Genetically modified canola

Genetically modified canola is a genetically modified crop. The first strain, Roundup Ready canola, was developed by Monsanto for tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in the commonly used herbicide Roundup. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide, which is used to kill weeds and grasses which are known to compete with commercial crops grown around the world. The first product came onto the market in the 1970s under the name ‘Roundup’. Plants which are exposed to glyphosate are unable to produce aromatic amino acids and in turn die. To produce the Roundup Ready canola, two genes were introduced into the canola genome.

Genetically modified food controversies

controversiescontroversy over GMOsdebate over genetically modified foods
In crop-to-crop, genetic information from a genetically modified crop is transferred to a non-genetically modified crop. Crop-to-weedy transfer refers to the transfer of genetically modified material to a weed, and crop-to-wild indicates transfer from a genetically modified crop to a wild, undomesticated plant and/or crop.


Lyslysine degradationlysine biosynthesis
Lysine supplementation allows for the use of lower-cost plant protein (maize, for instance, rather than soy) while maintaining high growth rates, and limiting the pollution from nitrogen excretion. In turn, however, phosphate pollution is a major environmental cost when corn is used as feed for poultry and swine. Lysine is industrially produced by microbial fermentation, from a base mainly of sugar. Genetic engineering research is actively pursuing bacterial strains to improve the efficiency of production and allow lysine to be made from other substrates.

No-till farming

no-tillconservation tillageno till
Some farmers attack this problem with a “burn-down” herbicide such as glyphosate in lieu of tillage for seedbed preparation and because of this, no-till is often associated with increased chemical use in comparison to traditional tillage based methods of crop production. However, there are many agroecological alternatives to increased chemical use, such as winter cover crops and the mulch cover they provide, soil solarization or burning. No-till farming requires some different skills than conventional farming. As with any production system, if done incorrectly, yields can drop.

Phenoxy herbicide

phenoxy acidphenoxy herbicideschlorophenoxy acid herbicides
Phenoxy herbicides (or "phenoxies") are a family of chemicals related to the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When sprayed on broad-leaf plants they induce rapid, uncontrolled growth ("growing to death"). When sprayed on monocotyledonous (grass) crops such as wheat or corn, they selectively kill broad-leaf weeds, leaving the crops relatively unaffected. The wide variety of phenoxies in use today can be grouped into the phenoxyacetic, phenoxybutyric and phenoxypropionic subtypes, the latter containing the aryloxyphenoxypropionic subtype with the greatest number of commercial variants. Chemically, they are carboxylic acids, typically applied in an ester or salt form.


biofortifiedbiofortified crops
Bread wheat with high grain iron and zinc has been developed through radiation breeding. This method is prevalent at present, as it is less controversial than genetically engineering crops. HarvestPlus, a major NGO in the development of biofortified crops primarily use conventional breeding techniques, and have not yet spent more than 15% of their research budget on genetically modified crops when conventional methods fail to meet nutritional requirements. Golden Rice is an example of a GM crop developed for its nutritional value.

Sugar beet

sugar beetsbeet sugarsugarbeet
Other economically important members of the Chenopodioideae subfamily: In the United States, genetically modified sugar beets, engineered for resistance to glyphosate, a herbicide marketed as Roundup, were developed by Monsanto as a genetically modified crop. In 2005, the US Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) deregulated glyphosate-resistant sugar beets after it conducted an environmental assessment and determined glyphosate-resistant sugar beets were highly unlikely to become a plant pest.

Monsanto legal cases

In re: RoundUp Products Liabilitya lawsuitdamages against
The prosecutor held that the goal of the advertising was to prepare the market for the purchase of genetically modified soybean seed (sale of which was then banned) and the herbicide used on it, at a time when the approval of a Brazilian Biosafety Law, enacted in 2005, was being discussed in the country. In March 2014, the South African Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) upheld a complaint, made by the African Centre for Biosafety, that Monsanto had made "unsubstantiated" claims about genetically modified crops in its radio advertisements, and ordered that these adverts be pulled. In March 2015 after considering further documentation from Monsanto, the ASA reversed its ruling.

