Integrated pest management

IPMgreen pesticideeconomic levels
Applications of pesticides must reach their intended targets. Matching the application technique to the crop, the pest, and the pesticide is critical. The use of low-volume spray equipment reduces overall pesticide use and labor cost. Jahn, GC, PG Cox., E Rubia-Sanchez, and M Cohen 2001. The quest for connections: developing a research agenda for integrated pest and nutrient management. pp. 413–430, In S. Peng and B. Hardy [eds.] "Rice Research for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation." Proceedings of the International Rice Research Conference, 31 March – 3 April 2000, Los Baños, Philippines. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 692 p. Jahn, GC, B.


medusahead grass
Glyphosate (Roundup) applied at 0.375 lbs/acre in the early spring before seeds are produced can provide good results. This timing will also limit the damage to nontarget species that develop later in the growing season. Research suggests that burning before chemical application is more effective than chemicals alone. In the late 1960s, a study was conducted that determined the effectiveness of paraquat on medusahead control in different areas of the United States. This study found that paraquat was effective in controlling medusahead in California, but did not suppress the grass in Reno, Nevada.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection AgencyEPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a branch of the World Health Organization, cited research linking glyphosate, an ingredient of the weed killer Roundup manufactured by the chemical company Monsanto, to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In March 2017, the presiding judge in a litigation brought about by people who claim to have developed glyphosate-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma opened Monsanto emails and other documents related to the case, including email exchanges between the company and federal regulators.


PphosphoricP 4
It is used in life-science laboratories in applications in which lower energy beta emissions are advantageous such as DNA sequencing. Phosphates are used to make special glasses for sodium lamps. Bone-ash, calcium phosphate, is used in the production of fine china. Phosphoric acid made from elemental phosphorus is used in food applications such as soft drinks, and as a starting point for food grade phosphates. These include mono-calcium phosphate for baking powder and sodium tripolyphosphate. Phosphates are used to improve the characteristics of processed meat and cheese, and in toothpaste.

Aegilops triuncialis

Another control method, used by both the University of California and the Weed Science Society of America to control barbed goatgrass, is the spraying of glyphosate. Used over a two-year period in small areas, glyphosate was able kill barbed goatgrass and all its seedlings. Although the chemical is effective in killing barbed goatgrass, it also kills the other plants in the area. Aminocyclopyrachlor, a new experimental chemical is being used to control barbed goatgrass by the University of California's Weed Science department. It has been shown to be extremely effective, however, aminocyclopyrachlor is not a registered herbicide and as such, widespread use is not yet allowed.

Agriculture in Brazil

agricultureBrazilin Brazil
The country is the third largest user in the world in growing genetically modified crops. The main commodities using this biotechnology are soy, cotton and, since 2008, maize. Several national and international NGOs, such as Greenpeace, MST or Contag, are opposed to the practice. Criticisms include market loss, negative environmental impacts and dominance by large businesses. Entities linked to agribusiness, however, counter with the results of studies carried out by the Brazilian Association of Seeds and Saplings (Abrasem) in 2007 and 2008, affirming "social-environmental advantages observed in the other countries which have adopted agricultural biotechnology far longer".

Agriculture in Thailand

agricultureThailand's agricultural economyagricultural sector
According to the Thai government's The Eleventh National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-2016), Thailand is number one in the world in the application of chemicals in agriculture. The report stated that, "The use of chemicals in the agricultural and industrial sectors is growing while control mechanisms are ineffective making Thailand rank first in the world in the use of registered chemicals in agriculture." In 2018 Thai researchers and the Health Ministry called for an outright ban on the use of the agricultural chemicals paraquat, glyphosate, and chlorpyrifos. Paraquat and glyphosate are widely used herbicides. Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide.

Evolutionary pressure

selection pressureselective pressureselection pressures
In Hawaii and Japan, the diamondback moth developed a resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis, which is used in several commercial crops including Bt corn, about three years after it began to be used heavily. In England, rats in certain areas have developed such a strong resistance to rat poison that they can consume up to five times as much of it as normal rats without dying. DDT is no longer effective in controlling mosquitoes that transmit malaria in some places, a fact that contributed to a resurgence of the disease. In the southern United States, the weed Amaranthus palmeri, which interferes with production of cotton, has developed widespread resistance to the herbicide glyphosate.


Systemic insecticides produced by transgenic plants are called plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). For instance, a gene that codes for a specific Bacillus thuringiensis biocidal protein was introduced into corn (maize) and other species. The plant manufactures the protein, which kills the insect when consumed. Contact insecticides are toxic to insects upon direct contact. These can be inorganic insecticides, which are metals and include arsenates, copper and fluorine compounds, which are less commonly used, and the commonly used sulfur.

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IARCInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Group 4
On 20 March 2015, IARC classified glyphosate, the most widely used weed killing substance in the world sold under the brand name of Roundup by Monsanto, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A). Subsequently, many national regulatory authorities underwent a reevaluation of the risk posed by the exposure to glyphosate. Regulators in Europe (ECHA, EFSA), Canada, Japan and New Zealand reported that the glyphosate was unlikely to pose any carcinogenic risk to humans. California put glyphosate on its list of unsafe chemicals. In September 2016 the U.S.

List of most valuable crops and livestock products

total production of maize surpassing
The following list, derived from the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) unless otherwise noted, lists the most important agricultural products produced by the countries of the world.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac sprue
Using genetically engineered wheat species, or wheat species that have been selectively bred to be minimally immunogenic, may allow the consumption of wheat. This, however, could interfere with the effects that gliadin has on the quality of dough. Alternatively, gluten exposure can be minimised by the ingestion of a combination of enzymes (prolyl endopeptidase and a barley glutamine-specific cysteine endopeptidase (EP-B2)) that degrade the putative 33-mer peptide in the duodenum.

Corn syrup

Karoglucose syrupKaro syrup
Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade. Corn syrup, also known as glucose syrup to confectioners, is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavor. Corn syrup is distinct from high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which is manufactured from corn syrup by converting a large proportion of its glucose into fructose using the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, thus producing a sweeter compound due to higher levels of fructose.

Nikolai Vavilov

VavilovNikolai I. VavilovVavilov, Nikolay Ivanovich
He devoted his life to the study and improvement of wheat, corn, and other cereal crops that sustain the global population. Vavilov's work was criticized by Trofim Lysenko, whose anti-Mendelian concepts of plant biology had won favor with Joseph Stalin. As a result, Vavilov was arrested and subsequently sentenced to death in July 1941. Although his sentence was commuted to twenty years' imprisonment, he died of starvation in prison in 1943. Vavilov was born into a merchant family in Moscow, the older brother of renowned physicist Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov.


grainsfood grainfood grains
Job's tears. kodo millet. maize (corn). millet. pearl millet. proso millet. sorghum. barley. oats. rice. rye. spelt. teff. triticale. wheat. wild rice. amaranth (Amaranth family). buckwheat (Smartweed family). chia (Mint family). quinoa (Amaranth family, formerly classified as Goosefoot family). kañiwa. kiwicha. chickpeas. common beans. common peas (garden peas). fava beans. lentils. lima beans. lupins. mung beans. peanuts. pigeon peas. runner beans. soybeans. black mustard. India mustard. rapeseed (including canola). safflower. sunflower seed. flax seed (Flax family). hemp seed (Hemp family). poppy seed (Poppy family). Ancient grains. Cereals. Domestication. Grain drying. Legume.

Crop wild relative

crop wild relativeswild relatives
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) – Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum). Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) – Zea diploperennis. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) – Asparagus dauricus. Beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) – Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. Black Mustard (Brassica nigra) – Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) - Brassica elongata. Carrot (Daucus carota) – Daucus gracilis. Garlic (Allium sativum var. sativum) – Allium atroviolaceum. Leek (Allium ampeloprasum) – Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum). Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) – Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola). Mustard (Brassica juncea subsp. juncea) – Brassica carinata.

Animal feed

feedanimal feedscompound feed
The two most important feed grains are maize and soybean, and the United States is by far the largest exporter of both, averaging about half of the global maize trade and 40% of the global soya trade in the years leading up the 2012 drought. Other feed grains include wheat, oats, barley, and rice, among many others. Traditional sources of animal feed include household food scraps and the byproducts of food processing industries such as milling and brewing. Material remaining from milling oil crops like peanuts, soy, and corn are important sources of fodder. Scraps fed to pigs are called slop, and those fed to chicken are called chicken scratch.


corn mealcorn flourmaize meal
Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn). It is a common staple food, and is ground to fine, medium, and coarse consistencies, but not as fine as wheat flour. In the United States, very finely ground cornmeal is referred to as corn flour. When fine cornmeal is made from maize that has been soaked in an alkaline solution, e.g., limewater (a process known as nixtamalization), it is called masa harina, which is used for making tamales and tortillas. Boiled cornmeal is called polenta in Italy and is also traditional dish and bread substitute in Romania.

African armyworm

armywormarmywormsSpodoptera exempta
The species targets most cereal crops, including maize, sorghum, rice, millet, and other grasses. Young caterpillars are also known to feed on wheat and oat seedlings. The larvae eat the upper and lower surfaces of the plant tissue first, preferring to feed on younger and recently germinated crops. Studies have shown that two larvae can completely consume a 10-day-old maize plant with 6-7 leaves, indicating the devastating potential of a high-density outbreak. The female can lay a maximum of about 1,000 eggs in her lifetime. She can lay 100-400 eggs per night, with an overall average of 150. The number of eggs females can lay is positively correlated with their pupal weight.

Norman Borlaug

Norman E. BorlaugDr. Norman BorlaugNorman Ernest Borlaug
His dream was to "transfer rice immunity to cereals such as wheat, maize, sorghum and barley, and transfer bread-wheat proteins (gliadin and glutenin) to other cereals, especially rice and maize". Borlaug believed that genetically modified organisms (GMO) was the only way to increase food production as the world runs out of unused arable land. GMOs were not inherently dangerous "because we've been genetically modifying plants and animals for a long time. Long before we called it science, people were selecting the best breeds."

Whole grain

whole wheatwhole-grainwhole grains
"Whole wheat bread". "Whole millet". "Whole wheat buns". "Whole wheat macaroni". "Whole wheat spaghetti". "Whole wheat vermicelli". "Cracked wheat" (as an ingredient, not part of a name, as in "cracked wheat bread"). "Crushed wheat". "Whole wheat flour". "Graham flour" (as an ingredient, not as part of a name as in "graham crackers"). "Entire wheat flour". "Bromated whole wheat flour". "Whole durum flour". "Bulgur (cracked wheat)" (note that "bulgur" by itself may or may not indicate whole grain, and that "cracked wheat" is not synonymous with bulgur). Ancient Grains. Alkylresorcinols. Unifine mill. Wheatberry. Whole foods. Whole grain stamp. Article from BBC news.

Maize weevil

The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), known in the United States as the greater rice weevil, is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae. It can be found in numerous tropical areas around the world, and in the United States, and is a major pest of maize. This species attacks both standing crops and stored cereal products, including wheat, rice, sorghum, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, peas, and cottonseed. The maize weevil also infests other types of stored, processed cereal products such as pasta, cassava, and various coarse, milled grains. It has even been known to attack fruit while in storage, such as apples.


mycotoxinsmycotoxicosesfungal toxins
In 2004 in Kenya, 125 people died and nearly 200 others were treated after eating aflatoxin-contaminated maize. The deaths were mainly associated with homegrown maize that had not been treated with fungicides or properly dried before storage. Due to food shortages at the time, farmers may have been harvesting maize earlier than normal to prevent thefts from their fields, so that the grain had not fully matured and was more susceptible to infection. Spices are susceptible substrate for growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production. Red chilli, black pepper, and dry ginger were found to be the most contaminated spices.


Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
Doughs are made from a wide variety of flours, commonly wheat but also flours made from maize, rice, rye, legumes, almonds, and other cereals and crops used around the world. Doughs vary widely depending on ingredients, the kind of product being produced, the type of leavening agent (particularly whether the dough is based on yeast or not), how the dough is mixed (whether quickly mixed or kneaded and left to rise), and cooking or baking technique. There is no formal definition of what makes dough, though most doughs have viscoelastic properties.

Green Revolution

techniquesagricultural revolutioncommercial large-scale monoculture
The novel technological development of the Green Revolution was the production of novel wheat cultivars. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are generally referred to as HYVs or "high-yielding varieties". HYVs have higher nitrogen-absorbing potential than other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar Norin 10 developed by a Japanese agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka, which was sent to Orville Vogel at Washington State University by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars.