Breakfast cereal

cerealbreakfast cerealscereals
Wheat-based cereals (Cream of Wheat, Malt-o-Meal, Wheatena, etc.) are widely available if less popular. Grits is a porridge of Native American origin made from corn (maize) which is popular in the South. Breakfast cereal companies make gluten-free cereals which are free of any gluten-containing grains. These cereals are targeted for consumers who suffer from gluten-related disorders, as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy, among others. Some companies that produce gluten-free cereals include Kellogg's, General Mills, Nature's Path and Arrowhead Mills. Cereal box prize. Cerealicious. List of breakfast cereal advertising characters. List of breakfast cereals.

Erigeron canadensis

Canadian horseweedConyza canadensis'' var. ''canadensisC. canadensis
It is an especially problematic weed in no-till agriculture, as it is often resistant to glyphosate and other herbicides. Farmers are advised to include 2,4-D or dicamba in a burndown application prior to planting to control horseweed. The Zuni people insert the crushed flowers of E. canadensis var. canadensis into the nostrils to cause sneezing, relieving rhinitis. A tincture can be made from the dried flowering tops of the plants. Horseweed is a preferable material for use in the hand drill-method of making friction fire.

Shikimic acid

shikimateshikimate pathwayshikimic
Glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, kills plants by interfering with the shikimate pathway in plants. More specifically, glyphosate inhibits the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). "Roundup Ready" genetically modified crops overcome that inhibition. * Aminoshikimate pathway, a novel variation of the shikimate pathway * Shikimate and chorismate biosynthesis indole, indole derivatives and aromatic amino acid tryptophan and tryptophan derivatives such as the psychedelic compound dimethyltryptamine. many alkaloids and other aromatic metabolites. The shikimate pathway, E. Haslam, 2 editions - first published in 1974. Shikimic acid, E.

Johnson grass

JohnsongrassSorghum halepenseJohnson
Johnson grass resistant to the common herbicide glyphosate has been found in Argentina and the United States. It is considered to be one of the ten worst weeds in the world. It is named after an Alabama plantation owner, Colonel William Johnson, who sowed its seeds on river-bottom farm land circa 1840. The plant was already established in several US states a decade earlier, having been introduced as a prospective forage or accidentally as a seedlot contaminant.

European corn borer

Ostrinia nubilalisEuropean corn borersO. nubilalis
Bt corn, a variety of genetically modified corn, has had its genome modified to include a synthetic version of an insecticidal gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. As a result, the corn variety produces a protein that kills the larvae of Lepidoptera, the taxonomic order which includes the European corn borer. Immature corn shoots accumulate a powerful antibiotic substance, DIMBOA, that serves as a natural defense against a wide range of pests and is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature corn to the European corn borer. When planting Bt corn, farmers must plant an area of refuge corn. A refuge area is an area of crops that do not contain the insecticidal genes.

Transposable element

transposontransposonstransposable elements
Barbara McClintock discovered the first TEs in maize (Zea mays) at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. McClintock was experimenting with maize plants that had broken chromosomes. In the winter of 1944–1945, McClintock planted corn kernels that were self-pollinated, meaning that the silk (style) of the flower received pollen from its own anther. These kernels came from a long line of plants that had been self-pollinated, causing broken arms on the end of their ninth chromosomes. As the maize plants began to grow, McClintock noted unusual color patterns on the leaves. For example, one leaf had two albino patches of almost identical size, located side by side on the leaf.


Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial, dangerous, and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, and considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans. For these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ. "Wheat flour was the symbol of Christianity itself" and colonial-era catechisms stated explicitly that only wheat flour could be used.


alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
It also requires about 22% less water than corn (also known as maize). The world’s first sweet sorghum ethanol distillery began commercial production in 2007 in Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethanol's high miscibility with water makes it unsuitable for shipping through modern pipelines like liquid hydrocarbons. Mechanics have seen increased cases of damage to small engines (in particular, the carburetor) and attribute the damage to the increased water retention by ethanol in fuel. Ethanol was commonly used as fuel in early bipropellant rocket (liquid propelled) vehicles, in conjunction with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen.