Preemergent herbicide

Pre-emergentpreemergent herbicidespre-emergence herbicide
If applied when preemergent herbicide is needed, the fertilizer may burn or stress the lawn. If applied after the lawn "green-up", weed seeds will have already germinated and the herbicide will be ineffective. To prevent growth of crabgrass, preemergent herbicides must be applied at a critical time. If they are applied to the soil too early, they get washed too deep into the soil or washed away by rainwater. If they are applied too late, the key enzyme inhibited is no longer active. The best control requires a second application about 6–8 weeks later. This provides coverage in mid-late summer when crabgrass can still germinate.


mycotoxinsmycotoxicosesfungal toxins
In 2004 in Kenya, 125 people died and nearly 200 others were treated after eating aflatoxin-contaminated maize. The deaths were mainly associated with homegrown maize that had not been treated with fungicides or properly dried before storage. Due to food shortages at the time, farmers may have been harvesting maize earlier than normal to prevent thefts from their fields, so that the grain had not fully matured and was more susceptible to infection. Spices are susceptible substrate for growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production. Red chilli, black pepper, and dry ginger were found to be the most contaminated spices.


Plant breeding has increased crop yields and has improved the nutritional value of numerous crops, including corn, soybeans, and wheat. It has also led to the development of new types of plants. For example, a hybrid grain called triticale was produced by crossbreeding rye and wheat. Triticale contains more usable protein than does either rye or wheat. Agronomy has also been instrumental in fruit and vegetable production research. Agronomists use biotechnology to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristic. Biotechnology is often a lab activity requiring field testing of the new crop varieties that are developed.

Genetically modified wheat

GM wheattransgenic wheatwheat
Genetically modified wheat is wheat that has been genetically engineered by the direct manipulation of its genome using biotechnology. As of 2017, no GM wheat is grown commercially, although many field tests have been conducted. Wheat is a natural hybrid derived from interspecies breeding. It is theorized that wheat's ancestors (Triticum monococcum, Aegilops speltoides, and Aegilops tauschii, all diploid grasses) hybridized naturally over millennia somewhere in West Asia, to create natural polyploid hybrids, the best known of which are common wheat and durum wheat. Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important domesticated grass used worldwide for food.

Marc Van Montagu

Marc C. E. Van Montagu
They developed plant molecular genetics, in particular molecular mechanisms for cell proliferation and differentiation and response to abiotic stresses (high light, ozone, cold, salt and drought) and constructed transgenic crops (tobacco, rape seed, corn) resistant to insect pest and tolerant to novel herbicides. His work with poplar trees resulted in engineering of trees with improved pulping qualities. After his retirement as director of the Laboratory of Genetics at Ghent University, Marc Van Montagu created IPBO - International Plant Biotechnology Outreach, VIB-Ghent University, with the mission to foster biotechnological solutions to global agriculture.


Solid fuels include wood, charcoal, peat, coal, hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood (see wood pellets), corn, wheat, rye and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology also uses solid fuel (see solid propellants). Solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire. Coal was the fuel source which enabled the industrial revolution, from firing furnaces, to running steam engines. Wood was also extensively used to run steam locomotives. Both peat and coal are still used in electricity generation today. The use of some solid fuels (e.g. coal) is restricted or prohibited in some urban areas, due to unsafe levels of toxic emissions.


In agriculture, permethrin is mainly used on cotton, wheat, maize, and alfalfa crops. Its use is controversial because, as a broad-spectrum chemical, it kills indiscriminately; as well as the intended pests, it can harm beneficial insects, including honey bees, and aquatic life. Permethrin kills ticks and mosquitoes on contact with treated clothing. A method of reducing deer tick populations by treating rodent vectors involves stuffing biodegradable cardboard tubes with permethrin-treated cotton. Mice collect the cotton for lining their nests. Permethrin on the cotton instantly kills any immature ticks feeding on the mice.

Séralini affair

2013his studymajor controversy
The diets comprised 11 percent, 22 percent and 33 percent genetically modified corn (NK603) and the rest standard laboratory rat food; NK603 corn that had been treated with Roundup, also at 11, 22 and 33 percent; and corn that had not been genetically modified, accompanied by differing concentrations of Roundup in the water. A control group was fed 33 percent non-GMO corn; the rest of their diet was standard laboratory rat food. The paper's abstract stated: "In females, all treated groups died 2–3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable."


lectinslectin protein lectin
The selectivity of lectins means that they are very useful for analyzing blood type, and they are also used in some genetically engineered crops to transfer traits, such as resistance to pests and resistance to herbicides. W.C. Boyd introduced term 'lectin' in 1954 from Latin word 'choose'. Long before a deeper understanding of their numerous biological functions, the plant lectins, also known as phytohemagglutinins, were noted for their particular high specificity for foreign glycoconjugates (e.g. those of fungi, invertebrates, and animals) and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation.

