Agriculture in Australia

agricultureagriculturalagricultural areas
The majority of the cotton produced is genetically modified to be resistant to the herbicide glyphosate or to actively kill pests through the production of Bt toxin (Bt-cotton). Cotton is generally grown by irrigation. The shorelines, especially the Great Barrier Reef, are providing motivation to help the continent by using seaweed (algae) to absorb nutrients. Because of the giant number of natural Australian seaweeds, not only could seaweed cultivation be used to help absorb nutrients around the GBR and other Australian shores, cultivation could also help feed a large part of the world.

Agriculture in Iran

agriculturea wide range of agricultural productsAgricultural Machinery
In 2005, Iran's first genetically modified (GM) rice was approved by national authorities and is being grown commercially for human consumption. In addition to GM rice, Iran has produced several GM plants in the laboratory, such as insect-resistant maize; cotton; potatoes and sugar beets; herbicide-resistant canola; salinity- and drought-tolerant wheat; and blight-resistant maize and wheat. Yet, despite the controversy surrounding GM food and government restrictions on the production of biotech products, Iran imports $5 billion of genetically modified crops a year because of laxed laws (2015).


biological pesticidebiopesticidesbiological insecticide
RNAi mixed with a silicone surfactant that let the RNA molecules enter air-exchange holes in the plant's surface that disrupted the gene for tolerance, affecting it long enough to let the herbicide work. This strategy would allow the continued use of glyphosate-based herbicides, but would not per se assist a herbicide rotation strategy that relied on alternating Roundup with others. They can be made with enough precision to kill some insect species, while not harming others. Monsanto is also developing an RNA spray to kill potato beetles One challenge is to make it linger on the plant for a week, even if it's raining.

Genetically modified organism

genetically modified organismsGMOgenetically modified
The majority of GM crops have been modified to be resistant to selected herbicides, usually a glyphosate or glufosinate based one. Genetically modified crops engineered to resist herbicides are now more available than conventionally bred resistant varieties; in the USA 93% of soybeans and most of the GM maize grown is glyphosate tolerant. Most currently available genes used to engineer insect resistance come from the Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium in the form of delta endotoxin genes known as cry proteins. A few use the genes that encode for vegetative insecticidal proteins.

Proso millet

broomcorn milletbroomcornwhite millet
For example, starch derived from millets has been shown to be a good substrate for fermentation and malting with grains having similar starch contents as wheat grains. A recently published study suggested that starch derived from proso millet can be converted to ethanol with an only moderately lower efficiency than starch derived from corn. The development of varieties with highly fermentable characteristics could improve ethanol yield to that of highly fermentable corn. Since proso millet is compatible with low-input agriculture, cultivation on marginal soils for biofuel production could represent an important new market, such as for farmers in the High Plains of the US.

Gene Revolution

The artificial selection of plant species has been traced back almost 10,000, to where domestic wheat was discovered in archaeological sites in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, maize (or corn) has been one of the most prominent examples of plant alteration, which was more similar-looking to wheat in its original form, a type of grass called "teosinte." Other well-known artificially selected crops includes apples, bananas, and broccoli, altered for qualities such as better taste or smaller seeds. In 1959, geneticist and zoologist Dmitry K. Belyaev began conducting an experiment to domesticate silver foxes.

Jonathan Gressel

Two-thirds of the food eaten by the human population comes from just four main plant species: wheat, rice, maize, and soybeans. Historically, reliance on genetically uniform crops has put the human population at risk for catastrophic crop failures such as the great potato famine. Throughout the twentieth century, plant breeding has focused on increasing agricultural productivity, while pesticides and herbicides have been widely used to increase yields. Concerns have arisen about reliance on chemical means of weed control, and the ability of pests and weeds to develop resistance to pesticides and herbicides.

Agricultural biodiversity

An example of the consequences of genetic vulnerability occurred in 1970 when corn blight struck the US corn belt, destroying 15% of the harvest. A particular plant cell characteristic known as Texas male sterile cytoplasm conferred vulnerability to the blight - a subsequent study by the National Academy of Sciences found that 90% of American maize plants carried this trait. Since 1961, human diets across the world have become more diverse in the consumption of major commodity staple crops, with a corollary decline in consumption of local or regionally important crops, and thus have become more homogeneous globally.


medusaheadMedusahead grassmedusahead rye
Glyphosate (Roundup) applied at 0.375 lbs/acre in the early spring before seeds are produced can provide good results. This timing will also limit the damage to nontarget species that develop later in the growing season. Research suggests that burning before chemical application is more effective than chemicals alone. In the late 1960s, a study was conducted that determined the effectiveness of paraquat on medusahead control in different areas of the United States. This study found that paraquat was effective in controlling medusahead in California, but did not suppress the grass in Reno, Nevada.

Aegilops triuncialis

Another control method, used by both the University of California and the Weed Science Society of America to control barbed goatgrass, is the spraying of glyphosate. Used over a two-year period in small areas, glyphosate was able kill barbed goatgrass and all its seedlings. Although the chemical is effective in killing barbed goatgrass, it also kills the other plants in the area. Aminocyclopyrachlor, a new experimental chemical is being used to control barbed goatgrass by the University of California's Weed Science department. It has been shown to be extremely effective, however, aminocyclopyrachlor is not a registered herbicide and as such, widespread use is not yet allowed.

Agriculture in Brazil

The country is the third largest user in the world in growing genetically modified crops. The main commodities using this biotechnology are soy, cotton and, since 2008, maize. Several national and international NGOs, such as Greenpeace, MST or Contag, are opposed to the practice. Criticisms include market loss, negative environmental impacts and dominance by large businesses. Entities linked to agribusiness, however, counter with the results of studies carried out by the Brazilian Association of Seeds and Saplings (Abrasem) in 2007 and 2008, affirming "social-environmental advantages observed in the other countries which have adopted agricultural biotechnology far longer".

Agriculture in Thailand

agricultureagricultural sectorThai agricultural economics
According to the Thai government's The Eleventh National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-2016), Thailand is number one in the world in the application of chemicals in agriculture. The report stated that, "The use of chemicals in the agricultural and industrial sectors is growing while control mechanisms are ineffective making Thailand rank first in the world in the use of registered chemicals in agriculture." In 2018 Thai researchers and the Health Ministry called for an outright ban on the use of the agricultural chemicals paraquat, glyphosate, and chlorpyrifos. Paraquat and glyphosate are widely used herbicides. Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide.


fruitsseed podfruiting
Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, cucurbits (e.g., cucumber, pumpkin, and squash), eggplant, legumes (beans, peanuts, and peas), sweet pepper, and tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits, botanically speaking. In contrast, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole (leaf stalk) of the rhubarb plant is edible, and edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is also a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Most of the human population lives on a diet based on one or more of the following staples: cereals (rice, wheat, maize (corn), millet, and sorghum), roots and tubers (potatoes, cassava, yams and taro), and animal products such as meat, milk, eggs, cheese and fish. Regional staples include the plants rye, soybeans, barley, oats, and teff. Just 15 plant crops provide 90 percent of the world's food energy intake (exclusive of meat), with rice, maize, and wheat comprising 2/3 of human food consumption. These three are the staples of about 80 percent of the world population, and rice feeds almost half of humanity.


glutinouswheat glutenglutin
People can also experience adverse effects of wheat as result of a wheat allergy. As with most allergies, a wheat allergy causes the immune system to abnormally respond to a component of wheat that it treats as a threatening foreign body. This immune response is often time-limited and does not cause lasting harm to body tissues. Wheat allergy and celiac disease are different disorders. Gastrointestinal symptoms of wheat allergy are similar to those of celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, but there is a different interval between exposure to wheat and onset of symptoms.