Crop rotation

fallowrotationthree-field system
An example of companion planting is the inter-planting of corn with pole beans and vining squash or pumpkins. In this system, the beans provide nitrogen; the corn provides support for the beans and a "screen" against squash vine borer; the vining squash provides a weed suppressive canopy and a discouragement for corn-hungry raccoons. Double-cropping is common where two crops, typically of different species, are grown sequentially in the same growing season, or where one crop (e.g. vegetable) is grown continuously with a cover crop (e.g. wheat).

Genetically modified soybean

soybeanRoundup Ready soybeanglyphosate-resistant soybean
A genetically modified soybean is a soybean (Glycine max) that has had DNA introduced into it using genetic engineering techniques. In 1998 the first genetically modified soybean was introduced to the U.S. market, by Monsanto. In 2014, 90.7 million hectares of GM soy were planted worldwide, 82% of the total soy cultivation area. The genetic makeup of a soybean gives it a wide variety of uses, thus keeping it in high demand.

Winter wheat

spring wheathard red winter wheatTurkey Red hard winter wheat
Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring. Classification into spring or winter wheat is common and traditionally refers to the season during which the crop is grown. For winter wheat, the physiological stage of heading is delayed until the plant experiences vernalization, a period of 30 to 60 days of cold winter temperatures (0° to 5 °C; 32–41 °F). Winter wheat is usually planted from September to November in the Northern Hemisphere and harvested in the summer or early autumn of the next year.

Powdery mildew

powderymildewscucurbit powdery mildew
Milk is diluted with water (typically 1:10) and sprayed on susceptible plants at the first sign of infection, or as a preventative measure, with repeated weekly application often controlling or eliminating the disease. Studies have shown milk's effectiveness as comparable to some conventional fungicides, and better than benomyl and fenarimol at higher concentrations. Milk has proven effective in treating powdery mildew of summer squash, pumpkins, grapes, and roses. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, but one known effect is that ferroglobulin, a protein in whey, produces oxygen radicals when exposed to sunlight, and contact with these radicals is damaging to the fungus.

Perennial plant

perennialperennialsherbaceous perennial
Perennial plants often have deep, extensive root systems which can hold soil to prevent erosion, capture dissolved nitrogen before it can contaminate ground and surface water, and out-compete weeds (reducing the need for herbicides). These potential benefits of perennials have resulted in new attempts to increase the seed yield of perennial species, which could result in the creation of new perennial grain crops. Some examples of new perennial crops being developed are perennial rice and intermediate wheatgrass. The Land Institute estimates that profitable, productive perennial grain crops will take at least 25 years to achieve.


Push–pull technology pest control strategy for maize and sorghum. Species Profile- Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Johnsongrass. FAO Report (1995) "Sorghum and millets in human nutrition". Sorghum on US Grains Council Web Site. Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Association, organization for the promotion and development of sweet Sorghum as a source for biofuels, especially ethanol.


Before the introduction of corn (maize) from America in the 16th century, polenta was made from starchy ingredients like farro (wheat), chestnut flour, millet, spelt (wheat), and chickpeas. Latin polenta covered any hulled and crushed grain, especially barley-meal, and is derived from the Latin pollen for "fine flour", which shares a root with pulvis, meaning "dust". Polenta takes a long time to cook, simmering in four to five times its volume of watery liquid for about 45 minutes with near-constant stirring; this is necessary for even gelatinization of the starch. Some alternative cooking techniques have been invented to speed up the process, or to not require constant supervision.


Newer applications are emerging in oral and topical products for skin health. Skin health via orally consumed supplements is one of the fastest growing areas of the US$2 billion carotenoid market. The pharmaceutical market is estimated to be about US$190 million, nutraceutical and food is estimated to be about US$110 million. Pet food and other animal applications are estimated at US$175 million annually. Includes chickens (usually in combination with other carotenoids), to get color in egg yolks, and fish farms to color the flesh closer to wild-caught color. Carotenoids. List of phytochemicals in food.


corn rootwormcorn rootwormscucumber beetles
Diabrotica is a widespread genus of beetles, sometimes referred to as cucumber beetles or corn rootworms, in the family Chrysomelidae. Members of this genus include several destructive agricultural pest species. Corn rootworms are one of the most economically significant consumers of maize in the United States. The western corn rootworm, D. virgifera virgifera, and the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi, are the most significant rootworm species in Iowa, a major corn-growing area. A third species, the southern corn rootworm, D. undecimpunctata howardi, causes much economic damage in other regions.


Shelled maize (corn) at 15.5% moisture by weight: 56 lb (25.4012 kg). Wheat at 13.5% moisture by weight: 60 lb (27.2155 kg). Soybeans at 13% moisture by weight: 60 lb (27.2 kg). Coomb (unit). Lamp under a bushel. Winchester measure.

Weed Science Society of America

WSSA has started the International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds initiative to collect herbicide resistances. The WSSA classifies all herbicides by the mode of action. In 2017, WSSA began a partnership with Cambridge University Press to continue publication of the three WSSA journals: Weed Science, Weed Technology, and Invasive Plant Science and Management. *Weed


Factors that can vitiate the effectiveness of a herbicide treatment include: weather, especially temperature, prior to and during application; weather, especially wind, during application; weather, especially precipitation, in the 12 to 24 hours after application; vegetation characteristics, including species, size, shape, phenological stage, vigour, and distribution of weeds; crop characteristics, including species, phenology, and condition; the effects of other treatments, such as preliminary shearblading, burning or other prescribed or accidental site preparation; and the herbicide used, including dosage, formulation, carrier, spreader, and mode of application.

Crop yield

yieldcrop yieldsyields
In the first year, wheat or oats were planted; in the second year, barley or oats; in the third year, clover, rye, rutabaga and/or kale were planted; in the fourth year, turnips were planted but not harvested. Instead, sheep were driven on to the turnip fields to eat the crop, trample the leavings under their feet into the soil, and by doing all this, fertilize the land with their droppings. In the fifth year (or first year of the new rotation), the cycle began once more with a planting of wheat or oats, resulting, on average, a thirty percent increased yield. Actual Production History. Crop rotation. Crop failure. Green Revolution. Second Green Revolution. Sustainable agriculture.

Essential amino acid

essential amino acidsessentialnon-essential amino acid
Scientists had known since the early 20th century that rats could not survive on a diet whose only protein source was zein, which comes from maize (corn), but recovered if they were fed casein from cow's milk. This led William Cumming Rose to the discovery of the essential amino acid threonine. Through manipulation of rodent diets, Rose was able to show that ten amino acids are essential for rats: lysine, tryptophan, histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, valine, and arginine, in addition to threonine. Rose's later work showed that eight amino acids are essential for adult human beings, with histidine also being essential for infants.

Helicoverpa zea

corn earwormcorn earworm mothcotton bollworm
Strains of maize have been genetically modified to produce the same toxin as the bacterium, and are referred to as Bt-corn. More than 100 insect species prey on H. zea, usually feeding on eggs and larvae. The insidious flower bug (Orius insidiosus), a pirate bug, feeds on the eggs of H. zea, thus acting as a biological control agent. Some plants emit a blend of chemicals in response to damage from H. zea, which attract parasitic insects. Cardiochiles nigriceps, a solitary endoparasitoid wasp, makes use of these volatile plant compounds to identify the presence of H. zea. When the wasps find damaged host plants, they hover around and then search for the host with their antennae.


nicotinic acidnicotinatevitamin B 3
It also tends to occur in less developed areas where people eat maize (corn) as a staple food, as maize is the only grain low in digestible niacin. A cooking technique called nixtamalization i.e., pretreating with alkali ingredients, increases the bioavailability of niacin during maize meal/flour production. For this reason, people who consume corn as tortillas or hominy are not at risk of niacin deficiency. Mild niacin deficiency has been shown to slow metabolism, causing decreased tolerance to cold.


Badische Anilin- und Soda-FabrikBASF Cassetten Team GS SportBASF Corporation
BASF supplies agricultural products and chemicals including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and seed treatment products. The company also researches nutrigenomics. BASF opened a new crop protection technology center in Limburgerhof, Germany in 2016. BASF is cooperating with Monsanto Company in research, development and marketing of biotechnology. The BASF Plant Science subsidiary produces the Amflora and Starch Potato genetically modified potato with reduced amylose. In 2010 BASF conducted Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs approved trials of genetically modified potatoes in the United Kingdom. Starch Potato was authorised for use in USA in 2014.