March Against Monsanto

March Against Monsanto movement
The March Against Monsanto is an international grassroots movement and protest against Monsanto corporation, a producer of genetically modified organism (GMOs) and Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide. The movement was founded by Tami Canal in response to the failure of California Proposition 37, a ballot initiative which would have required labeling food products made from GMOs. Advocates support mandatory labeling laws for food made from GMOs. The initial march took place on May 25, 2013. The number of protesters who took part is uncertain; figures of "hundreds of thousands" and the organizers' estimate of "two million" were variously cited.

Crop protection

plant protectioncrop protection formulationscrops
Agricultural crops include field crops (maize, wheat, rice, etc.), vegetable crops (potatoes, cabbages, etc.) and fruits. The crops in field are exposed to many factor. The crop plants may be damaged by insects, birds, rodents, bacteria, etc. Crop protection encompasses: Pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. Biological pest control approaches such as cover crops, trap crops and beetle banks. Barrier-based approaches such as agrotextiles and bird netting. Animal psychology-based approaches such as bird scarers. Biotechnology-based approaches such as plant breeding and genetic modification. CAB International. CropLife International.

List of varieties of genetically modified maize

Under license from Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc. and Mycogen. 59122 is an insect resistant maize expressing the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins for corn rootworm insect pest protection and the PAT protein for glufosinate ammonium tolerance as a breeding tool or weed control option. Under license from Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc. and DOW AgroSciences LLC. MON 802 is an Insect Resistant maize under license from Monsanto Company. Corn line MON802 was developed through genetic modification to be tolerant to glyphosate herbicide and protect the plant from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) (the Bt trait). MON 809 is an Insect Resistant maize under license from Monsanto.

Climate change and agriculture

agriculturefertilisation effectfood production
Despite technological advances, such as improved varieties, genetically modified organisms, and irrigation systems, weather is still a key factor in agricultural productivity, as well as soil properties and natural communities. The effect of climate on agriculture is related to variabilities in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. The Earth's average surface temperature has increased by 1.5 °F (0.83 °C) since 1880. Consequently, in making an assessment agronomists must consider each local area.

Monosodium methyl arsonate

MSMAmonosodium methyl arsenate
Weed resistance to herbicides is on the rise due to the use of the herbicides in general, as well as in conjunction with the introduction of genetically modified crops. Resistant crops are endowed with natural resistance to certain herbicides, a resistance which they may impart to non-crops through cross pollination. There are very few, if any, new herbicides capable of economically combating the resistance problem. With the exception of isolated cases of common cocklebur Xanthium strumarium, no resistance build-up has occurred with the weeds that MSMA controls. MSMA provides post-emergent selective annual grass and yellow nutsedge control, in cool season.

History of agriculture in the People's Republic of China

agriculturebegan in agricultureChina
Spring wheat is planted each spring in the north and northeast and is harvested in late summer. Spring wheat contributes about 12 percent of total wheat output. Wheat is the staple food grain in north China and is eaten in the form of steamed bread and noodles. Per capita consumption has risen, and the demand for wheat flour has increased as incomes have risen. Wheat has been by far the most important imported grain. Corn is grown in most parts of the country but is most common in areas that also produce wheat. Corn production has increased substantially over time and in some years has been second only to production of rice.

Crop diversity

Agricultural biodiversitycrop lossdiverse
Crop varieties can be genetically modified to resist specific pests and diseases. For example, a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces a natural insecticide toxin. Genes from Bt can be inserted into crop plants to make them capable of producing an insecticidal toxin and therefore a resistance to certain pests. Bt corn (maize) can however adversely affect non-target insects closely related to the target pest, as with the monarch butterfly. List of environmental issues. Agrobiodiversity. Conservation (ethic). Corporate farming. Famine food. Horizontal resistance provides flexibility in resistance to pathogens. Landraces. Small-scale agriculture.


In 1840, the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse found that the same chemical could be produced by distilling a wide variety of crop materials, including corn, oats, bran, and sawdust, with aqueous sulfuric acid; he also determined an empirical formula of (C 5 H 4 O 2 ). George Fownes named this oil furfurol in 1845 (from furfur - bran, and oleum). This name persisted prominently in the literature until 1901 when the German chemist Carl Harries deduced furfural's structure. Furfural remained relatively obscure until 1922, when the Quaker Oats Company began mass-producing it from oat hulls. Today, furfural is still produced from agricultural byproducts like sugarcane bagasse and corn cobs.