Combine harvester

combinescombinecombine harvesters
Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn (maize), sorghum, soybeans, flax (linseed), sunflowers and canola. The separated straw, left lying on the field, comprises the stems and any remaining leaves of the crop with limited nutrients left in it: the straw is then either chopped, spread on the field and ploughed back in or baled for bedding and limited-feed for livestock. Combine harvesters are one of the most economically important labour saving inventions, significantly reducing the fraction of the population engaged in agriculture.


rice branwheat branoat bran
Bran is present in cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley, rye and millet. Bran is not the same as chaff, which is a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself. Bran is particularly rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein, vitamins, and dietary minerals. It is also a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption. The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is often separated from the grain before storage or further processing. Bran is often heat-treated to increase its longevity.


farinaceouswhite flourmeal
Corn (maize) flour is popular in the Southern and Southwestern US, Mexico, Central America, and Punjab regions of India and Pakistan, where it is called makai ka atta. Coarse whole-grain corn flour is usually called corn meal. Finely ground corn flour that has been treated with food-grade lime is called masa harina (see masa) and is used to make tortillas and tamales in Mexican cooking. Corn flour should never be confused with corn starch, which is known as "cornflour" in British English. Cornmeal is very similar to corn flour (see above) except in a coarser grind. Corn starch is powdered endosperm of the corn kernel.


The caryopsis is popularly called a grain and is the fruit typical of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae), which includes wheat, rice, and corn. The term grain is also used in a more general sense as synonymous with cereal (as in "cereal grains", which include some non-Poaceae). Considering that the fruit wall and the seed are intimately fused into a single unit, and the caryopsis or grain is a dry fruit, little concern is given to technically separating the terms fruit and seed in these plant structures. In many grains, the "hulls" to be separated before processing are flower bracts.


hot cerealparritchdalia
Maize porridge:. Atole, a Mexican dish of corn flour in water or milk. Champurrado (a chocolate-based atole), a Mexican blend of sugar, milk, chocolate and corn dough or corn flour. The Philippine dish tsampurado is similar, with rice instead of maize. Cir, Păsat or (when firmer) Mămăligă are all Romanian maize porridges. Cornmeal mush, a traditional dish in southern and mid-Atlantic US states. Gachas, a Spanish porridge of maize or grass peas. Often garnished with roasted almonds and croutons of bread fried in olive oil. Gofio, a Canary Islands porridge of toasted coarse-ground maize.


chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
Plants important in agriculture such as tobacco or wheat are often polyploid, compared to their ancestral species. Wheat has a haploid number of seven chromosomes, still seen in some cultivars as well as the wild progenitors. The more-common pasta and bread wheat types are polyploid, having 28 (tetraploid) and 42 (hexaploid) chromosomes, compared to the 14 (diploid) chromosomes in the wild wheat. Prokaryote species generally have one copy of each major chromosome, but most cells can easily survive with multiple copies. For example, Buchnera, a symbiont of aphids has multiple copies of its chromosome, ranging from 10–400 copies per cell.


The domestication of wheat provides an example. Wild wheat shatters and falls to the ground to reseed itself when ripe, but domesticated wheat stays on the stem for easier harvesting. This change was possible because of a random mutation in the wild populations at the beginning of wheat's cultivation. Wheat with this mutation was harvested more frequently and became the seed for the next crop. Therefore, without realizing, early farmers selected for this mutation. The result is domesticated wheat, which relies on farmers for its reproduction and dissemination. The earliest human attempts at plant domestication occurred in the Middle East.


brewing industrybeersbrewing
Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.


crop sprayerSprayhigh-pressure sprayers
There are a number of agriculture sprayers designed for spraying applications and designed to be versatile and suitable for various uses from spot applications, gardens, crops, row crops, crop trees, fruit, groves, vineyards, perimeter maintenance, livestock needs, weed control, pastures and rangeland. Examples of general sprayer types include : 1) Boom Sprayers. 2) Boomless Sprayer Nozzles. 3) Mist Sprayers. 4) Three (3) Point Hitch Sprayers. 5) Truck-Bed Sprayer. 6) Towing, Hitch Sprayer. 7) UTV Sprayer. 8) ATV Sprayer. 9) Spot Sprayer. 10) Backpack Sprayer. Gardening. Flit gun. Pesticide application. Pressure washer. Spray bottle. Spray nozzle.

Dietary fiber

fiberdietary fibresoluble fiber
In December 2016, FDA approved a qualified health claim that consuming resistant starch from high-amylose corn may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes due to its effect of increasing insulin sensitivity. The allowed claim specified: "High-amylose maize resistant starch may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.