as transcoding. It can stream to both software and hardware receivers, including the various Squeezebox models, as well as any media player capable of playing MP3 streams.

WMA Convert

WMA Convert is a software created for audio and video files conversion. The program supports conversion of MP3, M4A AAC, WAV, WMA audio file formats and MP4, WMV, AVI video formats. Also coverts M4P files to MP3. The option "convert directly to the iPod" is available. Software is capable with all most common audio file formats for portable media players. Removes DRM protection legally, because it is capable to bypass restriction using a unique audio and video converting mechanism. Comparison of video converters. Audio compression (data). List of audio formats. List of music software.


., MP3/MP4), it was commonly used to encode free content (such as free music, multimedia on Wikimedia Foundation projects and Creative Commons files) and had started to be supported by a significant minority of digital audio players. Also supporting the Ogg format were many popular video game engines, including Doom 3, Unreal Tournament 2004, Halo: Combat Evolved, Jets n Guns, Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven, Myst IV: Revelation, Stepmania, Serious Sam: The Second Encounter, Lineage 2, Vendetta Online, Battlefield 2, and the Grand Theft Auto engines, as well as the audio files of the Java-based game, Minecraft.