Transparency (data compression)

transparenttransparencydata compression transparency
*Codec listening test * "Transparency", Hydrogen Audio Wiki Bosi, Marina; Richard E. Goldberg. Introduction to digital audio coding and standards. Springer, 2003. ISBN: 1-4020-7357-7. Cvejic, Nedeljko; Tapio Seppänen. Digital audio watermarking techniques and technologies: applications and benchmarks. Idea Group Inc (IGI), 2007. ISBN: 1-59904-513-3. Pohlmann, Ken C. Principles of digital audio. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005. ISBN: 0-07-144156-5. Spanias, Andreas; Ted Painter; Venkatraman Atti. Audio signal processing and coding. Wiley-Interscience, 2007. ISBN: 0-471-79147-4. Syed, Mahbubur Rahman. Multimedia technologies: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications, Volume 3.

Audio bit depth

24-bitbit depthresolution
In MP3, Ogg and other compressed file format, bit rate is used to encode the number of bits to be transmitted into the particular audio aspect. It is usually measured in kbp/s. Audio system measurements. Color depth—corresponding concept for digital images. Effective number of bits.

H.264/MPEG-4 AVC

Switching slices, called SP and SI slices, allowing an encoder to direct a decoder to jump into an ongoing video stream for such purposes as video streaming bit rate switching and "trick mode" operation. When a decoder jumps into the middle of a video stream using the SP/SI feature, it can get an exact match to the decoded pictures at that location in the video stream despite using different pictures, or no pictures at all, as references prior to the switch.

Microsoft Silverlight

SilverlightMicrosoft Silverlight 2.0Microsoft Silverlight runtime for IE
Silverlight supports H.264 video, Advanced Audio Coding, Windows Media Video (WMV), Windows Media Audio (WMA), and MPEG Layer III (MP3) media content across all supported browsers without requiring Windows Media Player, the Windows Media Player ActiveX control, or Windows Media browser plug-ins. Because Windows Media Video 9 is an implementation of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) VC-1 standard, Silverlight also supports VC-1 video. According to the end user license agreement VC-1 and H.264 are only licensed for the "personal and non-commercial use of a consumer".


Nintendo WiiWii miniZii
Audio DSP. 18 W when switched on. 9.6 W in standby with WiiConnect24 standby connection. 1.3 W in standby.

Gapless playback

Optimal solutions: Alternative or partial solutions: * XMMS2 – has native support for gapless MP3 / Ogg Vorbis and FLAC * Segue, the technique in classical music * MP3 players: Buyer Beware, a description of gapless playback in digital audio players Musepack. Ogg Vorbis. Speex. Opus. LAME-encoded MP3 can be gapless with players that support the LAME Mp3 info tag. AAC in MP4 encoded with Nero Digital from Nero AG can be gapless with foobar2000, latest XMMS2, and iTunes through 11.4.


Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
Microsoft Corporation (MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. As of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world's most valuable companies.

Real-Time Messaging Protocol

RTMPFlash RTMPReal Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP)
At a higher level, the RTMP encapsulates MP3 or AAC audio and FLV1 video multimedia streams, and can make remote procedure calls (RPCs) using the Action Message Format. Any RPC services required are made asynchronously, using a single client/server request/response model, such that real-time communication is not required. RTMP sessions may be encrypted using either of two methods: In RTMP Tunneled (RTMPT), RTMP data is encapsulated and exchanged via HTTP, and messages from the client (the media player, in this case) are addressed to port 80 (the default for HTTP) on the server.

Squeezebox (network music player)

SqueezeboxSliMP3Squeezebox and Transporter
Features included optional 802.11g Wi-Fi, native support for more audio formats (FLAC, WMA, Ogg), upgraded 320×32 pixel greyscale bitmap VFD display, visualizers, bitmapped fonts. This model has infrared remote control, analog outputs, volume control, headphone jack, coaxial and optical digital outputs. The Squeezebox2 supports numerous audio formats including MP3, Windows Media Audio, Musepack, Monkey's Audio, Apple Lossless, FLAC, Shorten, WAV, AIFF, Ogg Vorbis, and unencrypted AAC.


At its core, foobar2000 natively supports a range of audio formats, including MP1, MP2, MP3, MPC, AAC, WMA, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC / Ogg FLAC, ALAC, WavPack, WAV, AIFF, AU, SND, CD, Speex, and Opus. foobar2000 also has a customizable user interface, advanced tagging capabilities and support for ripping Audio CDs, as well as transcoding of all supported audio formats using the Converter component. The player can read inside ZIP, GZIP, and RAR archives. Core functionality has also been tested to work under Wine on Linux.


The Knife allows ripping Audio CD tracks directly into Musepack files. subband selectable M/S encoding (as in AAC). Huffman coding (as in MP3 and AAC, but more efficient). Since SV8 the bitstream is compressed by highly optimized canonical huffman tables that yields 2% smaller files and faster decoding. noise substitution techniques (as in ATSC A-52 and MPEG-4 AAC V2). pure variable bitrate between 0 and 1300 kbit/s (when needed). Container-independent format. An SV8 MPC is a container file for a Musepack stream. Raw stream encoding is possible. Packetized stream allows muxing into audio and video containers (e.g. MKA/MKV, NUT). Sample-accurate, fast seeking independent of file length.


SHOUTcast DNAS is cross-platform proprietary software for streaming media over the Internet. The software, developed by Nullsoft, is available free of charge. It allows digital audio content, primarily in MP3 or High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding format, to be broadcast to and from media player software, enabling the creation of Internet radio "stations". The most common use of SHOUTcast is for creating or listening to Internet audio broadcasts; however, video streams exist as well. Some traditional radio stations use SHOUTcast to extend their presence onto the Web. SHOUTcast Radio is a related website which provides a directory of SHOUTcast stations.

Adobe Flash Player

FlashFlash PlayerAdobe Flash
MP3: Support for decoding and playback of streaming MPEG-2 Audio Layer III (MP3) audio was introduced in Flash Player 4. MP3 files can be accessed and played back from a server via HTTP, or embedded inside an SWF file, which is also a streaming format. FLV: Support for decoding and playing back video and audio inside Flash Video (FLV and F4V) files, a format developed by Adobe Systems and Macromedia. Flash Video is only a container format and supports multiple different video codecs, such as Sorenson Spark, VP6 and more recently H.264. Flash Player uses hardware acceleration to display video where present, using technologies such as DirectX Video Acceleration and OpenGL to do so.

Apple TV

AppleApple TV (4th generation)Apple TV (Second Generation)
High or Main Profile level 4.0 or lower, or High or Main Profile level 4.2 or lower (4th generation ), Baseline profile level 3.0 or lower with AAC-LC audio up to 160 kbits/s per channel, 48 kHz, stereo audio in .m4v, .mp4, and .mov file formats. MPEG-4 up to 720×432 (432p) or 640×480 pixels at 30 fps. MPEG-4 video up to 2.5 Mbit/s, 640×480 pixels, 30 frames per second, Simple Profile with AAC-LC audio up to 160 kbit/s, 48 kHz, stereo audio in .m4v, .mp4, and .mov file formats. Motion JPEG up to 720p at 30 fps. Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) up to 35 Mbit/s, 1280×720 pixels, 30 fps, audio in ulaw, PCM stereo audio in .avi file format. JPEG. GIF. TIFF. HEIF (4th generation and later). HE-AAC (V1).


X Multimedia System
AAC support is provided by the FAAD2 library, supporting m4a files. APE Monkey's Audio Codec .ape files — support provided by the mac-port project plugin. Audio CD, including CDDB via FreeDB lookup. FLAC support is provided by a plugin in the FLAC library. Icecast and SHOUTcast streaming supported, and is compatible with Winamp 2 skins. libmikmod supported formats (including .XM, .MOD, .IT) See: MikMod’s Home. JACK plug-in for support of the JACK Audio Connection Kit. ModPlug plug-in for playing .MOD, .S3M, .XM, .IT and other famous tracker formats. mp3PRO support is provided by a third party plugin (which does not support SHOUTcast title streaming).


Zune MarketplaceMicrosoft ZuneZune Video Marketplace
MP3 (used by Zune Marketplace). AAC (unprotected) not AAC (.m4a). WMA Pro (2-channel). WMA Standard (used by Zune Marketplace). WMA lossless. — Redirects to a Q&A for Zune users titled Important changes are coming to Zune Marketplace. Zune Insider – Insider blog & podcast — Dead link. Zune Podcast Support – An interview with Rob Greenlee, Podcast Programming Lead for the Zune about the second generation Zunes' support for podcasts. — Dead link. Zune Podcast Connected Show Interview – An interview with Rob Greenlee. During the Interview we discuss his long career in Podcasting, his work in the Zune Podcast team, how to make podcasts successful and finally the ZuneHD.

Nook Color

color version of the Nook
Supported file formats include EPUB (DRM and non-DRM), PDF, Microsoft Office formats (DOC, DOCX, XLS, PPT, etc.), TXT, JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP, MP3, AAC, and MP4. A firmware update released 25 April 2011 added an app store, email client, Flash support within the web browser, social networking tools, video and audio embedded within books, and performance improvements. It also has been discovered that the device has hidden Bluetooth connectivity abilities in its wireless chipset, available only after rooting, and/or flashing a device to the CyanogenMod 7 version of Android for this device. When the Nook Color and Tablet were first offered, users could install third-party apps.