Pesticide drift

spray drift[drift of pesticide
Application of herbicides later in the season to protect herbicide-resistant genetically modified plants increases the risk of volatilisation as the temperature is higher and incorporation into the soil impractical. Although there has been much public concern and research into spray drift, point source pollution (e.g. pesticides entering bodies of water following spillage of concentrate or rinsate) can also cause great environmental harm. Public concern for pesticide drift is not met with adequate regulatory response.


Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato. To date most genetic modification of foods have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton seed oil. These have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have also been experimentally developed; in November 2013 none were available on the market, but in 2015 the FDA approved the first GM salmon for commercial production and consumption.


For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production. Other examples of endosperm that forms the bulk of the edible portion are coconut "meat" and coconut "water", and corn. Some plants, such as orchids, lack endosperm in their seeds. Ancestral flowering plants have seeds with small embryos and abundant endosperm, and the evolutionary development of flowering plants tends to show a trend towards plants with mature seeds with little or no endosperm.

Annual plant

annualannualsannual plants
Examples of true annuals include corn, wheat, rice, lettuce, peas, watermelon, beans, zinnia and marigold. Summer annuals sprout, flower, produce seed, and die, during the warmer months of the year. The lawn weed crabgrass is a summer annual. Winter annuals germinate in autumn or winter, live through the winter, then bloom in winter or spring. The plants grow and bloom during the cool season when most other plants are dormant or other annuals are in seed form waiting for warmer weather to germinate. Winter annuals die after flowering and setting seed. The seeds germinate in the autumn or winter when the soil temperature is cool.

Dow Chemical Company

DowDow ChemicalThe Dow Chemical Company
Agricultural Sciences, or (Dow AgroSciences), provides 7 percent of sales and is responsible for a range of insecticides (such as Lorsban), herbicides and fungicides. Seeds from genetically modified plants are also an important area of growth for the company. Dow AgroSciences sells seeds commercially under the following brands: Mycogen (grain corn, silage corn, sunflowers, alfalfa, and sorghum), Atlas (soybean), PhytoGen (cotton) and Hyland Seeds in Canada (corn, soybean, alfalfa, navy beans and wheat). Basic plastics (26 percent of sales) end up in everything from diaper liners to beverage bottles and oil tanks.


Certain fungi, in particular white-rot fungi, can degrade insecticides, herbicides, pentachlorophenol, creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels and turn them into carbon dioxide, water, and basic elements. Fungi have been shown to biomineralize uranium oxides, suggesting they may have application in the bioremediation of radioactively polluted sites. Several pivotal discoveries in biology were made by researchers using fungi as model organisms, that is, fungi that grow and sexually reproduce rapidly in the laboratory. For example, the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis was formulated by scientists using the bread mold Neurospora crassa to test their biochemical theories.

Corn starch

cornstarchcornflourcorn flour
Corn starch or maize starch is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel. Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups, and in making corn syrup and other sugars. It is versatile, easily modified, and finds many uses in industry as adhesives, in paper products, as an anti-sticking agent, and textile manufacturing. It has medical uses, such as to supply glucose for people with glycogen storage disease. Like many products in dust form, it can be hazardous in large quantities due to its flammability. When mixed with a fluid, cornstarch can rearrange itself into a non-Newtonian fluid.


Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic beverages such as whiskey, can be made (such as potato and fruit waste, etc.). The ethanol production methods used are enzyme digestion (to release sugars from stored starches), fermentation of the sugars, distillation and drying.


Application of herbicides later in the season to protect herbicide-resistant genetically modified plants increases the risk of volatilisation as the temperature is higher and incorporation into the soil impractical. Herbicide applied as a powder or a mist can also drift in the wind in solid form as dust or liquid form as tiny drops. However, a transformation of known herbicides, such as glyphosate, dicamba or MCPA, into the form of herbicidal ionic liquids proved to be a solution to this particular problem, since herbicidal ionic systems express lower susceptibility to volatilisation.


oatsaveninAvena sativa
In Scottish English, oats may be referred to as corn. (In the English language, the major staple grain of the local area is often referred to as "corn". In the US, "corn" originates from "Indian corn" and refers to what others call "maize" or "sweetcorn".) Oats futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade and have delivery dates in March (H), May (K), July (N), September (U) and December (Z). Export hay. Muesli. Oat bread. Oatcake. Oatmeal. Oat milk. Parkin (cake). Porridge. Rolled oats. Steel-cut oats. Jordans (company). Mornflake. Quaker Oats Company.


cotton woolcotton industrycotton fiber
Cotton has been genetically modified for resistance to glyphosate a broad-spectrum herbicide discovered by Monsanto which also sells some of the Bt cotton seeds to farmers. There are also a number of other cotton seed companies selling GM cotton around the world. About 62% of the GM cotton grown from 1996 to 2011 was insect resistant, 24% stacked product and 14% herbicide resistant. Cotton has gossypol, a toxin that makes it inedible. However, scientists have silenced the gene that produces the toxin, making it a potential food crop. On October 17, 2018, the USDA deregulated GE low-gossypol cotton.

Amaranthus palmeri

Pigweedcarelessweedsouthwestern pigweed
In this study, glyphosate was sprayed on resistant pigweed three times at 88 ounces per acre. The Palmer pigweed that received 264 ounces of glyphosate was still alive and healthy. The drought-plagued cotton plants were dwarfed by the glyphosate-resistant weed. Trying to control resistant pigweed with more and more glyphosate makes controlling this pigweed a problem. The use of this herbicide takes out all the herbicide-sensitive Palmer pigweed, thus creating an environment for resistant pigweed to grow and reproduce. A process called "deep turning" can control or prevent the spread of Palmer pigweed; however, the best prevention is to remove the weed pest by hand.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

CIMMYTInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)International Maize and Wheat Research Institute
CIMMYT focuses on 1) the conservation and utilization of maize and wheat genetic resources, 2) developing and promoting improved maize and wheat varieties, 3) testing and sharing sustainable farming systems, 4) analyzing the impact of its work and researching ways for further improvement. In Mexico in the late 1980s, CIMMYT began working developing better varieties of maize and wheat that helped small peasant farmers, using breeding to increase crops' resistance to pests and diseases, as well as raise the protein content of maize. CIMMYT partners with national agriculture research institutions across the globe.

Food and Agriculture Organization

FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsUnited Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy.


🇨🇳ChinesePeople's Republic of China
Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein. Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption. While pork dominates the meat market, there is also pork-free Buddhist cuisine and Chinese Islamic cuisine.

4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor

HPPD inhibitors
It is a dermal sensitizer but not an eye or dermal irritant To deal with rising resistance to existing herbicides, Bayer CropScience has been developing various genetically modified crops resistant to HPPD inhibitors: in one version, the crops are resistant to both HPPD inhibitors and glyphosate, and in collaboration with Syngenta, crops that are resistant to HPPD inhibitors and glufosinate. The collaboration to develop the stacked HPPD inhibitor/glyphosate resistant products was first announced in 2007.


Phephenylalanine metabolism L -phenylalanine
L -Phenylalanine is produced for medical, feed, and nutritional applications, such as aspartame, in large quantities by utilizing the bacterium Escherichia coli, which naturally produces aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine. The quantity of L -phenylalanine produced commercially has been increased by genetically engineering E. coli, such as by altering the regulatory promoters or amplifying the number of genes controlling enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the amino acid. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, used in neutron capture therapy. Phenylalanine mass spectrum. Phenylalanine at ChemSynthesis.


Tyrtyrosine metabolismphosphotyrosine
The m-tyr and o-tyr isomers, which are rare, arise through non-enzymatic free-radical hydroxylation of phenylalanine under conditions of oxidative stress. m-Tyrosine and analogues (rare in nature but available synthetically) have shown application in Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis. Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters and increases plasma neurotransmitter levels (particularly dopamine and norepinephrine), but has little if any effect on mood in normal subjects. The effect on mood is noted in humans subjected to stressful conditions (see below).

Developed country

developed countriesdeveloped worlddeveloped
[[File:2018 UN Human Development Report.svg|thumb|World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018)


The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls ), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided. The name refers to one of the typical characteristics of the group, namely that the seed has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. There are around 200,000 species within this group. The other group of flowering plants were called monocotyledons or monocots, typically having one cotyledon. Historically, these two groups formed the two divisions of the flowering plants.


Genetically modified bacteria. List of bacterial orders. Panspermia. Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria. MicrobeWiki, an extensive wiki about bacteria and viruses. Bacteria that affect crops and other plants. Bacterial Nomenclature Up-To-Date from DSMZ. Genera of the domain Bacteria—list of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. The largest bacteria. Tree of Life: Eubacteria. Videos of bacteria swimming and tumbling, use of optical tweezers and other videos. Planet of the Bacteria by Stephen Jay Gould. On-line text book on bacteriology. Animated guide to bacterial cell structure. Bacteria Make Major Evolutionary Shift in the Lab.

Growing season

growing seasonsfirst frostfrost-free date
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth. While each plant or crop has a specific growing season that depends on its genetic adaptation, growing seasons can generally be grouped into macro-environmental classes.


proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
Noted examples at the time included albumin from egg whites, blood serum albumin, fibrin, and wheat gluten. Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1838. Mulder carried out elemental analysis of common proteins and found that nearly all proteins had the same empirical formula, C 400 H 620 N 100 O 120 P 1 S 1 . He came to the erroneous conclusion that they might be composed of a single type of (very large) molecule.

Enlist Weed Control System

As of 2013 glyphosate was the world's largest-selling herbicide, with sales driven by glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Other countries assessing the system include Brazil, Argentina and various food importing countries. As of April 2014 maize and soybeans resistant to 2,4-D and glyphosate had been approved in Canada, and in September 2014 the USDA approved the same two crops. 2,4-D was one of the main ingredients of Agent Orange, a defoliant used during the Vietnam War that was blamed for many health problems.

United States Department of Agriculture

USDADepartment of AgricultureU.S. Department of Agriculture
Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, and the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture." In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring.