Ear (botany)

earearsgrain ears
'Ear of wheat' redirects here. Not to be confused with 'wheatear' which is a kind of bird that has a white vent. An ear is the grain-bearing tip part of the stem of a cereal plant, such as wheat or maize. It can also refer to "a prominent lobe in some leaves". The ear is a spike, consisting of a central stem on which tightly packed rows of flowers grow. These develop into fruits containing the edible seeds. In corn, it is protected by leaves called husks. In some species (including wheat), unripe ears contribute significantly to photosynthesis, in addition to the leaves lower down the plant.

Midwestern United States

MidwestMidwesternAmerican Midwest
Wheat is produced throughout the Midwest and is the principal cereal grain in the country. The U.S. is ranked third in production volume of wheat, with almost 58 million tons produced in the 2012–2013 growing season, behind only China and India (the combined production of all European Union nations is larger than China) The U.S. ranks first in crop export volume; almost 50 percent of total wheat produced is exported. The U.S. Department of Agriculture defines eight official classes of wheat: durum wheat, hard red spring wheat, hard red winter wheat, soft red winter wheat, hard white wheat, soft white wheat, unclassed wheat, and mixed wheat.

Columbian exchange

occurred with the discovery of the New Worldintroducedbrought over
Maize and cassava, introduced by the Portuguese from South America in the 16th century, have replaced sorghum and millet as Africa's most important food crops. 16th-century Spanish colonizers introduced new staple crops to Asia from the Americas, including maize and sweet potatoes, and thereby contributed to population growth in Asia. On a larger scale, the coming of potatoes and maize to the old world "resulted in caloric and nutritional improvements over previously existing staples" throughout the Eurasian landmass as they created more varied and abundant food production.

Minneapolis Grain Exchange

wheat futures marketMinneapolis Grain Exchange Building
The Minneapolis Grain Exchange (MGEX) was formed in 1881 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, as a regional cash marketplace to promote fair trade and to prevent trade abuses in wheat, oats and corn. MGEX has been the principal market for Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW) since 1881, offering futures and options contracts based on its unique commodity. HRSW is one of the highest-protein wheats. It is found in bagels, pizzas, high-quality breads and cereals, and some noodles and cookies. It is planted mostly in the U.S. Northern Plains and the Canadian Prairies.


diquat dibromideReglone
Diquat is a contact herbicide that produces desiccation and defoliation most often available as the dibromide, diquat dibromide. Brand names for this formulation include Aquacide, Dextrone, Preeglone, Deiquat, Spectracide, Detrone, Reglone, Reglon, Reglox, Tribune, Ortho-Diquat, Weedtrine-D, Weedol 2, and in combination with glyphosate, Resolva. Diquat is a nonselective herbicide that acts quickly to damage only those parts of the plant to which it is applied. It has been used in pre-harvest crop desiccation. It bonds strongly to mineral and organic particles in soil and water, where it remains without significant degradation for years.

Tostada (tortilla)

This version of the tostada has its origins both in the "totopos de maiz" and the New Mexican and Tex-Mex cuisine. Commercial tortilla chips—sometimes known as "nachos"—are also commonly sold in stores and supermarkets. In Central America, tostadas are often prepared with black beans, parsley, ground beef and curtido. Chalupa, a cup-shaped version of the Mexican tostada. Tostado. List of maize dishes.

Polyethoxylated tallow amine

POEAtallow aminePOEAs
Direct ocular exposure to the concentrated Roundup formulation can result in transient irritation, while normal spray dilutions cause, at most, only minimal effects. The genotoxicity data for glyphosate and Roundup were assessed using a weight-of-evidence approach and standard evaluation criteria.

Coca eradication

spraying illegal cropseradicate cocaeradication of coca
Aerial spraying of glyphosate herbicide, one of the most controversial methods of coca eradication, has taken place in Colombia exclusively because of that government's willingness to cooperate with the United States in the militarized eradication of coca after signing Plan Colombia in 2000. In many cases the spraying is carried out by American contractors, such as DynCorp, using planes and helicopters to spray glyphosate on coca plantations. Aerial spraying has been repeatedly condemned by human rights and environmental activists because of its effect on human populations and local soil and water systems.

Wheat allergy

wheatwheat allergiesallergic to wheat
Previous studies detected 40 allergens from wheat; some cross-reacted with rye proteins and a few cross-reacted with grass pollens. A later study showed that baker's allergy extend over a broad range of cereal grasses (wheat, durum wheat, triticale, cereal rye, barley, rye grass, oats, canary grass, rice, maize, sorghum and Johnson grass) though the greatest similarities were seen between wheat and rye, and that these allergies show cross reactivity between seed proteins and pollen proteins, including a prominent crossreactivity between the common environment rye pollen and wheat gluten. Proteins are made of a chain of dehydrated amino acids.

National Medal of Technology and Innovation

National Medal of TechnologyNational Medals of TechnologyTechnology
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. The award may be granted to a specific person, to a group of people or to an entire organization or corporation. It is the highest honor the United States can confer to a US citizen for achievements related to technological progress.

Genetically modified tree

Genetically Modified Treesgenetically modifiedmodified trees
Genetically modified crops. Genetically modified food. Genetically modified organisms. Plantations. Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms. Tree breeding.


paraquat poisoningparaquat intoxicationmethyl viologen
Although twice as expensive as using a single glyphosate spray, the "Double Knock" system is an important resistance management strategy widely relied upon by farmers. Nevertheless, herbicide resistance has been seen for both herbicides in Western Australia. A computer simulation showed that with alternating annual use between glyphosate and paraquat, only one field in five would be expected to have glyphosate-resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) after 30 years, compared to nearly 90% of fields sprayed only with glyphosate. A "Double Knock" regime with paraquat cleaning-up after glyphosate was predicted to keep all fields free of glyphosate resistant ryegrass for at least 30 years.

Wheat flour

cake flourflourwheat
Cake flour is a finely milled white flour made from soft wheat. It has very low protein content, between 8% and 10%, making it suitable for soft-textured cakes and cookies. The higher protein content of other flours would make the cakes tough. American cake flour is bleached; in countries where bleached flour is prohibited, plain flour can be treated in a domestic microwave to improve the texture of the end product. Related to cake flour are masa harina (from maize), maida flour (from wheat or tapioca), and pure starches. Durum flour is made from Durum wheat and is suited for pasta making, traditional pizza and flatbread for doner kebab. Graham flour is a special type of whole wheat flour.

Mythimna unipuncta

true armyworm,army-wormPseudaletia unipuncta
While the infestation remained fairly localized, it obliterated several hay and corn fields. When fields are prone to being attacked, the crops should be checked periodically, especially in the first two weeks of June. Pheromone traps can be used to gauge size of adult populations. The damage on leaves is a telling sign that insecticides and baits may be useful in combatting an outbreak. # ''The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range.'' * Waring, P. en M. Townsend (2006) Nachtvlinders, veldgids met alle in Nederland en België voorkomende soorten, Baarn: Tirion. Hordeum vulgare – barley. Maizecorn. Oats. Rice. Rye. Sorghum. Sugarcane. Wheat.


corn breadcorn ponecornpone
Corn dog. Cornmeal mush. Jiffy mix. List of American breads. List of maize dishes. List of quick breads. Makki di roti. Mămăligă. Mchadi. National Cornbread Festival. Polenta. Proja. Pudding corn. Soul food. Spoonbread.

Barley yellow dwarf

barley yellow dwarf virusBarley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)
Alternatively, a desiccant herbicide should be applied 10 days prior to cultivation. Insecticide sprays may be used at crop emergence. Drilling dates prior to mid-October favors attacks from winged migrant aphids. However, yield penalties may be experienced from late drilling. Insecticide sprays in this instance are therefore aimed at killing the aphids before significant spread can occur. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides Subgroup I.

Aminomethylphosphonic acid

It is one of the primary degradation products of the herbicide glyphosate. AMPA has toxicity which is comparable to that of glyphosate and it is therefore considered to be of similar toxicological concern as (harmful in greater than 0.5 parts per billion) glyphosate itself. AMPA has the potential to be broken down further by manganese oxide in laboratory conditions, however in soil manganese oxide is usually only present in trace amounts.


Plant breeding has increased crop yields and has improved the nutritional value of numerous crops, including corn, soybeans, and wheat. It has also led to the development of new types of plants. For example, a hybrid grain called triticale was produced by crossbreeding rye and wheat. Triticale contains more usable protein than does either rye or wheat. Agronomy has also been instrumental in fruit and vegetable production research. Agronomists use biotechnology to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristic. Biotechnology is often a lab activity requiring field testing of the new crop varieties that are developed.


breadsbreadmakingbread making
Non-wheat cereals including rye, barley, maize (corn), oats, sorghum, millet and rice have been used to make bread, but, with the exception of rye, usually in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten. Gluten-free breads have been created for people affected by gluten-related disorders such as coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, who may benefit from a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free bread is made with ground flours from a variety of materials such as almonds, rice, sorghum, corn, or legumes such as beans, but since these flours lack gluten they may not hold their shape as they rise and their crumb may be dense with little aeration.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
Selective breeding of both plants and animals has been practiced since early prehistory; key species such as wheat, rice, and dogs have been significantly different from their wild ancestors for millennia, and maize, which required especially large changes from teosinte, its wild form, was selectively bred in Mesoamerica. Selective breeding was practiced by the Romans. Treatises as much as 2,000 years old give advice on selecting animals for different purposes, and these ancient works cite still older authorities, such as Mago the Carthaginian. The notion of selective breeding was later expressed by the Persian Muslim polymath Abu Rayhan Biruni in the 11th century.


bragăBosa or bozapora
It is a malt drink made from maize (corn) and wheat in Albania, fermented wheat in Turkey, and wheat or millet in Bulgaria and Romania. In Egypt where it is known as "būẓa" it is usually made from barley. It has a thick consistency, a low alcohol content (around 1%), and a slightly acidic sweet flavor. Etymologically, it is assumed that the word boza has a Turk-chagatai or Persian origin (while in Chagatai boza means 'drink made of camel's milk', büze is the Persian term used for millet).

Genetically modified wheat

wheatGM wheattransgenic wheat
Genetically modified wheat is wheat that has been genetically engineered by the direct manipulation of its genome using biotechnology. As of 2017, no GM wheat is grown commercially, although many field tests have been conducted. Wheat is a natural hybrid derived from interspecies breeding. It is theorized that wheat's ancestors (Triticum monococcum, Aegilops speltoides, and Aegilops tauschii, all diploid grasses) hybridized naturally over millennia somewhere in West Asia, to create natural polyploid hybrids, the best known of which are common wheat and durum wheat. Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important domesticated grass used worldwide for food.

Ethanol fuel

It is claimed the process can produce 6000 usgal/acre per year compared with 400 usgal/acre for corn production. Currently, the first generation processes for the production of ethanol from corn use only a small part of the corn plant: the corn kernels are taken from the corn plant and only the starch, which represents about 50% of the dry kernel mass, is transformed into ethanol. Two types of second generation processes are under development. The first type uses enzymes and yeast fermentation to convert the plant cellulose into ethanol while the second type uses pyrolysis to convert the whole plant to either a liquid bio-oil or a syngas.

Growing degree-day

growing degree daydegree-daysdays to maturity
Boxwood leaf miner emerges at about 250 GDD. 5.5 °C wheat, barley, rye, oats, flaxseed, lettuce, asparagus. 6 °C Stalk Borer. 7 °C Corn rootworm. 8 °C sunflower, potato. 9 °C Alfalfa weevil. 10 °C maize (including sweet corn), sorghum, rice, soybeans, tomato, Black cutworm, European Corn Borer, Coffee (Jaramillo-Robledo & Guzman-Martinez published by Cenicafé), standard baseline for insect and mite pests of woody plants. 11 °C Green Cloverworm. 12 °C many other crop calculations. 30 °C the USDA measure heat zones in GDD above 30 °C; for many plants this is significant for seed maturation, e.g. reed (Phragmites) requires at least some days reaching this temperature to mature viable seeds.


coca leafcoca leavescoca plant
Also known as supercoca or la millionaria, Boliviana negra is a relatively new form of coca that is resistant to a herbicide called glyphosate. Glyphosate is a key ingredient in the multibillion-dollar aerial coca eradication campaign undertaken by the government of Colombia with U.S. financial and military backing known as Plan Colombia. The herbicide resistance of this strain has at least two possible explanations: that a "peer-to-peer" network of coca farmers used selective breeding to enhance this trait through tireless effort, or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory.